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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Structural, Magnetic, And Defect Properties Of Co-Pt-Type Magnetic-Storage Alloys: Density-Functional Theory Study Of Thermal Processing Effects, Aftab Alam, Brent Kraczek, Duane D. Johnson Jul 2010

Structural, Magnetic, And Defect Properties Of Co-Pt-Type Magnetic-Storage Alloys: Density-Functional Theory Study Of Thermal Processing Effects, Aftab Alam, Brent Kraczek, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Using an optimized-basis Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker-coherent-potential approximation method, we calculate formation enthalpies ΔEf, structural, and magnetic properties of paramagnetic (PM) and ferromagnetic, disordered A1 and ordered L10 CoPt, FePd, and FePt systems that are of interest for high-density magnetic-recording media. To address processing effects, we focus on the point defects that dictate thermal properties and planar defects (e.g., c domain and antiphase boundaries) which can serve as pinning centers for magnetic domains and affect storage properties. We determine bulk Curie (Tc) and order-disorder (To-d) transition temperatures within 4% of observed values, and estimates for nanoparticles. Planar-defect energies γhklx show that the ...


Preparation And Characterization Of Pt/Γ-Al2o3 Model Catalyst On Nial Alloy, Zhongfan Zhang, Long Li, Lin-Lin Wang, Sergio I. Sanchez, Ross V. Grieshaber, Qi Wang, Duane D. Johnson, Anatoly I. Frenkel, Ralph G. Nuzzo, Judith C. Yang Jan 2010

Preparation And Characterization Of Pt/Γ-Al2o3 Model Catalyst On Nial Alloy, Zhongfan Zhang, Long Li, Lin-Lin Wang, Sergio I. Sanchez, Ross V. Grieshaber, Qi Wang, Duane D. Johnson, Anatoly I. Frenkel, Ralph G. Nuzzo, Judith C. Yang

Duane D. Johnson

Numerous studies of heterogeneous catalysis systems clearly demonstrate that the metal nanoparticle (NPs)/support interaction is significant in determining the catalytic chemistry. Theoretical simulations have been performed to understand the metal/support interactions [1,2]. For example, theorists discovered that electronic and oxygen defects of γ-Al2O3 anchor the active particles [1]. Platinum NPs dispersed on γ-alumina is one of the most widely used heterogeneous catalysts and Pt performs extremely well as a catalyst for the oxygen-reduction reaction used in fuel cell industries. Hence, we chose Pt/γ-Al2O3 as a model heterogeneous catalyst system to investigate the metal NPs/support interface ...


Interphase Energies Of Hcp Precipitates In Fcc Metals: A Density-Functional Theory Study In Al-Ag, Daniel Finkenstadt, Duane D. Johnson Jan 2010

Interphase Energies Of Hcp Precipitates In Fcc Metals: A Density-Functional Theory Study In Al-Ag, Daniel Finkenstadt, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of interphase boundary energies relevant to hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) γ-precipitate formation were performed within approximate unit cells that mirror the experimental conditions in face-centered-cubic (fcc) Al-Ag solid solutions. In Al-rich, fcc Al-Ag, γ precipitates are observed to form rapidly with large (300+) aspect ratios even though the Al stacking-fault energy is high (approximately 130 mJ/m2), which should suppress hcp ribbon formation according to standard arguments. Our DFT results show why high-aspect ratio plates occur and why previous estimates based on Wulff construction were orders of magnitude less than observed values. Using DFT, we obtain a Gibbs ...


Analysis Of Nonequilibrium Hcp Precipitate Growth In Fcc Matrices: Application To Al–Ag, Daniel Finkenstadt, Duane D. Johnson Nov 2009

Analysis Of Nonequilibrium Hcp Precipitate Growth In Fcc Matrices: Application To Al–Ag, Daniel Finkenstadt, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) γ-precipitates with large aspect ratios form rapidly in some face-centered cubic (fcc) solid-solutions. No model explains the observed time-dependent increase in aspect ratio, nor irregular intermediate growth shapes. We propose a nonequilibrium process involving trapezoidal offshoots (controlled only by energetics) that governs the growth behavior (kinetics) and yields nonequilibrium structures in agreement with observation. Then, combining nucleation theory and diffusion-limited growth both of secondary nuclei and ledges, we derive a general growth equation for γ-precipitates due to solute-segregation to precipitate–matrix interfaces that includes our modification of the Jones–Trivedi model for thickening to account for the slow ...


Optimal Site-Centered Electronic Structure Basis Set From A Displaced-Center Expansion: Improved Results Via A Priori Estimates Of Saddle Points In The Density, Aftab Alam, Duane D. Johnson Sep 2009

Optimal Site-Centered Electronic Structure Basis Set From A Displaced-Center Expansion: Improved Results Via A Priori Estimates Of Saddle Points In The Density, Aftab Alam, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Site-centered, electronic-structure methods use an expansion inside nonoverlapping “muffin-tin” (MT) spheres plus an interstitial basis set. As the boundary separating the more spherical from nonspherical density between atoms, the “saddle-point” radii (SPR) in the density provide an optimal spherical region for expanding in spherical harmonics, as used in augmented plane wave, muffin-tin orbital, and multiple-scattering [Korringa, Kohn, and Rostoker (KKR)] methods. These MT-SPR guarantee unique, convex Voronoi polyhedra at each site, in distinction to Bader topological cells. We present a numerically fast, two-center expansion to find SPR a priori from overlapping atomic charge densities, valid also for disordered alloys. We ...


Surface Geometry Of C60 On Ag(111), H. I. Li, K. Pussi, K. J. Hanna, Lin-Lin Wang, Duane D. Johnson, H.-P. Cheng, H. Shin, S. Curtarolo, W. Moritz, J. A. Smerdon, R. Mcgrath, R. D. Diehl Jul 2009

Surface Geometry Of C60 On Ag(111), H. I. Li, K. Pussi, K. J. Hanna, Lin-Lin Wang, Duane D. Johnson, H.-P. Cheng, H. Shin, S. Curtarolo, W. Moritz, J. A. Smerdon, R. Mcgrath, R. D. Diehl

Duane D. Johnson

The geometry of adsorbed C60 influences its collective properties. We report the first dynamical low-energy electron diffraction study to determine the geometry of a C60 monolayer, Ag(111)−(23√×23√)30°−C60, and related density functional theory calculations. The stable monolayer has C60 molecules in vacancies that result from the displacement of surface atoms. C60 bonds with hexagons down, with their mirror planes parallel to that of the substrate. The results indicate that vacancy structures are the rule rather than the exception for C60 monolayers on close-packed metal surfaces.


Quantitative Prediction Of Twinning Stress In Fcc Alloys: Application To Cu-Al, Sandeep A. Kibey, Lin-Lin Wang, J. B. Liu, H. T. Johnson, H. Sehitoglu, Duane D. Johnson Jun 2009

Quantitative Prediction Of Twinning Stress In Fcc Alloys: Application To Cu-Al, Sandeep A. Kibey, Lin-Lin Wang, J. B. Liu, H. T. Johnson, H. Sehitoglu, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Twinning is one of most prevalent deformation mechanisms in materials. Having established a quantitative theory to predict onset twinning stress τcrit in fcc elemental metals from their generalized planar-fault-energy (GPFE) surface, we exemplify its use in alloys where the Suzuki effect (i.e., solute energetically favors residing at and near planar faults) is operative; specifically, we apply it in Cu-xAl (x is 0, 5, and 8.3 at. %) in comparison with experimental data. We compute the GPFE via density-functional theory, and we predict the solute dependence of the GPFE and τcrit, in agreement with measured values. We show that τcrit ...


Bcc-To-Hcp Transformation Pathways For Iron Versus Hydrostatic Pressure: Coupled Shuffle And Shear Modes, J. B. Liu, Duane D. Johnson Apr 2009

Bcc-To-Hcp Transformation Pathways For Iron Versus Hydrostatic Pressure: Coupled Shuffle And Shear Modes, J. B. Liu, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Using density-functional theory, we calculate the potential-energy surface (PES), minimum-energy pathway (MEP), and transition state (TS) versus hydrostatic pressure σhyd for the reconstructive transformation in Fe from body-centered cubic (bcc) to hexagonal closed-packed (hcp). At fixed σhyd, the PES is described by coupled shear (ϵ) and shuffle (η) modes and is determined from structurally minimized hcp-bcc energy differences at a set of (η,ϵ). We fit the PES using symmetry-adapted polynomials, permitting the MEP to be found analytically. The MEP is continuous and fully explains the transformation and its associated magnetization and volume discontinuity at TS. We show that σhyd ...


Low-Energy Antiphase Boundaries, Degenerate Superstructures, And Phase Stability In Frustrated Fcc Ising Model And Ag-Au Alloys, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Teck L. Tan, Lin-Lin Wang, Duane D. Johnson Apr 2008

Low-Energy Antiphase Boundaries, Degenerate Superstructures, And Phase Stability In Frustrated Fcc Ising Model And Ag-Au Alloys, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Teck L. Tan, Lin-Lin Wang, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

An Ising model exhibits zero-energy antiphase boundaries (APBs) and frustration on close-packed face-centered cubic (fcc) and triangular lattices. The frustration results in degenerate structures and chains of long-period superstructures forming a quasicontinuous ground-state “hull” in the formation energy versus composition (c) diagram. In alloys, a nonzero but small APB energy yields a c-dependent reduction in this degeneracy that affects the phase diagram topology and range of the two-phase coexistence. Using density functional theory combined with cluster expansions (CEs), we study Ag-Au alloys as a prototype and find the effective cluster interactions (dominated by nearest-neighbor pairs), predict energetics of millions of ...


Predicting Enthalpies Of Molecular Substances: Application To Libh4, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Duane D. Johnson Feb 2008

Predicting Enthalpies Of Molecular Substances: Application To Libh4, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

For molecular substances exhibiting harmonic and nonharmonic vibrations, we present a first-principles approach to predict enthalpy differences between phases at finite temperatures, including solid-solid and melting. We apply it to the complex hydride LiBH4. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, we predict a structure for the high-T solid phase of lithium borohydride, and we propose an approximation to account for nonharmonic vibrations. We then predict the enthalpy changes for solid-solid transition, melting, and an H-storage reaction, all in agreement with experiment.


Density Functional Study Of Structural Trends For Late-Transition-Metal 13-Atom Clusters, Lin-Lin Wang, Duane D. Johnson Jun 2007

Density Functional Study Of Structural Trends For Late-Transition-Metal 13-Atom Clusters, Lin-Lin Wang, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Because reactivity increases as particle size decreases and competition between numerous structures are possible, which affects catalytic and magnetic properties, we study the structural trends of late-transition-metal 13-atom clusters using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation to exchange-correlation functional. We consider open structural motifs, such as bilayer and cubic (recently found to have lower energy), and find new bilayer candidates that are even lower in energy. To study the influence of d-orbital filling on structural trends, we focus on Pt, Pd, and Rh clusters and find several new, low-energy structures for Pt13 and Pd13 from searches using a ...


Comment On “Structural Stability Of Complex Hydrides: Libh4 Revisited”, Duane D. Johnson, Nikolai A. Zarkevich Sep 2006

Comment On “Structural Stability Of Complex Hydrides: Libh4 Revisited”, Duane D. Johnson, Nikolai A. Zarkevich

Duane D. Johnson

A Comment on the Letter by Zbigniew Łodziana and Tejs Vegge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 145501 (2004).


Generalized Planar Fault Energies And Twinning In Cu–Al Alloys, S. Kibey, J. B. Liu, Duane D. Johnson, H. Sehitoglu Jan 2006

Generalized Planar Fault Energies And Twinning In Cu–Al Alloys, S. Kibey, J. B. Liu, Duane D. Johnson, H. Sehitoglu

Duane D. Johnson

We report ab initio density functional theory calculations of generalized planar fault energies of fcc Cu–xAl (x=0, 5.0, and 8.3at.%) alloys. We investigate the effects of substitutional solute Al on the unstable intrinsic γus and twin γutstacking faultenergies (SFEs). Our results reveal an increased tendency of Cu–Al to deform preferentially by twinning with increasing Al content, consistent with experiment. We attribute this mechanical behavior to appreciable lowering of the twinning barrier γut, along with the stable intrinsic and twin SFEs.


Solute/Defect-Mediated Pathway For Rapid Nanoprecipitation In Solid Solutions: Γ Surface Analysis In Fcc Al-Ag, Daniel Finkenstadt, Duane D. Johnson Jan 2006

Solute/Defect-Mediated Pathway For Rapid Nanoprecipitation In Solid Solutions: Γ Surface Analysis In Fcc Al-Ag, Daniel Finkenstadt, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

In face-centered-cubic (fcc) Al, stacking fault energy (SFE) is high at ca. 150mJ/m2, inhibiting stacking fault (SF) formation and dislocation motion. Yet Ag-rich hcp precipitates form rapidly in Al-rich fcc Al-Ag, even as the energy difference ΔEhcp−fcc between hcp and fcc homogeneous solid solution increases with Ag content. Using electronic density functional theory methods, we calculate the SFE γSF versus distance of Ag (111) planes from intrinsic (isf), extrinsic (esf) and twin (tsf) SFs. We find that an inhomogeneous distribution of Ag solute segregated in layers adjacent to SFs leads to favorable SFE, a manifestation of the well-known ...


Recycling Krylov Subspaces For Sequences Of Linear Systems, Michael L. Parks, Eric De Sturler, Greg Mackey, Duane D. Johnson, Spandan Maiti Jan 2006

Recycling Krylov Subspaces For Sequences Of Linear Systems, Michael L. Parks, Eric De Sturler, Greg Mackey, Duane D. Johnson, Spandan Maiti

Duane D. Johnson

Many problems in science and engineering require the solution of a long sequence of slowly changing linear systems. We propose and analyze two methods that significantly reduce the total number of matrix‐vector products required to solve all systems. We consider the general case where both the matrix and right‐hand side change, and we make no assumptions regarding the change in the right‐hand sides. Furthermore, we consider general nonsingular matrices, and we do not assume that all matrices are pairwise close or that the sequence of matrices converges to a particular matrix. Our methods work well under these ...


Systematic, Multisite Short-Range-Order Corrections To The Electronic Structure Of Disordered Alloys From First Principles: The Kkr Nonlocal Cpa From The Dynamical Cluster Approximation, D. A. Biava, Subhradip Ghosh, Duane D. Johnson, W. A. Shelton, Andrei V. Smirnov Sep 2005

Systematic, Multisite Short-Range-Order Corrections To The Electronic Structure Of Disordered Alloys From First Principles: The Kkr Nonlocal Cpa From The Dynamical Cluster Approximation, D. A. Biava, Subhradip Ghosh, Duane D. Johnson, W. A. Shelton, Andrei V. Smirnov

Duane D. Johnson

Although the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation (KKR-CPA) is used widely to configurationally average and get electronic structures and energies of disordered alloys, a single-site CPA misses local environment effects, including short-range order (SRO). A proposed nonlocal CPA (NLCPA) recovers translational invariance of the effective medium via k-space coarse graining from the dynamical cluster approximation (DCA), where corrections are systematic as cluster size increases. We implement a first-principles KKR-NLCPA/DCA and show the effects of environment, including SRO, on the electronic structures of fcc CuAu and bcc NiAl.


Genetic Programming For Multitimescale Modeling, Kumara Sastry, Duane D. Johnson, David E. Goldberg, Pascal Bellon Aug 2005

Genetic Programming For Multitimescale Modeling, Kumara Sastry, Duane D. Johnson, David E. Goldberg, Pascal Bellon

Duane D. Johnson

A bottleneck for multitimescale thermally activated dynamics is the computation of the potential energy surface. We explore the use of genetic programming (GP) to symbolically regress a mapping of the saddle-point barriers from only a few calculated points via molecular dynamics, thereby avoiding explicit calculation of all barriers. The GP-regressed barrier function enables use of kinetic Monte Carlo to simulate real-time kinetics (seconds to hours) based upon realistic atomic interactions. To illustrate the concept, we apply a GP regression to vacancy-assisted migration on a surface of a concentrated binary alloy (from both quantum and empirical potentials) and predict the diffusion ...


Crossover Energetics For Halogenated Si(100): Vacancy Line Defects, Dimer Vacancy Lines, And Atom Vacancy Lines, G. J. Xu, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Abhishek Agrawal, A. W. Signore, B. R. Trenhaile, Duane D. Johnson, J. H. Weaver Mar 2005

Crossover Energetics For Halogenated Si(100): Vacancy Line Defects, Dimer Vacancy Lines, And Atom Vacancy Lines, G. J. Xu, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Abhishek Agrawal, A. W. Signore, B. R. Trenhaile, Duane D. Johnson, J. H. Weaver

Duane D. Johnson

We investigated surface patterning of I-Si(100)-(2×1) both experimentally and theoretically. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we first examined I destabilization of Si(100)-(2×1) at near saturation. Dimer vacancies formed on the terraces at 600 K, and they grew into lines that were perpendicular to the dimer rows, termed vacancy line defects. These patterns were distinctive from those induced by Cl and Br under similar conditions since the latter formed atom and dimer vacancy lines that were parallel to the dimer rows. Using first-principles density functional theory, we determined the steric repulsive interactions associated with iodine and ...


Importance Of Thermal Disorder On The Properties Of Alloys: Origin Of Paramagnetism And Structural Anomalies In Bcc-Based Fe1−Xalx, Andrei V. Smirnov, W. A. Shelton, Duane D. Johnson Feb 2005

Importance Of Thermal Disorder On The Properties Of Alloys: Origin Of Paramagnetism And Structural Anomalies In Bcc-Based Fe1−Xalx, Andrei V. Smirnov, W. A. Shelton, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Fe1−xAlx exhibits interesting magnetic and anomalous structural properties as a function of composition and sample processing conditions arising from thermal or off-stoichiometric chemical disorder, and, although well studied, these properties are not understood. In stoichiometric B2 FeAl, including the effects of partial long-range order, i.e., thermal antisites, we find the experimentally observed paramagnetic response with nonzero local moments, in contrast to past investigations that find either a ferromagnetic or nonmagnetic state, both inconsistent with experiment. Moreover, from this magnetochemical coupling, we are able to determine the origins of the observed lattice constant anomalies found in Fe1−xAlx for ...


Prediction Of Dopant Ionization Energies In Silicon: The Importance Of Strain, A. Rockett, Duane D. Johnson, S. V. Khare, B. R. Tuttle Dec 2003

Prediction Of Dopant Ionization Energies In Silicon: The Importance Of Strain, A. Rockett, Duane D. Johnson, S. V. Khare, B. R. Tuttle

Duane D. Johnson

Based on a hydrogenic state and strain changes upon defect charging, we propose a simple, parameter-free model that agrees well with the observed group III and V monovalent-impurity ionization energies in Si, revealing the importance of such strain effects. Changes in lattice strain upon defect charging are obtained via superposition and elasticity theory using atomic relaxations from density functional theory.


Competition Between Ferromagnetism And Antiferromagnetism In Fept, G. Brown, B. Kraczek, A. Janotti, T. C. Schulthess, G. M. Stocks, Duane D. Johnson Aug 2003

Competition Between Ferromagnetism And Antiferromagnetism In Fept, G. Brown, B. Kraczek, A. Janotti, T. C. Schulthess, G. M. Stocks, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Ni/Fe/Co/Cu(100) films were epitaxially grown and investigated by photoemission electron microscopy. The magnetic correlation of the Ni and Co films was investigated by element-specific domain images. We found that the Ni magnetization exhibits a continuous rotation in the spin reorientation transition (SRT) region and that the Ni SRT thickness oscillates with the Fe film thickness.


Reply To “Comment On ‘Classical Density Functional Theory Of Freezing In Simple Fluids: Numerically Induced False Solutions’ ”, M. Valera, F. J. Pinski, Duane D. Johnson May 2003

Reply To “Comment On ‘Classical Density Functional Theory Of Freezing In Simple Fluids: Numerically Induced False Solutions’ ”, M. Valera, F. J. Pinski, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Recently we solved, via discrete numerical grids, the Ramakrishna-Yossouff density-functional theory equations for the freezing transition and obtained an intricate phase diagram of hard-sphere mixtures. Even though such methods provide more variational freedom than basis-set methods, we found that the thermodynamic quantities were sensitive to the spacing of numerical grids employed and observed numerically induced false minima. Dasgupta and Valls have commented that these false minima were due to our use of k-space methods and, hence, their early works based on a fully r-space approach are qualitatively correct, despite also being sensitive to the mesh granularity. Here, we clarify the ...


Absolute Orientation-Dependent Anisotropic Tin(111) Island Step Energies And Stiffnesses From Shape Fluctuation Analyses, S. Kodambaka, S. V. Khare, V. Petrova, Duane D. Johnson, I. Petrov, J. E. Greene Jan 2003

Absolute Orientation-Dependent Anisotropic Tin(111) Island Step Energies And Stiffnesses From Shape Fluctuation Analyses, S. Kodambaka, S. V. Khare, V. Petrova, Duane D. Johnson, I. Petrov, J. E. Greene

Duane D. Johnson

In situ high-temperature (1165–1248 K) scanning-tunneling microscopy was used to measure temporal fluctuations about the anisotropic equilibrium shape of two-dimensional TiN(111) adatom and vacancy islands on atomically smooth TiN(111) terraces. The equilibrium island shape was found to be a truncated hexagon bounded by alternating 〈110〉 steps, which form [100] and [110] nanofacets with the terrace. Relative step energies β as a function of step orientation φ were obtained from the inverse Legendre transformation of the equilibrium island shape to within an orientation-independent scale factor λ, the equilibrium chemical potential of the island per unit TiN area. We ...


Magnetochemical Origin For Invar Anomalies In Iron-Nickel Alloys, V. Crisan, P. Entel, H. Ebert, H. Akai, Duane D. Johnson, J. B. Staunton Jul 2002

Magnetochemical Origin For Invar Anomalies In Iron-Nickel Alloys, V. Crisan, P. Entel, H. Ebert, H. Akai, Duane D. Johnson, J. B. Staunton

Duane D. Johnson

Zero- and finite-temperature (T) first-principles calculations versus composition (c) show that magnetochemical effects lead to Invar anomalies in Fe-(Ni, Co, Pt) alloys. Chemical short- or long-range order and negative interatomic exchange interaction of electrons in antibonding majority-spin states force the face-centered-cubic lattice to compete simultaneously for a smaller volume (from antiferromagnetic tendencies) and a larger volume (from Stoner ferromagnetic tendencies). The resulting additional negative lattice anharmonicity is very large for Fe-(Ni, Co) while absent for Fe-Pt. Our results explain the T- and c-dependent behavior of Invar properties, including the lattice softening and thermal expansion of Fe-Ni. In addition ...


Absolute Tin(111) Step Energies From Analysis Of Anisotropic Island Shape Fluctuations, S. Kodambaka, V. Petrova, S. V. Khare, Duane D. Johnson, I. Petrov, J. E. Greene Apr 2002

Absolute Tin(111) Step Energies From Analysis Of Anisotropic Island Shape Fluctuations, S. Kodambaka, V. Petrova, S. V. Khare, Duane D. Johnson, I. Petrov, J. E. Greene

Duane D. Johnson

In situ high-temperature (1165–1248 K) scanning tunneling microscopy was used to measure fluctuations around the equilibrium shape of two-dimensional vacancy islands on TiN(111) terraces. From the equilibrium shape, the ratio of the two ⟨110⟩ step energies was found to be 0.72±0.02. Combining this with the results of an exact approach for analysis of shape fluctuations, applicable to highly anisotropic islands, we obtain absolute values for step energies and step stiffnesses as a function of orientation.


First-Principles Theory Of The Temperature And Compositional Dependence Of Atomic Short-Range Order In Disordered Cu-Pd Alloys, R. V. Chepulskii, J. B. Staunton, Ezio Bruno, B. Ginatempo, Duane D. Johnson Feb 2002

First-Principles Theory Of The Temperature And Compositional Dependence Of Atomic Short-Range Order In Disordered Cu-Pd Alloys, R. V. Chepulskii, J. B. Staunton, Ezio Bruno, B. Ginatempo, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

We combine the first-principles, Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation based calculations of compositional fluctuations with a statistical mechanical ring approximation to study the temperature (T) and composition (c) dependence of the atomic short-range order (SRO) in disordered, face-centred cubic, Cu-Pd alloys. The fourfold splitting of SRO peaks around the equivalent X(0,1,0) points in reciprocal space is obtained in a wide T−c region. Such splitting is shown to be an “energy” effect caused by the absolute minima of the Fourier transform of the effective atomic interactions and related previously to the existence of nested sheets of the disordered ...


Accuracy And Limitations Of Localized Green’S Function Methods For Materials Science Applications, Duane D. Johnson, Andrei V. Smirnov Dec 2001

Accuracy And Limitations Of Localized Green’S Function Methods For Materials Science Applications, Duane D. Johnson, Andrei V. Smirnov

Duane D. Johnson

We compare screened real-space and reciprocal-space implementations of Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker electronic-structure method for their applicability to largescale problems requiring various levels of accuracy. We show that real-space calculations in metals can become impractical to describe energies. We suggest a combined r- and k-space scheme as the most efficient and flexible strategy for accurate energy calculations. Our hybrid code is suitable for (parallel) large-scale calculations involving complex, multicomponent systems. We also discuss how details of numerical procedures can affect accuracy of such calculations.


Classical Density Functional Theory Of Freezing In Simple Fluids: Numerically Induced False Solutions, M. Valera, F. J. Pinski, Duane D. Johnson Nov 2001

Classical Density Functional Theory Of Freezing In Simple Fluids: Numerically Induced False Solutions, M. Valera, F. J. Pinski, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

Density functional theory (DFT) has provided many insights into the freezing of simple fluids. Several analytical and numerical solution have shown that the DFT provides an accurate description of freezing of hard spheres and their mixtures. Compared to other techniques, numerical, grid-based algorithms for solving the DFT equations have more variational freedom and are capable of describing subtle behavior, as that seen in mixtures with multipeaked density profiles. However the grid-based approach is sensitive to the coarseness of the mesh employed. Here we summarize how the granularity of the mesh affects the freezing point within the DFT. For coarse meshes ...


Unbiased Density Functional Solutions Of Freezing In Binary Mixtures Of Hard Or Soft Spheres, M. Valera, R. F. Bielby, F. J. Pinksi, Duane D. Johnson Jan 2001

Unbiased Density Functional Solutions Of Freezing In Binary Mixtures Of Hard Or Soft Spheres, M. Valera, R. F. Bielby, F. J. Pinksi, Duane D. Johnson

Duane D. Johnson

various size ratios, σ2/σ1, using density functional theory. The Grand Potential is minimized using an unbiased, discrete, real-space mesh that does not constrain the shape of the density, and, in many cases, leads to solutions qualitatively different from those using Gaussians and plane-waves. Besides the usual face-centered-cubic solid-solution phase for σ2/σ1≈1.0, we find a sublattice-melt phase for σ2/σ1=0.85–0.5 (where the small-sphere density is nonlocalized and multi-peaked) and the NaCl phase for σ2/σ1=0.45–0.35 (when the small-sphere density again sharpens). For a range of size ratios of soft ...


Temperature-Induced Configurational Excitations For Predicting Thermodynamic And Mechanical Properties Of Alloys, Duane D. Johnson, Andrei V. Smirnov, J. B. Staunton, F. J. Pinski, W. A. Shelton Nov 2000

Temperature-Induced Configurational Excitations For Predicting Thermodynamic And Mechanical Properties Of Alloys, Duane D. Johnson, Andrei V. Smirnov, J. B. Staunton, F. J. Pinski, W. A. Shelton

Duane D. Johnson

We show that a structural energy difference, ΔE, must include explicit symmetry-breaking changes of the electronic structure due to temperature-induced configurational excitations, and why ΔE at T=0 K is not necessarily relevant to thermodynamic and mechanical modeling. In Ni3V, we calculate a tenfold decrease of ΔE between D022 and L12 structures from T=0 K to states of order relevant to experiment. ΔE calculated directly from states with short-range order (8 meV) or with low partial order (7–12 meV) agree with high-T experiment (10 meV).