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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Comparing Multiple Turbulence Restoration Algorithms Performance On Noisy Anisoplanatic Imagery, Michael Armand Rucci, Russell C. Hardie, Alexander J. Dapore Jun 2017

Comparing Multiple Turbulence Restoration Algorithms Performance On Noisy Anisoplanatic Imagery, Michael Armand Rucci, Russell C. Hardie, Alexander J. Dapore

Russell C. Hardie

In this paper, we compare the performance of multiple turbulence mitigation algorithms to restore imagery degraded by atmospheric turbulence and camera noise. In order to quantify and compare algorithm performance, imaging scenes were simulated by applying noise and varying levels of turbulence. For the simulation, a Monte-Carlo wave optics approach is used to simulate the spatially and temporally varying turbulence in an image sequence. A Poisson-Gaussian noise mixture model is then used to add noise to the observed turbulence image set. These degraded image sets are processed with three separate restoration algorithms: Lucky Look imaging, bispectral speckle imaging, and a ...


Analysis Of Various Classification Techniques For Computer Aided Detection System Of Pulmonary Nodules In Ct, Barath Narayanan Narayanan, Russell C. Hardie, Temesguen Messay Jun 2017

Analysis Of Various Classification Techniques For Computer Aided Detection System Of Pulmonary Nodules In Ct, Barath Narayanan Narayanan, Russell C. Hardie, Temesguen Messay

Russell C. Hardie

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. It usually exhibits its presence with the formation of pulmonary nodules. Nodules are round or oval-shaped growth present in the lung. Computed Tomography (CT) scans are used by radiologists to detect such nodules. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) of such nodules would aid in providing a second opinion to the radiologists and would be of valuable help in lung cancer screening. In this research, we study various feature selection methods for the CAD system framework proposed in FlyerScan. Algorithmic steps of FlyerScan include (i) local contrast enhancement (ii ...


On The Simulation And Mitigation Of Anisoplanatic Optical Turbulence For Long Range Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Daniel A. Lemaster Jun 2017

On The Simulation And Mitigation Of Anisoplanatic Optical Turbulence For Long Range Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Daniel A. Lemaster

Russell C. Hardie

We describe a numerical wave propagation method for simulating long range imaging of an extended scene under anisoplanatic conditions. Our approach computes an array of point spread functions (PSFs) for a 2D grid on the object plane. The PSFs are then used in a spatially varying weighted sum operation, with an ideal image, to produce a simulated image with realistic optical turbulence degradation. To validate the simulation we compare simulated outputs with the theoretical anisoplanatic tilt correlation and differential tilt variance. This is in addition to comparing the long- and short-exposure PSFs, and isoplanatic angle. Our validation analysis shows an ...


Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising, Redha A. Ali, Russell C. Hardie Jun 2017

Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising, Redha A. Ali, Russell C. Hardie

Russell C. Hardie

In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm for video denoising that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy. The proposed method is based on non-local means (NLM). NLM methods have been applied successfully in various image denoising applications. In the single-frame NLM method, each output pixel is formed as a weighted sum of the center pixels of neighboring patches, within a given search window. The weights are based on the patch intensity vector distances. The process requires computing vector distances for all of the patches in the search window. Direct extension of this method from 2D to 3D, for video ...


Block Matching And Wiener Filtering Approach To Optical Turbulence Mitigation And Its Application To Simulated And Real Imagery With Quantitative Error Analysis, Russell C. Hardie, Michael Armand Rucci, Barry K. Karch, Alexander J. Dapore Jun 2017

Block Matching And Wiener Filtering Approach To Optical Turbulence Mitigation And Its Application To Simulated And Real Imagery With Quantitative Error Analysis, Russell C. Hardie, Michael Armand Rucci, Barry K. Karch, Alexander J. Dapore

Russell C. Hardie

We present a block-matching and Wiener filtering approach to atmospheric turbulence mitigation for long-range imaging of extended scenes. We evaluate the proposed method, along with some benchmark methods, using simulated and real-image sequences. The simulated data are generated with a simulation tool developed by one of the authors. These data provide objective truth and allow for quantitative error analysis. The proposed turbulence mitigation method takes a sequence of short-exposure frames of a static scene and outputs a single restored image. A block-matching registration algorithm is used to provide geometric correction for each of the individual input frames. The registered frames ...


Simulation Of Anisoplanatic Imaging Through Optical Turbulence Using Numerical Wave Propagation With New Validation Analysis, Russell C. Hardie, Jonathan D. Power, Daniel A. Lemaster, Douglas R. Droege, Szymon Gladysz, Santasri Bose-Pillai Jun 2017

Simulation Of Anisoplanatic Imaging Through Optical Turbulence Using Numerical Wave Propagation With New Validation Analysis, Russell C. Hardie, Jonathan D. Power, Daniel A. Lemaster, Douglas R. Droege, Szymon Gladysz, Santasri Bose-Pillai

Russell C. Hardie

We present a numerical wave propagation method for simulating imaging of an extended scene under anisoplanatic conditions. While isoplanatic simulation is relatively common, few tools are specifically designed for simulating the imaging of extended scenes under anisoplanatic conditions. We provide a complete description of the proposed simulation tool, including the wave propagation method used. Our approach computes an array of point spread functions (PSFs) for a two-dimensional grid on the object plane. The PSFs are then used in a spatially varying weighted sum operation, with an ideal image, to produce a simulated image with realistic optical turbulence degradation. The degradation ...


Digital Image Processing, Russell C. Hardie, Majeed M. Hayat Sep 2016

Digital Image Processing, Russell C. Hardie, Majeed M. Hayat

Russell C. Hardie

In recent years, digital images and digital image processing have become part of everyday life. This growth has been primarily fueled by advances in digital computers and the advent and growth of the Internet. Furthermore, commercially available digital cameras, scanners, and other equipment for acquiring, storing, and displaying digital imagery have become very inexpensive and increasingly powerful. An excellent treatment of digital images and digital image processing can be found in Ref. [1]. A digital image is simply a two-dimensional array of finite-precision numerical values called picture elements (or pixels). Thus a digital image is a spatially discrete (or discrete-space ...


Segmentation Of Pulmonary Nodules In Computed Tomography Using A Regression Neural Network Approach And Its Application To The Lung Image Database Consortium And Image Database Resource Initiative Dataset, Temesguen Messay, Russell C. Hardie, Timothy R. Tuinstra Sep 2016

Segmentation Of Pulmonary Nodules In Computed Tomography Using A Regression Neural Network Approach And Its Application To The Lung Image Database Consortium And Image Database Resource Initiative Dataset, Temesguen Messay, Russell C. Hardie, Timothy R. Tuinstra

Russell C. Hardie

We present new pulmonary nodule segmentation algorithms for computed tomography (CT). These include a fully-automated (FA) system, a semi-automated (SA) system, and a hybrid system. Like most traditional systems, the new FA system requires only a single user-supplied cue point. On the other hand, the SA system represents a new algorithm class requiring 8 user-supplied control points. This does increase the burden on the user, but we show that the resulting system is highly robust and can handle a variety of challenging cases. The proposed hybrid system starts with the FA system.

If improved segmentation results are needed, the SA ...


A Fast Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter, Russell C. Hardie May 2015

A Fast Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter, Russell C. Hardie

Russell C. Hardie

A computationally simple super-resolution algorithm using a type of adaptive Wiener filter is proposed. The algorithm produces an improved resolution image from a sequence of low-resolution (LR) video frames with overlapping field of view. The algorithm uses subpixel registration to position each LR pixel value on a common spatial grid that is referenced to the average position of the input frames. The positions of the LR pixels are not quantized to a finite grid as with some previous techniques. The output high-resolution (HR) pixels are obtained using a weighted sum of LR pixels in a local moving window. Using a ...


Fast Super-Resolution With Affine Motion Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter And Its Application To Airborne Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, Raúl Ordóñez May 2015

Fast Super-Resolution With Affine Motion Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter And Its Application To Airborne Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, Raúl Ordóñez

Russell C. Hardie

Fast nonuniform interpolation based super-resolution (SR) has traditionally been limited to applications with translational interframe motion. This is in part because such methods are based on an underlying assumption that the warping and blurring components in the observation model commute. For translational motion this is the case, but it is not true in general. This presents a problem for applications such as airborne imaging where translation may be insufficient. Here we present a new Fourier domain analysis to show that, for many image systems, an affine warping model with limited zoom and shear approximately commutes with the point spread function ...


Adaptive Wiener Filter Super-Resolution Of Color Filter Array Images, Barry K. Karch, Russell C. Hardie May 2015

Adaptive Wiener Filter Super-Resolution Of Color Filter Array Images, Barry K. Karch, Russell C. Hardie

Russell C. Hardie

Digital color cameras using a single detector array with a Bayer color filter array (CFA) require interpolation or demosaicing to estimate missing color information and provide full-color images. However, demosaicing does not specifically address fundamental undersampling and aliasing inherent in typical camera designs. Fast non-uniform interpolation based super-resolution (SR) is an attractive approach to reduce or eliminate aliasing and its relatively low computational load is amenable to real-time applications. The adaptive Wiener filter (AWF) SR algorithm was initially developed for grayscale imaging and has not previously been applied to color SR demosaicing. Here, we develop a novel fast SR method ...


Fast Super-Resolution Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter With Robustness To Local Motion, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard May 2015

Fast Super-Resolution Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter With Robustness To Local Motion, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard

Russell C. Hardie

We present a new adaptive Wiener filter (AWF) super-resolution (SR) algorithm that employs a global background motion model but is also robust to limited local motion. The AWF relies on registration to populate a common high resolution (HR) grid with samples from several frames. A weighted sum of local samples is then used to perform nonuniform interpolation and image restoration simultaneously. To achieve accurate subpixel registration, we employ a global background motion model with relatively few parameters that can be estimated accurately. However, local motion may be present that includes moving objects, motion parallax, or other deviations from the background ...


Joint Wavelet Transform Correlation With Separated Target And Reference Planes, Boon Yi Soon, Mohammad A. Karim, Russell C. Hardie, Mohammad S. Alam May 2015

Joint Wavelet Transform Correlation With Separated Target And Reference Planes, Boon Yi Soon, Mohammad A. Karim, Russell C. Hardie, Mohammad S. Alam

Russell C. Hardie

In recent years, we realize the usefulness of feature extraction for optical correlator and hereby, we investigate the capability of Laplace operator in feature extraction of multiple targets. The first-order terms and the false alarm terms in the correlation output would be removed using electronic power spectrum subtraction technique. Most importantly, the entire magneto-optic SLM is completely utilized for displaying only targets in the input scene. A new cost efficient hardware implementation is proposed and aforementioned result of the proposed system is evaluated through computer simulation.


Robust Super-Resolution By Fusion Of Interpolated Frames For Color And Grayscale Images, Barry K. Karch, Russell C. Hardie May 2015

Robust Super-Resolution By Fusion Of Interpolated Frames For Color And Grayscale Images, Barry K. Karch, Russell C. Hardie

Russell C. Hardie

Multi-frame super-resolution (SR) processing seeks to overcome undersampling issues that can lead to undesirable aliasing artifacts in imaging systems. A key factor in effective multi-frame SR is accurate subpixel inter-frame registration. Accurate registration is more difficult when frame-to-frame motion does not contain simple global translation and includes locally moving scene objects. SR processing is further complicated when the camera captures full color by using a Bayer color filter array (CFA). Various aspects of these SR challenges have been previously investigated. Fast SR algorithms tend to have difficulty accommodating complex motion and CFA sensors. Furthermore, methods that can tolerate these complexities ...


Map Estimation For Hyperspectral Image Resolution Enhancement Using An Auxiliary Sensor, Russell C. Hardie, Michael T. Eismann, Gregory L. Wilson Mar 2015

Map Estimation For Hyperspectral Image Resolution Enhancement Using An Auxiliary Sensor, Russell C. Hardie, Michael T. Eismann, Gregory L. Wilson

Russell C. Hardie

This paper presents a novel maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator for enhancing the spatial resolution of an image using co-registered high spatial-resolution imagery from an auxiliary sensor. Here we focus on the use of high-resolution panchomatic data to enhance hyperspectral imagery. However, the estimation framework developed allows for any number of spectral bands in the primary and auxiliary image. The proposed technique is suitable for applications where some correlation, either localized or global, exists between the auxiliary image and the image being enhanced. To exploit localized correlations, a spatially varying statistical model, based on vector quantization, is used. Another important ...


Scene-Based Nonuniformity Correction Technique For Focal-Plane Arrays Using Readout Architecture, Balaji Narayanan, Russell C. Hardie, Robert A. Muse Mar 2015

Scene-Based Nonuniformity Correction Technique For Focal-Plane Arrays Using Readout Architecture, Balaji Narayanan, Russell C. Hardie, Robert A. Muse

Russell C. Hardie

Spatial fixed pattern noise is a common and major problem in modern infrared imagers due to the nonuniform response of the photodiodes in the focal plane array of the imaging system. In addition, the nonuniform response of the readout and the digitization electronics, involved in multiplexing the signals from the photodiodes, causes further nonuniformity. In this paper, we describe a novel scene based nonuniformity correction algorithm that treats the aggregate nonuniformity in separate stages. Firstly, the nonuniformity from the readout amplifiers is corrected using knowledge of the readout architecture of the imaging system. In the second stage, the nonuniformity resulting ...


High-Resolution Image Reconstruction From A Sequence Of Rotated And Translated Frames And Its Application To An Infrared Imaging System, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, John G. Bognar, Ernest E. Armstrong, Edward A. Watson Mar 2015

High-Resolution Image Reconstruction From A Sequence Of Rotated And Translated Frames And Its Application To An Infrared Imaging System, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, John G. Bognar, Ernest E. Armstrong, Edward A. Watson

Russell C. Hardie

Some imaging systems employ detector arrays that are not sufficiently dense to meet the Nyquist criterion during image acquisition. This is particularly true for many staring infrared imagers. Thus, the full resolution afforded by the optics is not being realized in such a system. This paper presents a technique for estimating a high-resolution image, with reduced aliasing, from a sequence of undersampled rotated and translationally shifted frames. Such an image sequence can be obtained if an imager is mounted on a moving platform, such as an aircraft. Several approaches to this type of problem have been proposed in the literature ...


Multiframe Adaptive Wiener Filter Super-Resolution With Jpeg2000-Compressed Images, Barath Narayanan Narayanan, Russell C. Hardie, Eric J. Balster Mar 2015

Multiframe Adaptive Wiener Filter Super-Resolution With Jpeg2000-Compressed Images, Barath Narayanan Narayanan, Russell C. Hardie, Eric J. Balster

Russell C. Hardie

Historically, Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG2000) image compression and multiframe super-resolution (SR) image processing techniques have evolved separately. In this paper, we propose and compare novel processing architectures for applying multiframe SR with JPEG2000 compression. We propose a modified adaptive Wiener filter (AWF) SR method and study its performance as JPEG2000 is incorporated in different ways. In particular, we perform compression prior to SR and compare this to compression after SR. We also compare both independent-frame compression and difference-frame compression approaches. We find that some of the SR artifacts that result from compression can be reduced by decreasing the ...