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Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Achieving A Stable Magneto-Optical Trap, Chasen S. Himeda Apr 2018

Achieving A Stable Magneto-Optical Trap, Chasen S. Himeda

Honors Thesis

The utilization of the Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) as a method for cooling and confining atoms is a recent development in the field of modern optical physics. Producing an effective MOT relies on a constant magnetic field throughout the trapping region and successful laser cooling, a technique used to achieve optical molasses by slowing particles using a three-dimensional intersection of laser beams. A successful MOT occurs when the trapped atoms slow down to approximately 30 cm/s at a temperature in the microkelvin range and is observable when a small bright orb of atoms is located in the center of the ...


Beyond The Point Charge: Equipotential Surfaces And Electric Fields Of Various Charge Configurations, Jeffrey A. Phillips, Jeff Sanny, David Berube, Anatol Hoemke Jan 2017

Beyond The Point Charge: Equipotential Surfaces And Electric Fields Of Various Charge Configurations, Jeffrey A. Phillips, Jeff Sanny, David Berube, Anatol Hoemke

Physics Faculty Works

A laboratory experiment often performed in an introductory electricity and magnetism course involves the mapping of equipotential lines on a conductive sheet between two objects at different potentials. In this article, we describe how we have expanded this experiment so that it can be used to illustrate the electrostatic properties of conductors. Different configurations of electrodes can be used to show that the electric field is zero inside a conductor as well as within a cavity, the electric field is perpendicular to conducting surfaces, and the charge distribution on conducting surfaces can vary.


Wormhole Geometries In Fourth-Order Conformal Weyl Gravity, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Kellie L. Ault May 2016

Wormhole Geometries In Fourth-Order Conformal Weyl Gravity, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Kellie L. Ault

Physics Faculty Works

We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions at or near the wormhole throat. Some exotic matter might still be needed at ...


Contact Improvisation: Concepts Of Physics Transformed Into Art, Gianna F. Todisco Jan 2016

Contact Improvisation: Concepts Of Physics Transformed Into Art, Gianna F. Todisco

Dance Department Best Student Papers

No abstract provided.


Sub-Planckian Black Holes And The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Bernard Carr, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini Jul 2015

Sub-Planckian Black Holes And The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Bernard Carr, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini

Physics Faculty Works

The Black Hole Uncertainty Principle correspondence suggests that there could exist black holes with mass beneath the Planck scale but radius of order the Compton scale rather than Schwarzschild scale. We present a modified, self-dual Schwarzschild-like metric that reproduces desirable aspects of a variety of disparate models in the sub-Planckian limit, while remaining Schwarzschild in the large mass limit. The self-dual nature of this solution under M ↔ M−1 naturally implies a Generalized Uncertainty Principle with the linear form Δx∼1/Δp+Δp. We also demonstrate a natural dimensional reduction feature, in that the gravitational radius and thermodynamics of sub-Planckian ...


How Spherical Is A Cube (Gravitationally)?, Jeff Sanny, David M. Smith Jan 2015

How Spherical Is A Cube (Gravitationally)?, Jeff Sanny, David M. Smith

Physics Faculty Works

An important concept that is presented in the discussion of Newton's law of universal gravitation is that the gravitational effect external to a spherically symmetric mass distribution is the same as if all of the mass of the distribution were concentrated at the center.1,2 By integrating over ring elements of a spherical shell, we show that the gravitational force on a point mass outside the shell is the same as that of a particle with the same mass as the shell at its center. This derivation works for objects with spherical symmetry while depending on the fact ...


Astrophysical Tests Of Kinematical Conformal Cosmology In Fourth-Order Conformal Weyl Gravity, Gabriele U. Varieschi Dec 2014

Astrophysical Tests Of Kinematical Conformal Cosmology In Fourth-Order Conformal Weyl Gravity, Gabriele U. Varieschi

Physics Faculty Works

In this work we analyze kinematical conformal cosmology (KCC), an alternative cosmological model based on conformal Weyl gravity (CG), and test it against current type Ia supernova (SNIa) luminosity data and other astrophysical observations. Expanding upon previous work on the subject, we revise the analysis of SNIa data, confirming that KCC can explain the evidence for an accelerating expansion of the Universe without using dark energy or other exotic components. We obtain an independent evaluation of the Hubble constant, H0 = 67:53 kms-1 Mpc-1, very close to the current best estimates. The main KCC and CG parameters are ...


Learning Bio-Micro-Nanotechnology, Mel I. Mendelson Oct 2014

Learning Bio-Micro-Nanotechnology, Mel I. Mendelson

Faculty Pub Night

No abstract provided.


Kerr Metric, Geodesic Motion, And Flyby Anomaly In Fourth-Order Conformal Gravity, Gabriele U. Varieschi Jun 2014

Kerr Metric, Geodesic Motion, And Flyby Anomaly In Fourth-Order Conformal Gravity, Gabriele U. Varieschi

Physics Faculty Works

In this paper we analyze the Kerr geometry in the context of Conformal Gravity, an alternative theory of gravitation, which is a direct extension of General Relativity (GR). Following previous studies in the literature, we introduce an explicit expression of the Kerr metric in Conformal Gravity, which naturally reduces to the standard GR Kerr geometry in the absence of Conformal Gravity effects. As in the standard case, we show that the Hamilton–Jacobi equation governing geodesic motion in a space-time based on this geometry is indeed separable and that a fourth constant of motion—similar to Carter’s constant—can ...


Self-Completeness And Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini Jul 2013

Self-Completeness And Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini

Physics Faculty Works

A viable quantum theory of gravity is one of the biggest challenges physicists are facing. We discuss the confluence of two highly expected features which might be instrumental in the quest of a finite and renormalizable quantum gravity —spontaneous dimensional reduction and self-completeness. The former suggests the spacetime background at the Planck scale may be effectively two-dimensional, while the latter implies a condition of maximal compression of matter by the formation of an event horizon for Planckian scattering. We generalize such a result to an arbitrary number of dimensions, and show that gravity in higher than four dimensions remains self-complete ...


Self-Completeness And The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Maximiliano Isi, Jonas Mureika, Piero Nicolini Jan 2013

Self-Completeness And The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Maximiliano Isi, Jonas Mureika, Piero Nicolini

Physics Faculty Works

The generalized uncertainty principle discloses a self-complete characteristic of gravity, namely the possibility of masking any curvature singularity behind an event horizon as a result of matter compression at the Planck scale. In this paper we extend the above reasoning in order to overcome some current limitations to the framework, including the absence of a consistent metric describing such Planck-scale black holes. We implement a minimum-size black hole in terms of the extremal configuration of a neutral non-rotating metric, which we derived by mimicking the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle via a short scale modified version of Einstein gravity ...


Conformal Gravity And The Alcubierre Warp Drive Metric, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Zily Burstein Jan 2013

Conformal Gravity And The Alcubierre Warp Drive Metric, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Zily Burstein

Physics Faculty Works

We present an analysis of the classic Alcubierre metric based on conformal gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting warp drive remain the same as in the original study by Alcubierre, that is, effective superluminal motion is a viable outcome of the metric. We show that for particular choices of the shaping function, the Alcubierre metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the weak energy condition, as was the case of the original solution. In particular, the resulting warp drive does not require the use of exotic matter. Therefore, if conformal gravity ...


Primordial Black Hole Evaporation And Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2012

Primordial Black Hole Evaporation And Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction, Jonas R. Mureika

Physics Faculty Works

Several different approaches to quantum gravity suggest the effective dimension of spacetime reduces from four to two near the Planck scale. In light of such evidence, this Letter re-examines the thermodynamics of primordial black holes (PBHs) in specific lower-dimensional gravitational models. Unlike in four dimensions, (1 + 1)-D black holes radiate with power P ∼ M2BH, while it is known no (2+1)-D (BTZ) black holes can exist in a non-anti-de Sitter universe. This has important relevance to the PBH population size and distribution, and consequently on cosmological evolution scenarios. The number of PBHs that have evaporated to ...


Noncontact Ultrasound Imaging Applied To Cortical Bone Phantoms, John Bulman, K. S. Ganezer, P. W. Halcrow, Ian Neeson Jun 2012

Noncontact Ultrasound Imaging Applied To Cortical Bone Phantoms, John Bulman, K. S. Ganezer, P. W. Halcrow, Ian Neeson

Physics Faculty Works

Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to take the first steps toward applying noncontact ultrasound (NCU) to the tasks of monitoring osteoporosis and quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUS) of cortical bone. The authors also focused on the advantages of NCU, such as its lack of reliance on a technologist to apply transducers and a layer of acoustical coupling gel, the ability of the transducers to operate autonomously as specified by preprogrammed software, and the likely reduction in statistical and systematic errors associated with the variability in the pressure applied by the clinician to the transmitting transducer that NCU might provide ...


Simulating A Guitar With A Conventional Sonometer, Zily Burstein, Christina M. Gower, Gabriele U. Varieschi Jun 2012

Simulating A Guitar With A Conventional Sonometer, Zily Burstein, Christina M. Gower, Gabriele U. Varieschi

Physics Faculty Works

In this paper we present a simple way to convert a conventional sonometer into a simulated fretted instrument, such as a guitar or similar, by adding a fingerboard to the sonometer. In particular, we use this modified apparatus in relation to the problem of the instrument intonation, i.e., how to obtain correctly tuned notes on these string instruments. The experimental procedures presented in this study can become a more structured laboratory activity to be used in general physics courses or acoustics classes.


Could Any Black Holes Be Produced At The Lhc?, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini, Euro Spallucci Apr 2012

Could Any Black Holes Be Produced At The Lhc?, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini, Euro Spallucci

Physics Faculty Works

We introduce analytical quantum gravity modifications of the production cross section for terascale black holes by employing an effective ultraviolet cut off l. We find the new cross sections approach the usual "black disk" form at high energy, while they differ significantly near the fundamental scale from the standard increase with respect to s. We show that the heretofore discontinuous step function used to represent the cross section threshold can realistically be modeled by two functions representing the incoming and final parton states in a high energy collision. The growth of the cross section with collision energy is thus a ...


A New Topological Perspective On Quantization In Physics, Hooman Rahimizadeh, Stan Sholar, Michael Berg Jan 2012

A New Topological Perspective On Quantization In Physics, Hooman Rahimizadeh, Stan Sholar, Michael Berg

Mathematics Faculty Works

We propose a new characterization of classical quantization in physics in terms of sheaf cohomology on the site of spacetime as a smooth 4-manifold. The perspective of sheaf cohomology is motivated by a presentation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in terms of the integration of differential forms.


The Double Cover Of The Real Symplectic Group And A Theme From Feynman’S Quantum Mechanics, Michael Berg Jan 2012

The Double Cover Of The Real Symplectic Group And A Theme From Feynman’S Quantum Mechanics, Michael Berg

Mathematics Faculty Works

We present a direct connection between the 2-cocycle defining the double cover of the real symplectic group and a Feynman path integral describing the time evolution of a quantum mechanical system.


On Levi-Civita’S Alternating Symbol, Schouten’S Alternating Unit Tensors, Cpt, And Quantization, Evert Jan Post, Stan Sholar, Hooman Rahimizadeh, Michael Berg Jan 2012

On Levi-Civita’S Alternating Symbol, Schouten’S Alternating Unit Tensors, Cpt, And Quantization, Evert Jan Post, Stan Sholar, Hooman Rahimizadeh, Michael Berg

Mathematics Faculty Works

The purpose of the present article is to demonstrate that by adopting a unifying differential geometric perspective on certain themes in physics one reaps remarkable new dividends in both microscopic and macroscopic domains. By replacing algebraic objects by tensor-transforming objects and introducing methods from the theory of differentiable manifolds at a very fundamental level we obtain a Kottler-Cartan metric-independent general invariance of the Maxwell field, which in turn makes for a global quantum superstructure for Gauss-Amp`ere and Aharonov-Bohm “quantum integrals.” Beyond this, our approach shows that postulating a Riemannian metric at the quantum level is an unnecessary concept and ...


Conformal Cosmology And The Pioneer Anomaly, Gabriele U. Varieschi Jan 2012

Conformal Cosmology And The Pioneer Anomaly, Gabriele U. Varieschi

Physics Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Constraints On Vector Unparticle Physics From Cosmic Censorship, Jonas R. Mureika Oct 2011

Constraints On Vector Unparticle Physics From Cosmic Censorship, Jonas R. Mureika

Physics Faculty Works

Vector unparticle couplings to standard model fields produce repulsive corrections to gravity. From a general relativistic perspective, this leads to an effective Reissner-Nordstrom-like metric whose "charge" is a function of the unparticle coupling constant λ, and therefore can admit naked singularities. Requiring the system to respect cosmic censorship provides a new method of constraining the value of λ. These limits are extremely loose for stellar-mass black holes, but commensurate with existing bounds for primordial black holes. In the case of theoretical low-mass black holes, the bounds on λ are much stricter than those derived from astrophysical and accelerator phenomenology. Additional ...


(1+1)-Dimensional Entropic Gravity, R. B. Mann, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2011

(1+1)-Dimensional Entropic Gravity, R. B. Mann, Jonas R. Mureika

Physics Faculty Works

We consider the formulation of entropic gravity in two spacetime dimensions. The usual gravitational force law is derived even in the absence of area, as normally required by the holographic principle. A special feature of this perspective concerns the nature of temperature and entropy defined at a point. We argue that the constancy of the gravitational force in one spatial dimension implies the information contained at each point in space is an internal degree of freedom on the manifold, and furthermore is a universal constant, contrary to previous assertions that entropic gravity in one spatial dimension is ill-defined. We give ...


Aspects Of Noncommutative (1+1)-Dimensional Black Holes, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini Aug 2011

Aspects Of Noncommutative (1+1)-Dimensional Black Holes, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini

Physics Faculty Works

We present a comprehensive analysis of the spacetime structure and thermodynamics of ( 1 + 1 )-dimensional black holes in a noncommutative framework. It is shown that a wider variety of solutions are possible than the commutative case considered previously in the literature. As expected, the introduction of a minimal length √ θ cures singularity pathologies that plague the standard two-dimensional general relativistic case, where the latter solution is recovered at large length scales. Depending on the choice of input parameters (black hole mass M, cosmological constant Λ , etc.), black hole solutions with zero, up to six, horizons are possible. The associated thermodynamics ...


Detecting Vanishing Dimensions Via Primordial Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Jonas R. Mureika, Dejan Stojkovic Mar 2011

Detecting Vanishing Dimensions Via Primordial Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Jonas R. Mureika, Dejan Stojkovic

Physics Faculty Works

Lower dimensionality at higher energies has manifold theoretical advantages as recently pointed out by Anchordoqui et al. [arXiv:1003.5914]. Moreover, it appears that experimental evidence may already exist for it: A statistically significant planar alignment of events with energies higher than TeV has been observed in some earlier cosmic ray experiments. We propose a robust and independent test for this new paradigm. Since ( 2 + 1 )-dimensional spacetimes have no gravitational degrees of freedom, gravity waves cannot be produced in that epoch. This places a universal maximum frequency at which primordial waves can propagate, marked by the transition between dimensions ...


Kinematical Conformal Cosmology: Fundamental Parameters From Astrophysical Observations, Gabriele U. Varieschi Jan 2011

Kinematical Conformal Cosmology: Fundamental Parameters From Astrophysical Observations, Gabriele U. Varieschi

Physics Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Does Entropic Gravity Bound The Masses Of The Photon And Graviton?, Jonas R. Mureika, R. B. Mann Dec 2010

Does Entropic Gravity Bound The Masses Of The Photon And Graviton?, Jonas R. Mureika, R. B. Mann

Physics Faculty Works

If the information transfer between test particle and holographic screen in entropic gravity respects both the uncertainty principle and causality, a lower limit on the number of bits in the universe relative to its mass may be derived. Furthermore, these limits indicate particles that putatively travel at the speed of light -- the photon and/or graviton -- have a non-zero mass m≥10−68 kg. This result is found to be in excellent agreement with current experimental mass bounds on the graviton and photon, suggesting that entropic gravity may be the result of a (recent) softly-broken local symmetry. Stronger bounds emerge ...


Vector Unparticle Enhanced Black Holes: Exact Solutions And Thermodynamics, Jonas R. Mureika, Euro Spallucci Sep 2010

Vector Unparticle Enhanced Black Holes: Exact Solutions And Thermodynamics, Jonas R. Mureika, Euro Spallucci

Physics Faculty Works

Tensor and scalar unparticle couplings to matter have been shown to enhance gravitational interactions and provide corrections to the Schwarzschild metric and associated black hole structure. We derive an exact solution to the Einstein equations for vector unparticles, and conclusively demonstrate that these induce Riessner–Nordström (RN)-like solutions where the role of the “charge” is defined by a composite of unparticle phase space parameters. These black holes admit double-horizon structure, although unlike the RN metric these solutions have a minimum inner horizon value. In the extremal limit, the Hawking temperature is shown to vanish. As with the scalar/tensor ...


A Kinematical Approach To Conformal Cosmology, Gabriele U. Varieschi Apr 2010

A Kinematical Approach To Conformal Cosmology, Gabriele U. Varieschi

Physics Faculty Works

We present an alternative cosmology based on conformal gravity, as originally introduced by H. Weyl and recently revisited by P. Mannheim and D. Kazanas. Unlike past similar attempts our approach is a purely kinematical application of the conformal symmetry to the Universe, through a critical reanalysis of fundamental astrophysical observations, such as the cosmological redshift and others. As a result of this novel approach we obtain a closed-form expression for the cosmic scale factor R(t) and a revised interpretation of the space-time coordinates usually employed in cosmology. New fundamental cosmological parameters are introduced and evaluated. This emerging new cosmology ...


Intonation And Compensation Of Fretted String Instruments, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Christina M. Gower Jan 2010

Intonation And Compensation Of Fretted String Instruments, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Christina M. Gower

Physics Faculty Works

We discuss theoretical and physical models that are useful for analyzing the intonation of musical instruments such as guitars and mandolins and can be used to improve the tuning on these instruments. The placement of frets on the fingerboard is designed according to mathematical rules and the assumption of an ideal string. The analysis becomes more complicated when we include the effects of deformation of the string and inharmonicity due to other string characteristics. As a consequence, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument cannot be achieved, but complex compensation procedures can be introduced to minimize the problem ...


Differentiating Unparticles From Extra Dimensions Via Mini Black Hole Thermodynamics, Jonas R. Mureika Mar 2009

Differentiating Unparticles From Extra Dimensions Via Mini Black Hole Thermodynamics, Jonas R. Mureika

Physics Faculty Works

A thermodynamics-based method is presented for differentiating mini black hole creation mechanisms in high energy parton collisions, including scenarios with large compactified extra dimensions and unparticle-enhanced gravity with real scaling dimension dU. Tensor unparticle interactions are shown to mimic the physics of (2dU−2) noninteger extra spatial dimensions. This yields unique model-dependent production rates, Hawking temperature profiles, and decay multiplicities for black holes of mass MBH∼1–15  TeV that may be created at the LHC and other future colliders.