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Articles 1  30 of 132
FullText Articles in Physics
Interactions Of Organic Fluorophores With Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances, Robert J. Collison
Interactions Of Organic Fluorophores With Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances, Robert J. Collison
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
It is common knowledge that metals, alloys and pure elements alike, are lustrous and reflective, the more so when a metal surface is flat, polished, and free from oxidation and surface fouling. However, some metals reflect visible light, in the 380 nm to 740 nm range of wavelengths, much more strongly than others. In particular, some metals reflect wavelengths in certain portions of the ultraviolet (UV), visible, and nearinfrared (NIR) regime, let us say 200 nm to 2000 nm, while absorbing light strongly in other segments of this range. There are several factors that account for this difference between various ...
Role Of Protonation State Changes And Hydrogen Bonding Around The Oxygen Evolving Complex Of Photosystem Ii, Divya Matta
Role Of Protonation State Changes And Hydrogen Bonding Around The Oxygen Evolving Complex Of Photosystem Ii, Divya Matta
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The mechanism of natural photosynthesis involves the use of solar energy to produce O_{2} we breathe and food and fuel we intake. This process results in the biological oxidation of water that takes place at room temperature, neutral pH using earth abundant elements Ca and Mn. Understanding how this challenging chemical reaction occurs in photosynthesis can be useful for designing better artificial photosynthetic complexes that can be used as biofuels. My doctoral work is to study the deprotonation and oxidation events elucidating the mechanistic details of proton coupled electron transfer reaction in a photosynthetic protein.
The O_{2} evolution ...
Third Harmonic Generation: A Method For Visualizing Myelin In The Murine Cerebral Cortex, Michael Redlich
Third Harmonic Generation: A Method For Visualizing Myelin In The Murine Cerebral Cortex, Michael Redlich
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Here we present the use of Third Harmonic Generation (THG) for the labelfree imaging of myelinated axons in the murine cerebral cortex. Myelin plays an important role in the processes of learning and disease. However, much of the myelin biology research thus far has focused on white matter tracts where myelin is more visible. Much is still unknown, particularly with regard to myelin in gray matter. First, we engage in THG microscopy using an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a titaniumsapphire laser to demonstrate the utility of the technique for imaging myelin in vivo. Second, we investigate the use of ...
Wave Propagation In Random And Topological Media, Yuhao Kang
Wave Propagation In Random And Topological Media, Yuhao Kang
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
This thesis discusses wave propagation in two kinds of systems, random media and topological insulators. In a disordered system, the wave is randomized by multiple scattering. The scattering matrix and associated delay times are powerful tools with which to describe wave transport. We discuss the relation among the Wigner time, the transmission time, and energy density in a lossless or lossy system. We propose the zeros of the transmission matrix and show how to manipulate the zerotransmission mode in a nonunitary system. In a photonic topological insulator, we realize an edge mode and discuss its robustness in the face of ...
Linear And NonLinear Elastic Constants Of Crystalline Materials From FirstPrinciples Calculations, David Cuffari
Linear And NonLinear Elastic Constants Of Crystalline Materials From FirstPrinciples Calculations, David Cuffari
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Novel methods based on the use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations are developed and applied to calculate linear and nonlinear elastic constants of materials at zero and finite temperature. These methods rely on finite difference techniques and are designed to be general, numerically accurate, and suitable to investigate the thermoelastic properties of anharmonic materials. A first method was developed to compute the thirdorder elastic constants of crystalline materials at zero temperature, a task that is numerically challenging and is currently undertaken by using approaches typically applicable to cubic and hexagonal crystalline systems. This method relies on numerical differentiation of ...
Particle Dynamics In AntiDe Sitter Space By Eih Method, Jiusi Lei
Particle Dynamics In AntiDe Sitter Space By Eih Method, Jiusi Lei
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Following the work of Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann, we show that particle dynamics in Antide Sitter spacetime can be built up by regarding singularities in spacetime manifold as the source of particles.
Since gauge fields play a foundational role in the action, the singularities are chosen to be pointlike instantons. Their winding number, defined by an integration on the spheres surrounding those singularities, will turn out to be related to their masses. And their action, derived from the ChernSimons forms, will be a coadjoint orbit action, with group element g ∈ SO(4, 2) describing the collective coordinates of the particle ...
An Accurate Solution Of The SelfSimilar OrbitAveraged FokkerPlanck Equation For CoreCollapsing Isotropic Globular Clusters: Properties And Application, Yuta Ito
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Hundreds of dense star clusters exist in almost all galaxies. Each cluster is composed of approximately ten thousand through ten million stars. The stars orbit in the clusters due to the clusters' selfgravity. Standard stellar dynamics expects that the clusters behave like collisionless selfgravitating systems on short time scales (~ million years) and the stars travel in smooth continuous orbits. Such clusters temporally settle to dynamically stable states or quasistationary states (QSS). Two fundamental QSS models are the isothermal and polytropic spheres since they have similar structures to the actual core (central part) and halo (outskirt) of the clusters. The two ...
Emulating Condensed Matter Systems In Classical Wave Metamaterials, Matthew Weiner
Emulating Condensed Matter Systems In Classical Wave Metamaterials, Matthew Weiner
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
One of the best tools we have for the edification of physics is the analogy. When we take our classical set of states and dynamical variables in phase space and treat them as vectors and Hermitian operators respectively in Hilbert space through the canonical quantization, we lose out on a lot of the intuition developed with the previous classical physics. With classical physics, through our own experiences and understanding of how systems should behave, we create easytounderstand analogies: we compare the Bohr model of the atom to the motion of the planets, we compare electrical circuits to the flow of ...
Control Of Molecular Energetics And Transport Via Strong LightMatter Interaction, Rong Wu
Control Of Molecular Energetics And Transport Via Strong LightMatter Interaction, Rong Wu
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Strong lightmatter coupling in excitonic systems results in the formation of halflight halfmatter quasiparticles called exciton polaritons. These hybrid quasiparticles take on the best of both systems, namely, the longrange propagation and coherence arising from the photonic component and the nonlinear interaction from the excitonic component. We develop methods for making high quality factor cavities and investigate the potential applications of these strongly coupled states arising specifically in organic molecular systems.
In the first project we investigate the potential of organic dye molecules to undergo condensation in an optical cavity at room temperature. The second study involves the use of ...
SnowAlbedo Feedback In Northern Alaska: How Vegetation Influences Snowmelt, Lucas C. Reckhaus
SnowAlbedo Feedback In Northern Alaska: How Vegetation Influences Snowmelt, Lucas C. Reckhaus
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
This paper investigates how the snowalbedo feedback mechanism of the arctic is changing in response to rising climate temperatures. Specifically, the interplay of vegetation and snowmelt, and how these two variables can be correlated. This has the potential to refine climate modelling of the spring transition season. Research was conducted at the ecoregion scale in northern Alaska from 2000 to 2020. Each ecoregion is defined by distinct topographic and ecological conditions, allowing for meaningful contrast between the patterns of spring albedo transition across surface conditions and vegetation types. The five most northerly ecoregions of Alaska are chosen as they encompass ...
Qwasi: The Quantum Walk Simulator, Warren V. Wilson
Qwasi: The Quantum Walk Simulator, Warren V. Wilson
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
As quantum computing continues to evolve, the ability to design and analyze novel quantum algorithms becomes a necessary focus for research. In many instances, the virtues of quantum algorithms only become evident when compared to their classical counterparts, so a study of the former often begins with a consideration of the latter. This is very much the case with quantum walk algorithms, as the success of random walks and their many, varied applications have inspired much interest in quantum correlates. Unfortunately, finding purely algebraic solutions for quantum walks is an elusive endeavor. At best, and when solvable, they require simple ...
Generating Entanglement With The Dynamical Lamb Effect, Mirko Amico
Generating Entanglement With The Dynamical Lamb Effect, Mirko Amico
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
According to quantum field theory, the vacuum is filled with virtual particles which can be turned into real ones under the influence of external perturbations. Phenomena of this kind are commonly referred to as quantum vacuum phenomena. Several quantum vacuum phenomena related to the peculiar nature of the quantum vacuum have been predicted, some of which, such as the Lamb shift and the Casimir effect, have been experimentally found. Other examples of quantum vacuum phenomena include the Unruh effect, the dynamical Casimir effect and the dynamical Lamb effect. The dynamical Lamb effect was first predicted by considering the situation of ...
SmallX Qcd Calculations With A Biased Ensemble, Gary Kapilevich
SmallX Qcd Calculations With A Biased Ensemble, Gary Kapilevich
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
In this dissertation, I will argue that we can study functional fluctuations in unintegrated gluon distributions, in the MV model as well as JIMWLK, using reweighting techniques, which will allow me to calculate QCD observables with "biased ensembles". This technique will enable me to study rare functional configurations of the gluon distributions, that might have been selected for in, for example, the centrality criteria used by the ATLAS and ALICE collaborations. After a review of these techniques, as well as a review of QCD physics at high energy in general, I will use biased ensembles to compute observables in two ...
At The Interface Of Algebra And Statistics, TaiDanae Bradley
At The Interface Of Algebra And Statistics, TaiDanae Bradley
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
This thesis takes inspiration from quantum physics to investigate mathematical structure that lies at the interface of algebra and statistics. The starting point is a passage from classical probability theory to quantum probability theory. The quantum version of a probability distribution is a density operator, the quantum version of marginalizing is an operation called the partial trace, and the quantum version of a marginal probability distribution is a reduced density operator. Every joint probability distribution on a finite set can be modeled as a rank one density operator. By applying the partial trace, we obtain reduced density operators whose diagonals ...
Generalized FourDimensional Effective Hadronic Supersymmetry Based On Quantum Chromodynamics (Qcd), Enxi Yu
Generalized FourDimensional Effective Hadronic Supersymmetry Based On Quantum Chromodynamics (Qcd), Enxi Yu
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
New discovery in multiple laboratories around the globe has shown a supersymmetry between hadrons—baryons and mesons. In order to generalize the phenomenological hadronic supersymmetry, the spinflavor SU(6) symmetry need an extension. This thesis present how we can extend SU(6) symmetry so that hadronic supersymmetry can be included. In the future, this extension can be also applied to pentaquark and tetraquark bags, for which there is an ongoing research in laboratories.
Proton Pumping Mechanism In Cytochrome C Oxidase, Xiuhong Cai
Proton Pumping Mechanism In Cytochrome C Oxidase, Xiuhong Cai
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO), is the terminal electron acceptor in the membrane bound aerobic respiratory chain. It reduces O_{2} to water. The energy released by this reaction is stored by pumping protons from the high pH, Nside of the membrane to the low pH, Pside. The generated proton gradient provides the motive force for synthesis of ATP by the ATP synthase.
Building a proton gradient across the membrane requires that proton transport must occur along controllable proton pathways to prevent proton leakage to the Nside. It has been suggested that CcO function requires proton transfer channels in both the ...
Duality In A Model Of Layered Superfluids And Sliding Phases, Steven Vayl
Duality In A Model Of Layered Superfluids And Sliding Phases, Steven Vayl
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The intent of my project is to determine if the proposal of sliding phases in XY layered systems has physical ground. It will be done by comparing numerical and analytical results for a layered XY models. Sliding phases were first proposed in the context of DNA complexes and then extended to XY models, 1D coupled wires and superfluid films. The existence of the sliding phase would mean that there is a phase transition from 3D to 2D behavior. Such systems have been studied both in the clean case and with disorder. The idea of the sliding phases is based on ...
Density Functional Theory Study Of TwoDimensional Boron Nitride Films, Pradip R. Niraula
Density Functional Theory Study Of TwoDimensional Boron Nitride Films, Pradip R. Niraula
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Since graphene was isolated in 2004, the number of twodimensional (2D) materials and their scientific relevance have grown exponentially. Besides graphene, one of the most important and technolocially promizing 2D materials that has emerged in recent years is hexagonal boron nitride, in its monolayer or multilayer form. In my thesis work, I used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the properties of boron nitride films. In particular, I first studied the properties (i.e. formation energy, defect states, and structure) of point charged defects in monolayer and bilayer hexagonal boron nitride, and subsequently, I focused on the linear and ...
IiVi TypeIi Quantum Dot Superlattices For Novel Applications, Vasilios Deligiannakis
IiVi TypeIi Quantum Dot Superlattices For Novel Applications, Vasilios Deligiannakis
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
In this thesis, we discuss the growth procedure and the characterization results obtained for epitaxially grown submonolayer typeII quantum dot superlattices made of IIVI semiconductors. We have investigated the spin dynamics of ZnSe layers with embedded typeII ZnTe quantum dots and the use of (Zn)CdTe/ZnCdSe QDs for intermediate band solar cell (IBSC). Samples with a higher quantum dot density exhibit longer electron spin lifetimes, up to ~1 ns at low temperatures. Tellurium isoelectronic centers, which form in the ZnSe spacer regions as a result of the growth conditions, were also probed. A new growth sequence for typeII (Zn ...
On Different Parametrizations Of Feynman Integrals, Ray Daniel Sameshima
On Different Parametrizations Of Feynman Integrals, Ray Daniel Sameshima
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
In this doctoral thesis, we discuss and apply advanced techniques for the calculations of scattering amplitudes which, on the one hand, allow us to compute cross sections and differential distributions at high precision and, on the other hand, give us deep mathematical insights on the mathematical structures of Feynman integrals.
We start by presenting phenomenological calculations relevant for the experimental analyses at the Large Hadron Collider. We use the resummation of soft gluon emission corrections to study the associated production of a top pair and a Z boson to nexttonexttoleading logarithmic accuracy, and compute the total cross section and differential ...
Optical And Collective Properties Of Excitons In 2d Semiconductors, Matthew N. Brunetti
Optical And Collective Properties Of Excitons In 2d Semiconductors, Matthew N. Brunetti
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
We study the properties of excitons in 2D semiconductors (2DSC) by numerically solving the Schr\"{o}dinger equation for an interacting electron and hole in the effective mass approximation, then calculating optical properties such as the transition energies, oscillator strengths, and absorption coefficients. Our theoretical approach allows us to consider both direct excitons in monolayer (ML) 2DSC and spatially indirect excitons in heterostructures (HS) consisting of two 2DSC MLs separated by fewlayer insulating hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). In particular, we study indirect excitons in TMDC HS, namely MoS_{2}, MoSe_{2}, WS_{2}, and WSe_{2}; both direct and ...
Stability And Application Of The KCore Dynamical Model To Biological Networks, Francesca Beatrice Arese Lucini
Stability And Application Of The KCore Dynamical Model To Biological Networks, Francesca Beatrice Arese Lucini
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The objective of the dissertation is to illustrate the importance of the kcore dynamical model, by first presenting the stability analysis of the nonlinear kcore model and compare its solution to the most widely used linear model. Second, I show a real world application of the kcore model to describe properties of neural networks, specifically, the transition from conscious to subliminal perception.
Exciton Polaritons In TwoDimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides, Jie Gu
Exciton Polaritons In TwoDimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides, Jie Gu
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Strong interaction between photons and excitons in semiconductors results in the formation of halflight halfmatter quasiparticles termed excitonpolaritons. Owing to their hybrid character, they inherit the strong interparticle interaction from their excitonic (matter) component via Coulomb interaction while the photonic component lends the small mass (~10^{5} times lighter than free electrons) and long propagation distances. Additionally, excitonpolaritons also carry properties of the host material excitons such as spin and valley polarization and can be probed via the photons that leak out of the cavities since the photon carries all the information owing to conservation laws. Since the first demonstration ...
Interplay Of Magnetism, Superconductivity, And Topological Phases Of Matter, Cody Youmans
Interplay Of Magnetism, Superconductivity, And Topological Phases Of Matter, Cody Youmans
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Multiband superconducting materials, such as iron pnictides and doped topological insulators, have shown to be particularly promising platforms for realizing unconventional electronic behavior of both fundamental and practical importance. Similarly, new innovations in the engineering of gapped topological phases, like semiconductor based Kitaev chains and topological insulator based heterostructures, have opened new directions for solidstate design. Central to much of the excitement generated by such multifaceted electronic systems is a rich interplay between various inherent structural ordering tendencies and topologically nontrivial properties.
In some classes of pnictides, spin density wave order coexists with superconductivity over a range of doping and ...
Physics And Mathematics Of Graded Quivers, Azeem Hasan
Physics And Mathematics Of Graded Quivers, Azeem Hasan
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
A graded quiver with superpotential is a quiver whose arrows are assigned degrees c ∈ {0, 1, · · · , m}, for some integer m ≥ 0, with relations generated by a superpotential of degree m − 1. For m = 0, 1, 2, 3 they often describe the open string sector of Dbrane systems; in particular, they capture the physics of D(5 − 2m)branes at local CalabiYau (CY) (m + 2) fold singularities in type IIB string theory. We introduce mdimers, which fully encode the mgraded quivers and their superpotentials, in the case in which the CY (m + 2)folds are toric. A key result is ...
Sequential Discrimination Between NonOrthogonal Quantum States, Dov L. Fields
Sequential Discrimination Between NonOrthogonal Quantum States, Dov L. Fields
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
The problem of discriminating between nonorthogonal states is one that has generated a lot of interest. This basic formalism is useful in many areas of quantum information. It serves as a fundamental basis for many quantum key distribution schemes, it functions as an integral part of other quantum algorithms, and it is useful in experimental settings where orthogonal states are not always possible to generate. Additionally, the discrimination problem reveals important fundamental properties, and is intrinsically related to entanglement. In this thesis, the focus is on exploring the problem of sequentially discriminating between nonorthogonal states. In the simplest version these ...
Inference Of Language Functional Network In Healthy, Cancerous And Bilingual Brains By Fmri And Network Modeling, Qiongge Li
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
We study the underlying mechanism by which language processing occurs in the human brain using inference methods on functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The data analyzed stems from several cohorts of subjects; a monolingual group, a bilingual group, a healthy control group and one diseased case. We applied a complex statistical inference pipeline to determine the network structure of brain components involved with language. This healthy network reveals a fully connected triangular relationship between the preSupplementary Motor Area (preSMA), the Broca's Area (BA), and the ventral PreMotor Area (PreMA) in the left hemisphere. This "triangle'' shows consistently in all ...
Coulomb Excitation And Transport Properties Of Monolayer Graphene And The AlphaT3 Lattice, Dipendra Dahal
Coulomb Excitation And Transport Properties Of Monolayer Graphene And The AlphaT3 Lattice, Dipendra Dahal
Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
In the past few years, I focused my attention in the study of 2D material's behavior, specifically graphene . We investigated several properties of graphene like transmission of particle through a potential barrier and demonstrated the effect of band gap to suppress the Klein tunneling at head on collision, we presented the results to get the criteria of negative refractive index and Klein tunneling through multiple barrier. Next, we have carried out the calculation of polarization function of graphene in the presence of magnetic field. The effect of integer Landau filling factor is shown and the portrayed results are presented ...
Optimization Of Information Storage With Quantum Walks, Gui Zhen Lu
Optimization Of Information Storage With Quantum Walks, Gui Zhen Lu
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
A fourvertex quantum graph was analyzed with the objective of storing the highest ampli tude of an incoming qubit. The procedure included the use of phase shifters to allow the user to store and release information when he or she chooses. Several parameters, such as the phase shift, location of the phase shifter, the size and shape of the binding graph and initial incoming state were varied independently to optimize the storage capacity of the graph.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization Of Dynamics In Novel Electrochemical Materials, Christopher T. Mallia
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization Of Dynamics In Novel Electrochemical Materials, Christopher T. Mallia
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
As our daily use of electronics and electronic technology grows, so does the societal need for sustainable, renewable and portable electrical power. To this end, materials of interest in the electrochemical world are needed to advance the frontier of battery science and energy storage technologies so that a safer, more efficient and reliable electrical future can be realized. This work focuses on characterization of materials primarily of interest for use as electrolytes in rechargeable LithiumIon Batteries (LIBs). Despite their extraordinary power, LIB application in certain fields, such as in electric vehicles, has been limited due to performance and safety concerns ...