Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

City University of New York (CUNY)

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 324

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Particle Dynamics In Anti-De Sitter Space By Eih Method, Jiusi Lei Sep 2020

Particle Dynamics In Anti-De Sitter Space By Eih Method, Jiusi Lei

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Following the work of Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann, we show that particle dynamics in Anti-de Sitter spacetime can be built up by regarding singularities in spacetime manifold as the source of particles.

Since gauge fields play a foundational role in the action, the singularities are chosen to be point-like instantons. Their winding number, defined by an integration on the spheres surrounding those singularities, will turn out to be related to their masses. And their action, derived from the Chern-Simons forms, will be a co-adjoint orbit action, with group element g ∈ SO(4, 2) describing the collective coordinates of the particle ...


Wave Propagation In Random And Topological Media, Yuhao Kang Sep 2020

Wave Propagation In Random And Topological Media, Yuhao Kang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis discusses wave propagation in two kinds of systems, random media and topological insulators. In a disordered system, the wave is randomized by multiple scattering. The scattering matrix and associated delay times are powerful tools with which to describe wave transport. We discuss the relation among the Wigner time, the transmission time, and energy density in a lossless or lossy system. We propose the zeros of the transmission matrix and show how to manipulate the zero-transmission mode in a nonunitary system. In a photonic topological insulator, we realize an edge mode and discuss its robustness in the face of ...


An Accurate Solution Of The Self-Similar Orbit-Averaged Fokker-Planck Equation For Core-Collapsing Isotropic Globular Clusters: Properties And Application, Yuta Ito Sep 2020

An Accurate Solution Of The Self-Similar Orbit-Averaged Fokker-Planck Equation For Core-Collapsing Isotropic Globular Clusters: Properties And Application, Yuta Ito

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hundreds of dense star clusters exist in almost all galaxies. Each cluster is composed of approximately ten thousand through ten million stars. The stars orbit in the clusters due to the clusters' self-gravity. Standard stellar dynamics expects that the clusters behave like collisionless self-gravitating systems on short time scales (~ million years) and the stars travel in smooth continuous orbits. Such clusters temporally settle to dynamically stable states or quasi-stationary states (QSS). Two fundamental QSS models are the isothermal- and polytropic- spheres since they have similar structures to the actual core (central part) and halo (outskirt) of the clusters. The two ...


Fabrication Of Magnetocaloric La(Fe,Si)13 Thick Films, N H. Dung, N B. Doan, P De Rango, L Ranno, Karl G. Sandeman, N M. Dempsey Jun 2020

Fabrication Of Magnetocaloric La(Fe,Si)13 Thick Films, N H. Dung, N B. Doan, P De Rango, L Ranno, Karl G. Sandeman, N M. Dempsey

Publications and Research

La(Fe,Si)13–based compounds are considered to be very promising magnetocaloric materials for magnetic refrigeration applications. Many studies have focused on this material family but only in bulk form. In this paper we report on the fabrication of thick films of La(Fe,Si)13, both with and without post-hydriding. These films exhibit magnetic and structural properties comparable to bulk materials. We also observe that the ferromagnetic phase transition has a negative thermal hysteresis, a phenomenon not previously found in this material but which may have its origins in the availability of a strain energy reservoir, as in ...


Generalized Four-Dimensional Effective Hadronic Supersymmetry Based On Quantum Chromodynamics (Qcd), Enxi Yu Jun 2020

Generalized Four-Dimensional Effective Hadronic Supersymmetry Based On Quantum Chromodynamics (Qcd), Enxi Yu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

New discovery in multiple laboratories around the globe has shown a supersymmetry between hadrons—baryons and mesons. In order to generalize the phenomenological hadronic supersymmetry, the spin-flavor SU(6) symmetry need an extension. This thesis present how we can extend SU(6) symmetry so that hadronic supersymmetry can be included. In the future, this extension can be also applied to pentaquark and tetraquark bags, for which there is an ongoing research in laboratories.


Proton Pumping Mechanism In Cytochrome C Oxidase, Xiuhong Cai Jun 2020

Proton Pumping Mechanism In Cytochrome C Oxidase, Xiuhong Cai

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO), is the terminal electron acceptor in the membrane bound aerobic respiratory chain. It reduces O2 to water. The energy released by this reaction is stored by pumping protons from the high pH, N-side of the membrane to the low pH, P-side. The generated proton gradient provides the motive force for synthesis of ATP by the ATP synthase.

Building a proton gradient across the membrane requires that proton transport must occur along controllable proton pathways to prevent proton leakage to the N-side. It has been suggested that CcO function requires proton transfer channels in both the ...


At The Interface Of Algebra And Statistics, Tai-Danae Bradley Jun 2020

At The Interface Of Algebra And Statistics, Tai-Danae Bradley

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis takes inspiration from quantum physics to investigate mathematical structure that lies at the interface of algebra and statistics. The starting point is a passage from classical probability theory to quantum probability theory. The quantum version of a probability distribution is a density operator, the quantum version of marginalizing is an operation called the partial trace, and the quantum version of a marginal probability distribution is a reduced density operator. Every joint probability distribution on a finite set can be modeled as a rank one density operator. By applying the partial trace, we obtain reduced density operators whose diagonals ...


Generating Entanglement With The Dynamical Lamb Effect, Mirko Amico Jun 2020

Generating Entanglement With The Dynamical Lamb Effect, Mirko Amico

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

According to quantum field theory, the vacuum is filled with virtual particles which can be turned into real ones under the influence of external perturbations. Phenomena of this kind are commonly referred to as quantum vacuum phenomena. Several quantum vacuum phenomena related to the peculiar nature of the quantum vacuum have been predicted, some of which, such as the Lamb shift and the Casimir effect, have been experimentally found. Other examples of quantum vacuum phenomena include the Unruh effect, the dynamical Casimir effect and the dynamical Lamb effect. The dynamical Lamb effect was first predicted by considering the situation of ...


Small-X Qcd Calculations With A Biased Ensemble, Gary Kapilevich Jun 2020

Small-X Qcd Calculations With A Biased Ensemble, Gary Kapilevich

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation, I will argue that we can study functional fluctuations in unintegrated gluon distributions, in the MV model as well as JIMWLK, using reweighting techniques, which will allow me to calculate QCD observables with "biased ensembles". This technique will enable me to study rare functional configurations of the gluon distributions, that might have been selected for in, for example, the centrality criteria used by the ATLAS and ALICE collaborations. After a review of these techniques, as well as a review of QCD physics at high energy in general, I will use biased ensembles to compute observables in two ...


Syllabus Ee330 Electromagnetics, Nicholas Madamopoulos Mar 2020

Syllabus Ee330 Electromagnetics, Nicholas Madamopoulos

Open Educational Resources

Concepts covered in the undergraduate electrical engineering class of electromagnetics


Ii-Vi Type-Ii Quantum Dot Superlattices For Novel Applications, Vasilios Deligiannakis Feb 2020

Ii-Vi Type-Ii Quantum Dot Superlattices For Novel Applications, Vasilios Deligiannakis

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this thesis, we discuss the growth procedure and the characterization results obtained for epitaxially grown submonolayer type-II quantum dot superlattices made of II-VI semiconductors. We have investigated the spin dynamics of ZnSe layers with embedded type-II ZnTe quantum dots and the use of (Zn)CdTe/ZnCdSe QDs for intermediate band solar cell (IBSC). Samples with a higher quantum dot density exhibit longer electron spin lifetimes, up to ~1 ns at low temperatures. Tellurium isoelectronic centers, which form in the ZnSe spacer regions as a result of the growth conditions, were also probed. A new growth sequence for type-II (Zn ...


Density Functional Theory Study Of Two-Dimensional Boron Nitride Films, Pradip R. Niraula Feb 2020

Density Functional Theory Study Of Two-Dimensional Boron Nitride Films, Pradip R. Niraula

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since graphene was isolated in 2004, the number of two-dimensional (2D) materials and their scientific relevance have grown exponentially. Besides graphene, one of the most important and technolocially promizing 2D materials that has emerged in recent years is hexagonal boron nitride, in its monolayer or multilayer form. In my thesis work, I used density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate the properties of boron nitride films. In particular, I first studied the properties (i.e. formation energy, defect states, and structure) of point charged defects in monolayer and bilayer hexagonal boron nitride, and subsequently, I focused on the linear and ...


Effect Of Direct-Current Magnetic Field On The Specific Absorption Rate Of Metamagnetic Comnsi: A Potential Approach To Switchable Hyperthermia Therapy, K C. Ugochukwu, M M. Sadiq, E S. Biegel, L Meagher, M R. Hill, Karl G. Sandeman, A Haydon, K Suzuki Jan 2020

Effect Of Direct-Current Magnetic Field On The Specific Absorption Rate Of Metamagnetic Comnsi: A Potential Approach To Switchable Hyperthermia Therapy, K C. Ugochukwu, M M. Sadiq, E S. Biegel, L Meagher, M R. Hill, Karl G. Sandeman, A Haydon, K Suzuki

Publications and Research

Materials with 1st order antiferromagnetic (AFM) to high-magnetization (MM) phase transition known for their inverse magnetocaloric effect, abrupt rise in magnetization and magnetoelastic coupling, are promising for application in combined simultaneous diagnosis and targeted cancer therapy. A therapy that combines alternating-current (ac) and direct-current (dc) magnetic fields for simultaneous magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using same magnetic particles for heating and as con- trast agents. We report a proof-of-concept study on the induction heating ability of 1st order metamagnetic material with moderate specific absorption rates (SAR) and no tendency for agglomeration, for potential MHT and MRI ...


Optical Potts Machine Through Networks Of Three-Photon Down-Conversion Oscillators, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Mohammad-Ali Miri Jan 2020

Optical Potts Machine Through Networks Of Three-Photon Down-Conversion Oscillators, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Mohammad-Ali Miri

Publications and Research

In recent years there has been a growing interest in optical simulation of lattice spin models for applications in classical computing. Here, we propose optical implementation of a three-state Potts spin model by using networks of coupled parametric oscillators with phase tristability. We first show that the cubic nonlinear process of spontaneous three-photon down-conversion is accompanied by a tristability in the phase of the subharmonic signal between three states with 2��/3 phase contrast. The phase of such a parametric oscillator behaves like a three-state spin system. Next, we show that a network of dissipatively coupled three-photon down-conversion oscillators emulates ...


An Application Of The Ising Model, Juliano A. Everett Dec 2019

An Application Of The Ising Model, Juliano A. Everett

Publications and Research

Understanding how the Ising model works,what it represents, and how it can be applied to neurology. Given that an Ising model is an Entropy model that could be representative of the firing of neurons, some assumptions of the system are made and then the process is simulated through Monte Carlo methods.


Static Solid Relaxation Ordered Spectroscopy: Ss-Rosy, Gregory S. Boutis, Ravinath Kausik Nov 2019

Static Solid Relaxation Ordered Spectroscopy: Ss-Rosy, Gregory S. Boutis, Ravinath Kausik

Publications and Research

A two-dimensional pulse sequence is introduced for correlating nuclear magnetic resonance anisotropic chemical shifts to a relaxation time (e.g., T1) in solids under static conditions. The sequence begins with a preparatory stage for measuring relaxation times, and is followed by a multiple pulse sequence for homonuclear dipolar decoupling. Data analysis involves the use of Fourier transform, followed by a one-dimensional inverse Laplace transform for each frequency index. Experimental results acquired on solid samples demonstrate the general approach, and additional variations involving heteronuclear decoupling and magic angle spinning are discussed.


Biophysics In Applications, Marilyn R. Gunner Oct 2019

Biophysics In Applications, Marilyn R. Gunner

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


On Different Parametrizations Of Feynman Integrals, Ray Daniel Sameshima Sep 2019

On Different Parametrizations Of Feynman Integrals, Ray Daniel Sameshima

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this doctoral thesis, we discuss and apply advanced techniques for the calculations of scattering amplitudes which, on the one hand, allow us to compute cross sections and differential distributions at high precision and, on the other hand, give us deep mathematical insights on the mathematical structures of Feynman integrals.

We start by presenting phenomenological calculations relevant for the experimental analyses at the Large Hadron Collider. We use the resummation of soft gluon emission corrections to study the associated production of a top pair and a Z boson to next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, and compute the total cross section and differential ...


Inference Of Language Functional Network In Healthy, Cancerous And Bilingual Brains By Fmri And Network Modeling, Qiongge Li Sep 2019

Inference Of Language Functional Network In Healthy, Cancerous And Bilingual Brains By Fmri And Network Modeling, Qiongge Li

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We study the underlying mechanism by which language processing occurs in the human brain using inference methods on functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The data analyzed stems from several cohorts of subjects; a monolingual group, a bilingual group, a healthy control group and one diseased case. We applied a complex statistical inference pipeline to determine the network structure of brain components involved with language. This healthy network reveals a fully connected triangular relationship between the pre-Supplementary Motor Area (pre-SMA), the Broca's Area (BA), and the ventral Pre-Motor Area (PreMA) in the left hemisphere. This "triangle'' shows consistently in all ...


Optical And Collective Properties Of Excitons In 2d Semiconductors, Matthew N. Brunetti Sep 2019

Optical And Collective Properties Of Excitons In 2d Semiconductors, Matthew N. Brunetti

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We study the properties of excitons in 2D semiconductors (2DSC) by numerically solving the Schr\"{o}dinger equation for an interacting electron and hole in the effective mass approximation, then calculating optical properties such as the transition energies, oscillator strengths, and absorption coefficients. Our theoretical approach allows us to consider both direct excitons in monolayer (ML) 2DSC and spatially indirect excitons in heterostructures (HS) consisting of two 2DSC MLs separated by few-layer insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In particular, we study indirect excitons in TMDC HS, namely MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2; both direct and ...


Stability And Application Of The K-Core Dynamical Model To Biological Networks, Francesca Beatrice Arese Lucini Sep 2019

Stability And Application Of The K-Core Dynamical Model To Biological Networks, Francesca Beatrice Arese Lucini

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The objective of the dissertation is to illustrate the importance of the k-core dynamical model, by first presenting the stability analysis of the nonlinear k-core model and compare its solution to the most widely used linear model. Second, I show a real world application of the k-core model to describe properties of neural networks, specifically, the transition from conscious to subliminal perception.


Physics And Mathematics Of Graded Quivers, Azeem Hasan Sep 2019

Physics And Mathematics Of Graded Quivers, Azeem Hasan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A graded quiver with superpotential is a quiver whose arrows are assigned degrees c ∈ {0, 1, · · · , m}, for some integer m ≥ 0, with relations generated by a superpotential of degree m − 1. For m = 0, 1, 2, 3 they often describe the open string sector of D-brane systems; in particular, they capture the physics of D(5 − 2m)-branes at local Calabi-Yau (CY) (m + 2)- fold singularities in type IIB string theory. We introduce m-dimers, which fully encode the m-graded quivers and their superpotentials, in the case in which the CY (m + 2)-folds are toric. A key result is ...


Sequential Discrimination Between Non-Orthogonal Quantum States, Dov L. Fields Sep 2019

Sequential Discrimination Between Non-Orthogonal Quantum States, Dov L. Fields

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The problem of discriminating between non-orthogonal states is one that has generated a lot of interest. This basic formalism is useful in many areas of quantum information. It serves as a fundamental basis for many quantum key distribution schemes, it functions as an integral part of other quantum algorithms, and it is useful in experimental settings where orthogonal states are not always possible to generate. Additionally, the discrimination problem reveals important fundamental properties, and is intrinsically related to entanglement. In this thesis, the focus is on exploring the problem of sequentially discriminating between non-orthogonal states. In the simplest version these ...


Coulomb Excitation And Transport Properties Of Monolayer Graphene And The Alpha-T3 Lattice, Dipendra Dahal Sep 2019

Coulomb Excitation And Transport Properties Of Monolayer Graphene And The Alpha-T3 Lattice, Dipendra Dahal

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the past few years, I focused my attention in the study of 2D material's behavior, specifically graphene . We investigated several properties of graphene like transmission of particle through a potential barrier and demonstrated the effect of band gap to suppress the Klein tunneling at head on collision, we presented the results to get the criteria of negative refractive index and Klein tunneling through multiple barrier. Next, we have carried out the calculation of polarization function of graphene in the presence of magnetic field. The effect of integer Landau filling factor is shown and the portrayed results are presented ...


Yields Of Weakly Bound Light Nuclei As A Probe Of The Statistical Hadronization Model, Yiming Cai, Thomas D. Cohen, Boris A. Gelman, Yukari Yamauchi Aug 2019

Yields Of Weakly Bound Light Nuclei As A Probe Of The Statistical Hadronization Model, Yiming Cai, Thomas D. Cohen, Boris A. Gelman, Yukari Yamauchi

Publications and Research

The statistical hadronization model successfully describes the yields of hadrons and light nuclei from central heavy-ion collisions over a wide range of energies. It is a simple and efficient phenomenological framework in which the relative yields for very high energy collisions are essentially determined by a single model parameter—the chemical freeze-out temperature. Recent measurements of yields of hadrons and light nuclei covering over nine orders of magnitudes from the ALICE collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider were described by the model with remarkable accuracy with a chemical freeze-out temperature of 156.5 ± 1.5 MeV. A key physical question ...


Rocketry And Observability Predictions For Cubesat, Juliano A. Everett Aug 2019

Rocketry And Observability Predictions For Cubesat, Juliano A. Everett

Publications and Research

Estimating the visibility of Sunlight reflected by the holographic retro-reflector of Cubesat Alpha, and to convert this to star apparent magnitude to learn more about the visibility of these sails through reflected sunlight, to in turn determine if glints of these holograms are visible by terrestrial observers.


Optimization Of Information Storage With Quantum Walks, Gui Zhen Lu Jun 2019

Optimization Of Information Storage With Quantum Walks, Gui Zhen Lu

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

A four-vertex quantum graph was analyzed with the objective of storing the highest ampli- tude of an incoming qubit. The procedure included the use of phase shifters to allow the user to store and release information when he or she chooses. Several parameters, such as the phase shift, location of the phase shifter, the size and shape of the binding graph and initial incoming state were varied independently to optimize the storage capacity of the graph.


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization Of Dynamics In Novel Electrochemical Materials, Christopher T. Mallia May 2019

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization Of Dynamics In Novel Electrochemical Materials, Christopher T. Mallia

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

As our daily use of electronics and electronic technology grows, so does the societal need for sustainable, renewable and portable electrical power. To this end, materials of interest in the electrochemical world are needed to advance the frontier of battery science and energy storage technologies so that a safer, more efficient and reliable electrical future can be realized. This work focuses on characterization of materials primarily of interest for use as electrolytes in rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs). Despite their extraordinary power, LIB application in certain fields, such as in electric vehicles, has been limited due to performance and safety concerns ...


Topological Insulating States In Photonics And Acoustics, Xiang Ni May 2019

Topological Insulating States In Photonics And Acoustics, Xiang Ni

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Recent surge of interest in topological insulators, insulating in their interior but conducting at the surfaces or interfaces of different domains, has led to the discovery of a variety of new topological states, and their topological invariants are characterized by numerous approaches in the category of topological band theory. The common features shared by topological insulators include, the topological phase transition occurs if the bulk bandgap is formed due to the symmetries reduction, the topological invariants exist characterizing the global properties of the material and inherently robust to disorder and continuous perturbations irrespective of the local details. Most importantly, these ...


Exploring A Practical Development Of Quantum Computing, Juliano A. Everett, Andrea N. Zambrano, Carlos Aguayza Apr 2019

Exploring A Practical Development Of Quantum Computing, Juliano A. Everett, Andrea N. Zambrano, Carlos Aguayza

Publications and Research

Tasked with describing a Quantum architecture (Superconducting loops), we additionally explored how the chosen architecture is used, developed, and how one could get started in understanding the way in which some quantum algorithms work with this architecture through Python and IBM's tools (Qiskit and IBM Q Experience).