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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Elastic Properties Of Gd5si2ge2 Studied With An Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Technique, O. Svitelskiy, A. Suslov, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Vitalij K. Pecharsky Nov 2006

Elastic Properties Of Gd5si2ge2 Studied With An Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Technique, O. Svitelskiy, A. Suslov, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Vitalij K. Pecharsky

Ames Laboratory Publications

We present the results of a study of the elastic properties of Gd5Si2Ge2, an alloy with giant magnetocaloric, magnetostrictive, and colossal magnetoresistive properties. Sound wave velocities measured in a number of different geometries allowed us to determine the whole elastic tensor for the monoclinic phase of this material. The anisotropy of the crystal is explored using the polar plots of the variations in the main crystallographic planes of the sound speed, the Young’s modulus, the shear modulus, and the linear compressibility. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the Gd5Si2Ge2 ...


Posterminaries: After Nabarro, Alexander H. King Nov 2006

Posterminaries: After Nabarro, Alexander H. King

Alexander H. King

With the passing of Frank Nabarro in July of this year, we have lost one of the founding fathers of materials science. His name appears in many of the textbooks from which we train our students today, and also on the spines of several volumes on dislocation theory, including his classic monograph on the subject. He rightly stands among the gods of our field. Ninety years old at his death, he was a sprightly dancer at the frontiers of knowledge, right up to the end.


Numerical Simulations Of Gas-Liquid Flow Dynamics In Bubble Columns, Deify Law, Francine Battaglia, Theodore J. Heindel Nov 2006

Numerical Simulations Of Gas-Liquid Flow Dynamics In Bubble Columns, Deify Law, Francine Battaglia, Theodore J. Heindel

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

There is great potential for using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool in scale-up and design of bubble columns. Full-scale experimentation in bubble columns is expensive and CFD is an alternative approach to study bubble column hydrodynamics. However, CFD can be computationally intensive as a predictive tool for a full three-dimensional geometry. In this paper, a 0.2 m diameter semi-batch bubble column is numerically simulated and the results are compared to experimental measurements performed by Rampure et al. [1]. The objectives are to examine and determine an appropriate set of numerical parameters and to determine if two-dimensional simulations ...


Phase Field Theory Of Surface- And Size-Induced Microstructures, Valery I. Levitas, D.W. Lee, D. L. Preston Oct 2006

Phase Field Theory Of Surface- And Size-Induced Microstructures, Valery I. Levitas, D.W. Lee, D. L. Preston

Valery I. Levitas

New surface- and size-induced microstructures are found as analytic solutions to a phase field theory of first-order phase transformations. A recently developed exact stability criterion, based on most destabilizing fluctuations, is used to analyze the stability and physical interpretation of each microstructure. Conditions for barrierless surface nucleation, i.e. relationship between surface energy, driving force for the transformation and sample size, are found. If they are met, some of these microstructures are destroyed resulting in the barrierless transformation to alternative phases.


Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopic And High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopic Studies Of Benzene Hydrogenation On Pt(111), Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Max O. Montano, Lucio D. Flores, Matti Paajanen, Gabor A. Somorjai Oct 2006

Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopic And High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopic Studies Of Benzene Hydrogenation On Pt(111), Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Max O. Montano, Lucio D. Flores, Matti Paajanen, Gabor A. Somorjai

Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HP-STM) have been used in combination for the first time to study a catalytic reaction. These techniques have been able to identify surface intermediates in situ during benzene hydrogenation on a Pt(111) single-crystal surface at Torr pressures.


Comment On “Structural Stability Of Complex Hydrides: Libh4 Revisited”, Duane D. Johnson, Nikolai A. Zarkevich Sep 2006

Comment On “Structural Stability Of Complex Hydrides: Libh4 Revisited”, Duane D. Johnson, Nikolai A. Zarkevich

Duane D. Johnson

A Comment on the Letter by Zbigniew Łodziana and Tejs Vegge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 145501 (2004).


Short-Range Anisotropic Ferromagnetic Correlations In The Paramagnetic And Antiferromagnetic Phases Of Gd5ge4, Zhong W. Ouyang, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso Sep 2006

Short-Range Anisotropic Ferromagnetic Correlations In The Paramagnetic And Antiferromagnetic Phases Of Gd5ge4, Zhong W. Ouyang, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso

Ames Laboratory Publications

Signatures of short range anisotropic ferromagnetic correlations and ferromagnetic clustering, manifested as unusually large hysteresis and other anomalies of the low magnetic field dc magnetization and ac magnetic susceptibility, have been observed in both the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states of single crystal Gd5Ge4. Ferromagnetic correlations, which are most pronounced in a weak magnetic field applied along the b axis, are readily suppressed by fields exceeding ∼5 kOe and are believed to be related to a Griffiths-like phase that develops in Gd5Ge4 below TG≅240 K.


Posterminaries: The Scales Of Judgement, Alexander H. King Sep 2006

Posterminaries: The Scales Of Judgement, Alexander H. King

Alexander H. King

Materials scientists are generally well-versed in physics, and physics, above all, is a science of measurements. The first instinct of a physicist is to parse a problem in terms of its measurables in the dimensions of mass, length, and time, and it is the shifting of attention down the scale of length that particularly characterizes our present times as the Nano Age.


Magnetism Of (Dy0.5er0.5)Al2 Single Crystal In Ac And Dc Magnetic Fields, Evgenii M. Levin, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel Aug 2006

Magnetism Of (Dy0.5er0.5)Al2 Single Crystal In Ac And Dc Magnetic Fields, Evgenii M. Levin, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel

Ames Laboratory Publications

The temperature (4.2–90 K), ac magnetic field (1.25–50 Oe), frequency (5–125 Hz), and bias dc magnetic field (0–10 kOe) dependencies of the real and imaginary components of the ac magnetic susceptibility, and the temperature (4.2–250 K) and dc magnetic field(0.1–50 kOe) dependencies of the dc magnetic susceptibility and magnetization of a(Dy0.5Er0.5)Al2 single crystal have been studied. Isothermal magnetization measurement in a dc magnetic field indicates that (Dy0.5Er0.5)Al2 orders ferromagnetically at 37 K. The ac ...


Characterization Of Aperiodic And Periodic Thin Cu Films Formed On The Five-Fold Surface Of I-Al70pd21mn9 Using Medium-Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy, J. A. Smerdon, J. Ledieu, R. Mcgrath, T. C. Q. Noakes, P. Bailey, M. Draxler, C. F. Mcconville, Thomas A. Lograsso, A. R. Ross Jul 2006

Characterization Of Aperiodic And Periodic Thin Cu Films Formed On The Five-Fold Surface Of I-Al70pd21mn9 Using Medium-Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy, J. A. Smerdon, J. Ledieu, R. Mcgrath, T. C. Q. Noakes, P. Bailey, M. Draxler, C. F. Mcconville, Thomas A. Lograsso, A. R. Ross

Ames Laboratory Publications

The elucidation of the local atomic structure of a pseudomorphic film of Cu deposited on the five-fold surface of i-Al70Pd21Mn9using medium-energy ion scattering spectroscopy is reported. Monte Carlo calculations, using the VEGAS code, have been utilized to simulate the blocking of 100 keV He+ ions scattered from the overlayer. The coordinates of the Cu atoms in the overlayer derived from this procedure are consistent with a structure occurring in five rotational domains. Each domain consists of nanoscale strips of fcc Cu(100) with the ⟨110⟩ azimuth aligned along the five-fold directions of the quasicrystalline ...


Temperature And Magnetic-Field Dependence Of The Elastic Constants Of Ni-Mn-Al Magnetic Heusler Alloys, Xavier Moya, Lluís Mañosa, Antoni Planes, Thorsten Krenke, Mehmet Acet, Michel Morin, Jerel L. Zarestky, Thomas A. Lograsso Jul 2006

Temperature And Magnetic-Field Dependence Of The Elastic Constants Of Ni-Mn-Al Magnetic Heusler Alloys, Xavier Moya, Lluís Mañosa, Antoni Planes, Thorsten Krenke, Mehmet Acet, Michel Morin, Jerel L. Zarestky, Thomas A. Lograsso

Ames Laboratory Publications

We report on measurements of the adiabatic second-order elastic constants of the off-stoichiometric Ni54Mn23Al23 single-crystalline Heusler alloy. The variation in the temperature dependence of the elastic constants has been investigated across the magnetic transition and over a broad temperature range. Anomalies in the temperature behavior of the elastic constants have been found in the vicinity of the magnetic phase transition. Measurements under applied magnetic field, both isothermal and variable temperature, show that the value of the elastic constants depends on magnetic order, thus giving evidence for magnetoelastic coupling in this alloy system.


Magnetic Anisotropy And Magnetic Phase Diagram Of Gd5ge4, Zhong W. Ouyang, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso Jul 2006

Magnetic Anisotropy And Magnetic Phase Diagram Of Gd5ge4, Zhong W. Ouyang, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso

Ames Laboratory Publications

The magnetization of single crystal Gd5Ge4, which in a zero magnetic field orders antiferromagnetically at 128 K, indicates a reversible spin-flop transition when the magnetic field is along the c axis and the absence of similar transformations when the magnetic field vector is perpendicular to the c axis. This anisotropic behavior is due to variation of magnetization energy between the c axis and the a or b axes of the orthorhombic crystal caused by a different alignment of the Gd moments with respect to the magnetic field vector. The anisotropy of the antiferromagnetic state diminishes with the ...


Ginzburg-Landau Theory Of Microstructures: Stability, Transient Dynamics, And Functionally Graded Nanophases, Valery I. Levitas, D. L. Preston, Dong Wook Lee Jul 2006

Ginzburg-Landau Theory Of Microstructures: Stability, Transient Dynamics, And Functionally Graded Nanophases, Valery I. Levitas, D. L. Preston, Dong Wook Lee

Valery I. Levitas

The stability, transient dynamics, and physical interpretation of microstructures obtained from a Ginzburg-Landau theory of first-order phase transformations are studied. The Jacobi condition for stability fails numerically, thus an alternative exact stability criterion, based on critical (most destabilizing) fluctuations, is developed. The degree-of-stability parameter is introduced to quantify the physical stability of long-lived unstable microstructures. For nanofilms, the existence of functionally graded nanophases is demonstrated. Numerical simulations indicate that graded nanophases can be produced by dissolving material from both surfaces of a nanofilm. Stability under finite fluctuations and post-bifurcation microstructure evolution are investigated numerically.


Similitude Analysis For Gas-Liquid-Fiber Flows In Cocurrent Bubble Columns, Chengzhi Tang, Theodore J. Heindel Jul 2006

Similitude Analysis For Gas-Liquid-Fiber Flows In Cocurrent Bubble Columns, Chengzhi Tang, Theodore J. Heindel

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

Gas-liquid-fiber systems are different from conventional gas-liquid-solid systems in that the solid material (i.e., fiber) is flexible, has a large aspect ratio, and forms flocs or networks when its mass fraction is above a critical value. With its wide application to the pulp and paper industry, it is important to investigate the hydrodynamics of gas-liquid-fiber systems. In this paper, 19 parameters that influence gas holdup in gas-liquid-fiber bubble columns are critically examined and then a dimensional analysis based on the Buckingham Pi Theorem is used to derive the dimensionless parameters governing gas-liquid-fiber bubble column hydrodynamics. Seven dimensionless parameters that ...


The Effect Of A Modified Downcomer On The Hydrodynamics In An External Loop Airlift Reactor, Samuel T. Jones, Theodore J. Heindel Jul 2006

The Effect Of A Modified Downcomer On The Hydrodynamics In An External Loop Airlift Reactor, Samuel T. Jones, Theodore J. Heindel

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

Gas holdup and superficial liquid velocity in the downcomer and riser are studied for an external loop airlift reactor with an area ratio of 1:16. Two downcomer configurations are investigated consisting of the downcomer open or closed to the atmosphere. Experiments for these two configurations are carried out over a range of superficial gas velocities from UG = 0.5 to 20 cm/s using three aeration plates with open area ratios of 0.62, 0.99 and 2.22%. These results are compared to a bubble column operated with similar operating conditions. Experimental results show that the gas holdup ...


Variation Of Magnetostriction With Temperature In Tb5si2.2ge1.8 Single Crystal, A. P. Ring, H. L. Ziegler, Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel, J. E. Snyder, David C. Jiles Apr 2006

Variation Of Magnetostriction With Temperature In Tb5si2.2ge1.8 Single Crystal, A. P. Ring, H. L. Ziegler, Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel, J. E. Snyder, David C. Jiles

Ames Laboratory Conference Papers, Posters, and Presentations

The Tb5(SixGe4−x) alloy system is similar to the better known Gd5(SixGe4−x), except it has a more complex magnetic and structural phase diagram. Gd5(SixGe1−x)4 has received much attention recently due to its giant magnetocaloric effect, colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistance in the vicinity of a first order combined magnetic-structural phase transition. The magnetostriction changes that accompany the phase transitions of single crystal Tb5(Si2.2Ge1.8) have been investigated at temperatures between 20 and150 K by measurements of ...


Magnetostructural Transitions And Adiabatic Temperature Variation In Polycrystal And Single-Crystal Ni2mnga Alloys, C. P. Sasso, M. Pasquale, L. Giudici, S. Besseghini, E. Villa, L. H. Lewis, Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel Apr 2006

Magnetostructural Transitions And Adiabatic Temperature Variation In Polycrystal And Single-Crystal Ni2mnga Alloys, C. P. Sasso, M. Pasquale, L. Giudici, S. Besseghini, E. Villa, L. H. Lewis, Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel

Ames Laboratory Conference Papers, Posters, and Presentations

The magnetocaloric response of off-stoichiometric Ni2MnGa polycrystal and single-crystal samples with a Curie temperature coincident with the martensitic transition temperature was investigated. The direct measurement of temperature change (ΔTad) during an adiabatic transformation under a maximum field variation ΔH = 5.6×106 A/m (7 T) was performed. The polycrystalline sample shows a maximum ΔTad ≈ 1.5 K at a temperature close to the structural transition. The value of ΔTad and the 20 K span of the ΔTad peak encourage further studies of the effect of microstructure on ...


Spontaneous Generation Of Voltage In Single-Crystal Gd5si2ge2 During Magnetostructural Phase Transformations, Min Zou, H. Tang, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Vitalij K. Pecharsky Apr 2006

Spontaneous Generation Of Voltage In Single-Crystal Gd5si2ge2 During Magnetostructural Phase Transformations, Min Zou, H. Tang, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Karl A. Gschneidner Jr., Vitalij K. Pecharsky

Ames Laboratory Conference Papers, Posters, and Presentations

The spontaneous generation of voltage (SGV) in single-crystal and polycrystallineGd5Si2Ge2 during the coupled magnetostructural transformation has been examined. Our experiments show reversible, measurable, and repeatable SGV responses of the materials to the temperature and magnetic field. The parameters of the response and the magnitude of the signal are anisotropic and rate dependent. The magnitude of the SGV signal and the critical temperatures and critical magnetic fields at which the SGV occurs vary with the rate of temperature and magnetic-field changes.


Lattice And Spin Dynamics In Bcc Fe, 10 At. % Be, P. Zhao, J. Cullen, M. Wuttig, H. J. Kang, J. W. Lynn, Thomas A. Lograsso, O. Moze Apr 2006

Lattice And Spin Dynamics In Bcc Fe, 10 At. % Be, P. Zhao, J. Cullen, M. Wuttig, H. J. Kang, J. W. Lynn, Thomas A. Lograsso, O. Moze

Ames Laboratory Conference Papers, Posters, and Presentations

Body centered cubic Fe1−xBex alloys are known to display an enhanced tetragonal magnetostriction compared to Fe. In order to characterize the enhanced magnetoelasticity observed in this alloy system, we present detailed inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the phonon dispersion relations of a single crystal of bcc Fe, 10 at. %Be along the high symmetry directions [100], [110], and [111] at room temperature. We observe in particular that the frequency of transverse phonons propagating along the [110] direction with a [10] polarization at the zone boundary is reduced by 10% with respect to bcc Fe (the corresponding ...


Large Magnetically Induced Strains In Ni50mn28.7ga21.3 Driven With Collinear Field And Stress, A. Malla, M. J. Dapino, Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel Mar 2006

Large Magnetically Induced Strains In Ni50mn28.7ga21.3 Driven With Collinear Field And Stress, A. Malla, M. J. Dapino, Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel

Ames Laboratory Publications

Despite the huge magnetic-field-induced strain (MFIS) of up to 9.5% exhibited by certain Ni–Mn–Ga alloys, their usefulness in applications is severely hindered by the electromagnet device needed for driving the alloys with a magnetic field and orthogonal loading stress. In this paper we present macroscopic measurements obtained from a single crystal of Ni50Mn28.7Ga21.3 which demonstrate a large reversible MFIS of −4100 ppm when the alloy is driven with quasistatic magnetic fields and fixed compressive stresses applied collinearly along the [001] axis. This collinear configuration marks a fundamental difference with prior ...


Lattice Dynamics And Phonon Softening In Ni-Mn-Al Heusler Alloys, Xavier Moya, Lluís Mañosa, Antoni Planes, Thorsten Krenke, Mehmet Acet, V. O. Garlea, Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel, Jerel L. Zarestky Feb 2006

Lattice Dynamics And Phonon Softening In Ni-Mn-Al Heusler Alloys, Xavier Moya, Lluís Mañosa, Antoni Planes, Thorsten Krenke, Mehmet Acet, V. O. Garlea, Thomas A. Lograsso, Deborah L. Schlagel, Jerel L. Zarestky

Ames Laboratory Publications

Inelastic and elastic neutron scattering have been used to study a single crystal of the Ni54Mn23Al23 Heusler alloy over a broad temperature range. The paper reports the experimental determination of the low-lying phonon dispersion curves for this alloy system. We find that the frequencies of the TA2 modes are relatively low. This branch exhibits an anomaly (dip) at a wave numberξ0=1∕3≈0.33, which softens with decreasing temperature. Associated with this anomalous dip at ξ0, an elastic central peak scattering is also present. We have also observed satellites due to ...


Ordering Of Si Atoms On The Fivefold Al-Pd-Mn Quasicrystal Surface, J. Ledieu, P. Unsworth, Thomas A. Lograsso, A. R. Ross, R. Mcgrath Jan 2006

Ordering Of Si Atoms On The Fivefold Al-Pd-Mn Quasicrystal Surface, J. Ledieu, P. Unsworth, Thomas A. Lograsso, A. R. Ross, R. Mcgrath

Ames Laboratory Publications

Silicon atoms are found to form an ordered overlayer on the fivefold surface of the icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn quasicrystal. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the adsorption site is identified as the center of truncated clusters which are building blocks of the bulk structure. Comparison with theoretical models suggests that this site is favored because of bonding to Mn atoms.


Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study Of Optical Anisotropy In Gd5si2ge2 And Comparison With Reflectance Difference Spectra, Joong Mok Park, David W. Lynch, S. J. Lee, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, A. O. Tsokol, J. E. Snyder, David C. Jiles Jan 2006

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study Of Optical Anisotropy In Gd5si2ge2 And Comparison With Reflectance Difference Spectra, Joong Mok Park, David W. Lynch, S. J. Lee, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, A. O. Tsokol, J. E. Snyder, David C. Jiles

Ames Laboratory Publications

The complex dielectric functions of single crystals of Gd5Si2Ge2 were obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the photon energy range of 1.5–5.0 eV at room temperature. Reflectance difference (RD) spectra for the a‐b and b‐c planes of single crystals of Gd5Si2Ge2 were derived from these dielectric functions and compared to those obtained from reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) at near-normal incidence. The two experimental RD spectra from SE and RDS agreed well. The in-plane optical anisotropy of the sample is mainly due to intrinsic bulk properties ...


Strain-Induced Disorder, Phase Transformations, And Transformation-Induced Plasticity In Hexagonal Boron Nitride Under Compression And Shear In A Rotational Diamond Anvil Cell: In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Study And Modeling, Valery I. Levitas, Yanzhang Ma, Javad Hashemi, Mark Holtz, Necip Guven Jan 2006

Strain-Induced Disorder, Phase Transformations, And Transformation-Induced Plasticity In Hexagonal Boron Nitride Under Compression And Shear In A Rotational Diamond Anvil Cell: In Situ X-Ray Diffraction Study And Modeling, Valery I. Levitas, Yanzhang Ma, Javad Hashemi, Mark Holtz, Necip Guven

Valery I. Levitas

Plastic shear significantly reduces the phase transformation (PT) pressure when compared to hydrostatic conditions. Here, a paradoxical result was obtained: PT of graphitelike hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) to superhard wurtzitic boron nitride under pressure and shear started at about the same pressure(∼10GPa) as under hydrostatic conditions. In situ x-ray diffraction measurement and modeling of the turbostratic stacking fault concentration (degree of disorder) and PT in hBN were performed. Under hydrostaticpressure, changes in the disorder were negligible. Under a complex compression and shear loading program, a strain-induced disorder was observed and quantitatively characterized. It is found that the strain-induced disorder ...


Posterminaries: Plain Text, Alexander H. King Jan 2006

Posterminaries: Plain Text, Alexander H. King

Alexander H. King

You just can’t win an argument with an English professor.


Generalized Planar Fault Energies And Twinning In Cu–Al Alloys, S. Kibey, J. B. Liu, Duane D. Johnson, H. Sehitoglu Jan 2006

Generalized Planar Fault Energies And Twinning In Cu–Al Alloys, S. Kibey, J. B. Liu, Duane D. Johnson, H. Sehitoglu

Duane D. Johnson

We report ab initio density functional theory calculations of generalized planar fault energies of fcc Cu–xAl (x=0, 5.0, and 8.3at.%) alloys. We investigate the effects of substitutional solute Al on the unstable intrinsic γus and twin γutstacking faultenergies (SFEs). Our results reveal an increased tendency of Cu–Al to deform preferentially by twinning with increasing Al content, consistent with experiment. We attribute this mechanical behavior to appreciable lowering of the twinning barrier γut, along with the stable intrinsic and twin SFEs.


Thermal Effects On Domain Orientation Of Tetragonal Piezoelectrics Studied By In Situ X-Ray Diffraction, Wonyoung Chang, Alexander H. King, Keith J. Bowman Jan 2006

Thermal Effects On Domain Orientation Of Tetragonal Piezoelectrics Studied By In Situ X-Ray Diffraction, Wonyoung Chang, Alexander H. King, Keith J. Bowman

Alexander H. King

Thermal effects on domain orientation in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead titanate (PT) have been investigated by using in situ x-ray diffraction with an area detector. In the case of a soft PZT, it is found that the texture parameter called multiples of a random distribution (MRD) initially increases with temperature up to approximately 100 °C and then falls to unity at temperatures approaching the Curie temperature, whereas the MRD of hard PZT and PT initially undergoes a smaller increase or no change. The relationship between the mechanical strain energy and domain wall mobility with temperature is discussed.


Small Sealed Ta Crucible For Thermal Analysis Of Volatile Metallic Samples, Y. Janssen, M. Angst, Kevin W. Dennis, Paul C. Canfield, R. William Mccallum Jan 2006

Small Sealed Ta Crucible For Thermal Analysis Of Volatile Metallic Samples, Y. Janssen, M. Angst, Kevin W. Dennis, Paul C. Canfield, R. William Mccallum

Ames Laboratory Publications

Differential thermal analysis on metallic alloys containing volatile elements can be highly problematic. Here we show how measurements can be performed in commercial, small-sample equipment without modification. This is achieved by using a sealed Ta crucible, easily fabricated from Ta tubing and sealed in a standard arc furnace. The crucible performance is demonstrated by measurements on a mixture of Mg and MgB2, after heating up to 1470°C. We also show data, measured on an alloy with composition Gd40Mg60, that clearly show both the liquidus and a peritectic and are consistent with published phase-diagram data.


Solute/Defect-Mediated Pathway For Rapid Nanoprecipitation In Solid Solutions: Γ Surface Analysis In Fcc Al-Ag, Daniel Finkenstadt, Duane D. Johnson Jan 2006

Solute/Defect-Mediated Pathway For Rapid Nanoprecipitation In Solid Solutions: Γ Surface Analysis In Fcc Al-Ag, Daniel Finkenstadt, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

In face-centered-cubic (fcc) Al, stacking fault energy (SFE) is high at ca. 150mJ/m2, inhibiting stacking fault (SF) formation and dislocation motion. Yet Ag-rich hcp precipitates form rapidly in Al-rich fcc Al-Ag, even as the energy difference ΔEhcp−fcc between hcp and fcc homogeneous solid solution increases with Ag content. Using electronic density functional theory methods, we calculate the SFE γSF versus distance of Ag (111) planes from intrinsic (isf), extrinsic (esf) and twin (tsf) SFs. We find that an inhomogeneous distribution of Ag solute segregated in layers adjacent to SFs leads to favorable SFE, a manifestation of the well-known ...


Coupled Magnetic And Structural Transitions In High-Purity Dy And Gd[Subscript 5]Sb[Subscript X]Ge[Subscript 4-X] , Alexander S. Chernyshov Jan 2006

Coupled Magnetic And Structural Transitions In High-Purity Dy And Gd[Subscript 5]Sb[Subscript X]Ge[Subscript 4-X] , Alexander S. Chernyshov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

We undertook a detailed study of a single crystal of dysprosium metal, which is a classical example of a system where magnetic and crystallographic sublattices can be either coupled or decoupled from one another. Magnetocaloric effect, magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, and heat capacity of high purity single crystals of dysprosium have been investigated over broad temperature and magnetic field intervals with the magnetic field vector parallel to either the a- or c-axes of the crystal. Notable differences in the behavior of the physical properties when compared to Dy samples studied in the past have been observed between 110 K and ...