Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Particle Dynamics In Anti-De Sitter Space By Eih Method, Jiusi Lei Sep 2020

Particle Dynamics In Anti-De Sitter Space By Eih Method, Jiusi Lei

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Following the work of Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann, we show that particle dynamics in Anti-de Sitter spacetime can be built up by regarding singularities in spacetime manifold as the source of particles.

Since gauge fields play a foundational role in the action, the singularities are chosen to be point-like instantons. Their winding number, defined by an integration on the spheres surrounding those singularities, will turn out to be related to their masses. And their action, derived from the Chern-Simons forms, will be a co-adjoint orbit action, with group element g ∈ SO(4, 2) describing the collective coordinates of the particle ...


Small-X Qcd Calculations With A Biased Ensemble, Gary Kapilevich Jun 2020

Small-X Qcd Calculations With A Biased Ensemble, Gary Kapilevich

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation, I will argue that we can study functional fluctuations in unintegrated gluon distributions, in the MV model as well as JIMWLK, using reweighting techniques, which will allow me to calculate QCD observables with "biased ensembles". This technique will enable me to study rare functional configurations of the gluon distributions, that might have been selected for in, for example, the centrality criteria used by the ATLAS and ALICE collaborations. After a review of these techniques, as well as a review of QCD physics at high energy in general, I will use biased ensembles to compute observables in two ...


Generalized Four-Dimensional Effective Hadronic Supersymmetry Based On Quantum Chromodynamics (Qcd), Enxi Yu Jun 2020

Generalized Four-Dimensional Effective Hadronic Supersymmetry Based On Quantum Chromodynamics (Qcd), Enxi Yu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

New discovery in multiple laboratories around the globe has shown a supersymmetry between hadrons—baryons and mesons. In order to generalize the phenomenological hadronic supersymmetry, the spin-flavor SU(6) symmetry need an extension. This thesis present how we can extend SU(6) symmetry so that hadronic supersymmetry can be included. In the future, this extension can be also applied to pentaquark and tetraquark bags, for which there is an ongoing research in laboratories.


On Different Parametrizations Of Feynman Integrals, Ray Daniel Sameshima Sep 2019

On Different Parametrizations Of Feynman Integrals, Ray Daniel Sameshima

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this doctoral thesis, we discuss and apply advanced techniques for the calculations of scattering amplitudes which, on the one hand, allow us to compute cross sections and differential distributions at high precision and, on the other hand, give us deep mathematical insights on the mathematical structures of Feynman integrals.

We start by presenting phenomenological calculations relevant for the experimental analyses at the Large Hadron Collider. We use the resummation of soft gluon emission corrections to study the associated production of a top pair and a Z boson to next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, and compute the total cross section and differential ...


Physics And Mathematics Of Graded Quivers, Azeem Hasan Sep 2019

Physics And Mathematics Of Graded Quivers, Azeem Hasan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A graded quiver with superpotential is a quiver whose arrows are assigned degrees c ∈ {0, 1, · · · , m}, for some integer m ≥ 0, with relations generated by a superpotential of degree m − 1. For m = 0, 1, 2, 3 they often describe the open string sector of D-brane systems; in particular, they capture the physics of D(5 − 2m)-branes at local Calabi-Yau (CY) (m + 2)- fold singularities in type IIB string theory. We introduce m-dimers, which fully encode the m-graded quivers and their superpotentials, in the case in which the CY (m + 2)-folds are toric. A key result is ...


Yields Of Weakly Bound Light Nuclei As A Probe Of The Statistical Hadronization Model, Yiming Cai, Thomas D. Cohen, Boris A. Gelman, Yukari Yamauchi Aug 2019

Yields Of Weakly Bound Light Nuclei As A Probe Of The Statistical Hadronization Model, Yiming Cai, Thomas D. Cohen, Boris A. Gelman, Yukari Yamauchi

Publications and Research

The statistical hadronization model successfully describes the yields of hadrons and light nuclei from central heavy-ion collisions over a wide range of energies. It is a simple and efficient phenomenological framework in which the relative yields for very high energy collisions are essentially determined by a single model parameter—the chemical freeze-out temperature. Recent measurements of yields of hadrons and light nuclei covering over nine orders of magnitudes from the ALICE collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider were described by the model with remarkable accuracy with a chemical freeze-out temperature of 156.5 ± 1.5 MeV. A key physical question ...


Baryons And Interactions In Magnetic Fields, Amol Deshmukh Sep 2018

Baryons And Interactions In Magnetic Fields, Amol Deshmukh

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The QCD external field problem allows one to probe the rich behavior of strongly interacting systems under external conditions, including the modification of hadron structure and interactions due to external electromagnetic fields. These dynamics, moreover, are likely relevant to describe the physics in the interiors of magnetars and in non-central heavy-ion collisions, for which large magnetic fields upwards of $10^{19}$ Gauss are conceivable. Additionally motivated by lattice QCD calculations in external fields, we study the behavior of single- and two-baryon (specifically, two-nucleon) systems in large magnetic fields. The dependence of single-baryon energies on magnetic fields is explored using chiral ...


Supergroups In Critical Dimensions And Division Algebras, Čestmir Burdik, Sultan Catto, Yasemin Gürcan, Amish Khalfan, Levent Kurt, V. Kato La Jan 2017

Supergroups In Critical Dimensions And Division Algebras, Čestmir Burdik, Sultan Catto, Yasemin Gürcan, Amish Khalfan, Levent Kurt, V. Kato La

Publications and Research

We establish a link between classical heterotic strings and the groups of the magic square associated with Jordan algebras, allowing for a uniform treatment of the bosonic and superstring sectors of the heterotic string.


Some 2-Categorical Aspects In Physics, Arthur Parzygnat Sep 2016

Some 2-Categorical Aspects In Physics, Arthur Parzygnat

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

2-categories provide a useful transition point between ordinary category theory and infinity-category theory where one can perform concrete computations for applications in physics and at the same time provide rigorous formalism for mathematical structures appearing in physics. We survey three such broad instances. First, we describe two-dimensional algebra as a means of constructing non-abelian parallel transport along surfaces which can be used to describe strings charged under non-abelian gauge groups in string theory. Second, we formalize the notion of convex and cone categories, provide a preliminary categorical definition of entropy, and exhibit several examples. Thirdly, we provide a universal description ...


New Classical Solutions In Supergravity, Zhibai Zhang Jun 2016

New Classical Solutions In Supergravity, Zhibai Zhang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this Ph.D. thesis we construct three classes of new solutions to supergravity theories in various dimensions and study their properties. The first class is reduction ansatz of 10D and 11D supergravity on Ricci-flat and noncompact manifolds. These reductions are from a scaling limit of the famous spherical reductions, and can be solely supported by warp factors. The second class contains a large number of String/M theory solutions that have Lifshitz or Schrodinger scaling symmetry, obtained from marginally deforming the geometry of internal dimensions of previous solutions. We propose that these new solutions are dual to marginal deformations ...


Unifying Ancient And Modern Geometries Through Octonions, Sultan Catto, Yasemin Gürcan, Amish Khalfan, Levent Kurt Jan 2016

Unifying Ancient And Modern Geometries Through Octonions, Sultan Catto, Yasemin Gürcan, Amish Khalfan, Levent Kurt

Publications and Research

We show the first unified description of some of the oldest known geometries such as the Pappus’ theorem with more modern ones like Desargues’ theorem, Monge’s theorem and Ceva’s theorem, through octonions, the highest normed division algebra in eight dimensions. We also show important applications in hadronic physics, giving a full description of the algebra of color applicable to quark physics, and comment on further applications.


Clifford Algebras And Their Decomposition Into Conjugate Fermionic Heisenberg Algebras, Sultan Catto, Yasemin Gürcan, Amish Khalfan, Levent Kurt, V. Kato La Jan 2016

Clifford Algebras And Their Decomposition Into Conjugate Fermionic Heisenberg Algebras, Sultan Catto, Yasemin Gürcan, Amish Khalfan, Levent Kurt, V. Kato La

Publications and Research

We discuss a construction scheme for Clifford numbers of arbitrary dimension. The scheme is based upon performing direct products of the Pauli spin and identity matrices. Conjugate fermionic algebras can then be formed by considering linear combinations of the Clifford numbers and the Hermitian conjugates of such combinations. Fermionic algebras are important in investigating systems that follow Fermi-Dirac statistics. We will further comment on the applications of Clifford algebras to Fueter analyticity, twistors, color algebras, M-theory and Leech lattice as well as unification of ancient and modern geometries through them.


Boundary Conditions As Dynamical Fields, V. Parameswaran Nair, Dimitra Karabali Dec 2015

Boundary Conditions As Dynamical Fields, V. Parameswaran Nair, Dimitra Karabali

Publications and Research

The possibility of treating boundary conditions in terms of a bilocal dynamical field is formalized in terms of a boundary action. This allows for a simple path-integral perturbation theory approach to physical effects such as radiation from a time-dependent boundary. The nature of the action which governs the dynamics of the bilocal field is investigated for a limited case (which includes the Robin boundary conditions).


D-Brane Instantons As Gauge Instantons In Orientifolds Of Chiral Quiver Theories, Sebastian Franco, Ander Retolaza, Angel Uranga Nov 2015

D-Brane Instantons As Gauge Instantons In Orientifolds Of Chiral Quiver Theories, Sebastian Franco, Ander Retolaza, Angel Uranga

Publications and Research

Systems of D3-branes at orientifold singularities can receive non-perturbative D-brane instanton corrections, inducing field theory operators in the 4d effective theory. In certain non-chiral examples, these systems have been realized as the infrared end point of a Seiberg duality cascade, in which the D-brane instanton effects arise from strong gauge theory dynamics. We present the rst UV duality cascade completion of chiral D3-brane theories, in which the D-brane instantons arise from gauge theory dynamics. Chiral examples are interesting because the instanton fermion zero mode sector is topologically protected, and therefore lead to more robust setups. As an application of our ...


Do All Bps Black Hole Microstates Carry Zero Angular Momentum?, Abishek Chowdhury, Richard S. Garavuso, Swapnamay Mondal, Ashoke Sen Nov 2015

Do All Bps Black Hole Microstates Carry Zero Angular Momentum?, Abishek Chowdhury, Richard S. Garavuso, Swapnamay Mondal, Ashoke Sen

Publications and Research

From the analysis of the near horizon geometry and supersymmetry algebra it has been argued that all the microstates of single centered BPS black holes with four unbroken supersymmetries carry zero angular momentum in the region of the moduli space where the black hole description is valid. A stronger form of the conjecture would be that the result holds for any sufficiently generic point in the moduli space. In this paper we set out to test this conjecture for a class of black hole microstates in type II string theory on T6 , represented by four stacks of D-branes wrapped on ...


2d (0,2) Quiver Gauge Theories And D-Branes, Sebastian Franco, Dongwook Ghim, Sangmin Lee, Rak-Kyeong Seong, Daisuke Yokoyama Sep 2015

2d (0,2) Quiver Gauge Theories And D-Branes, Sebastian Franco, Dongwook Ghim, Sangmin Lee, Rak-Kyeong Seong, Daisuke Yokoyama

Publications and Research

We initiate a systematic study of 2d(0,2) quiver gauge theories on the world-volume of D1-branes probing singular toric Calabi-Yau 4-folds. We present an algorithm for efficiently calculating the classical mesonic moduli spaces of these theories, which cor-respond to the probed geometries. We also introduce a systematic procedure for constructing the gauge theories for arbitrary toric singularities by means of partial resolution, which translates to higgsing in the field theory. Finally, we introduce Brane Brick Models, a novel class of brane configurations that consist of D4-branes suspended from an NS5-brane wrap-ping a holomorphic surface, tessellating a 3-torus. Brane Brick ...


Singly-Spinning Black Rings Ind= 5 U(1)3 Supergravity, H. Lu, C. N. Pope, Justin F. Vázquez-Poritz, Zhibai Zhang Jun 2015

Singly-Spinning Black Rings Ind= 5 U(1)3 Supergravity, H. Lu, C. N. Pope, Justin F. Vázquez-Poritz, Zhibai Zhang

Publications and Research

We construct black ring solutions in five-dimensional U(1)3supergravity which carry three dipole charges, three electric charges and one angular momentum parameter.These solutions are written in a form that is sufficiently compact that their global and thermodynamic properties can be studied explicitly. In particular, we find that the Smarrformula is obeyed regardless of whether or not conical singularities are present, where as the first law of thermodynamics holds only in the absence of conical singularities. We also present black ring solutions with three background magnetic fields.


Initial Conditions In High-Energy Collisions, Elena Petreska Jun 2014

Initial Conditions In High-Energy Collisions, Elena Petreska

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis is focused on the initial stages of high-energy collisions in the saturation regime. We start by extending the McLerran-Venugopalan distribution of color sources in the initial wave-function of nuclei in heavy-ion collisions. We derive a fourth-order operator in the action and discuss its relevance for the description of color charge distributions in protons in high-energy experiments. We calculate the dipole scattering amplitude in proton-proton collisions with the quartic action and find an agreement with experimental data. We also obtain a modification to the fluctuation parameter of the negative binomial distribution of particle multiplicities in proton-proton experiments. The result ...


Yang-Mills Theories As Deformations Of Massive Integrable Models, Axel Cortes Cubero Jun 2014

Yang-Mills Theories As Deformations Of Massive Integrable Models, Axel Cortes Cubero

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Yang Mills theory in 2+1 dimensions can be expressed as an array of coupled (1+1)-dimensional principal chiral sigma models. The SU(N) principal chiral sigma model in 1+1 dimensions is integrable, asymptotically free and has massive excitations. We calculate all the form factors and two- point correlation functions of the Noether current and energy-momentum tensor, in

't Hooft's large-N limit (some form factors can be found even at finite N). We use these new form factors to calculate physical quantities in (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, generalizing previous SU(2) by P. Orland to SU ...


Gauge/ Gravity Correspondence, Bulk Locality And Quantum Black Holes, Debajyoti Sarkar Feb 2014

Gauge/ Gravity Correspondence, Bulk Locality And Quantum Black Holes, Debajyoti Sarkar

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The aim of this dissertation is threefold. We begin by the study of two parallel ideal cosmic strings in the presence of non-minimal scalar fields and spin- 1 gauge fields. We show that the contributions of the non-minimal term on the interaction energy between the strings are similar to that of the gauge field for a particular value of non-minimal coupling parameter. In this context we clarify some of the issues that arise when comparing the renormalization of black hole entropy and entanglement entropy using the replica trick.

In the second part of the dissertation we study the process of ...


Algebraic Formulation Of Hadronic Supersymmetry Based On Octonions: New Mass Formulas And Further Applications, Sultan Catto, Yasemin Gürcan, Amish Khalfan, Levent Kurt Jan 2014

Algebraic Formulation Of Hadronic Supersymmetry Based On Octonions: New Mass Formulas And Further Applications, Sultan Catto, Yasemin Gürcan, Amish Khalfan, Levent Kurt

Publications and Research

A special treatment based on the highest division algebra, that of octonions and their split algebraic formulation is developed for the description of diquark states made up of two quark pairs. We describe symmetry properties of mesons and baryons through such formulation and derive mass formulae relating π, ρ, N and Δ trajectories showing an incredible agreement with experiments. We also comment on formation of diquark-antidiquark as well as pentaquark states and point the way toward applications into multiquark formulations expected to be seen at upcoming CERN experiments. A discussion on relationship of our work to flux bag models, string ...