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## Full-Text Articles in Physics

Low-Energy Nondipole Effects In Molecular Nitrogen Valence-Shell Photoionization, Oliver Hemmers, Renaud Guillemin, D. Rolles, A. Wolska, Dennis W. Lindle, E. P. Kanter, B. Krassig, S. H. Southworth, R. Wehlitz, B. Zimmermann, V. Mckoy, P. W. Langhoff

#### Low-Energy Nondipole Effects In Molecular Nitrogen Valence-Shell Photoionization, Oliver Hemmers, Renaud Guillemin, D. Rolles, A. Wolska, Dennis W. Lindle, E. P. Kanter, B. Krassig, S. H. Southworth, R. Wehlitz, B. Zimmermann, V. Mckoy, P. W. Langhoff

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

Observations are reported for the first time of significant nondipole effects in the photoionization of the outer-valence orbitals of diatomic molecules. Measured nondipole angular-distribution parameters for the 3σ_{g}, 1π_{u}, and 2σ_{u} shells of N_{2} exhibit spectral variations with incident photon energies from thresholds to ∼200 eV which are attributed via concomitant calculations to particular final-state symmetry waves arising from (E1)⊗(M1,E2) radiation-matter interactions first-order in photon momentum. Comparisons with previously reported K-edge studies in N_{2} verify linear scaling with photon momentum, accounting in part for the significantly enhanced nondipole behavior observed in inner-shell ionization ...

Nondipole Effects In The Photoionization Of Xe 4d5/2 And 4d3/2: Evidence For Quadrupole Satellites, Oliver Hemmers, Renaud Guillemin, D. Rolles, A. Wolska, Dennis W. Lindle, K. T. Cheng, W. R. Johnson, H. L. Zhou, S. T. Manson

#### Nondipole Effects In The Photoionization Of Xe 4d5/2 And 4d3/2: Evidence For Quadrupole Satellites, Oliver Hemmers, Renaud Guillemin, D. Rolles, A. Wolska, Dennis W. Lindle, K. T. Cheng, W. R. Johnson, H. L. Zhou, S. T. Manson

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

Measurements of nondipole parameters in spin-orbit-resolved Xe 4d photoionization demonstrate dynamical differences arising from relativistic effects. The experimental data do not agree with relativistic random-phase approximation calculations of single ionization dipole and quadrupole channels. It is suggested that the discrepancy is due to the omission of multiple-excitation quadrupole channels, i.e., quadrupole satellite transitions.

Dramatic Nondipole Effects In Low-Energy Photoionization: Experimental And Theoretical Study Of Xe 5s, Oliver Hemmers, Renaud Guillemin, E. P. Kanter, B. Krassig, Dennis W. Lindle, S. H. Southworth, R. Wehlitz, J. Baker, A. C. Hudson, M. Lotrakul, D. Rolles, Wayne C. Stolte, I. Tran, A. Wolska, S. Yu, M. Ya Amusia, K. T. Cheng, L. V. Chernysheva, W. R. Johnson, S. T. Manson

#### Dramatic Nondipole Effects In Low-Energy Photoionization: Experimental And Theoretical Study Of Xe 5s, Oliver Hemmers, Renaud Guillemin, E. P. Kanter, B. Krassig, Dennis W. Lindle, S. H. Southworth, R. Wehlitz, J. Baker, A. C. Hudson, M. Lotrakul, D. Rolles, Wayne C. Stolte, I. Tran, A. Wolska, S. Yu, M. Ya Amusia, K. T. Cheng, L. V. Chernysheva, W. R. Johnson, S. T. Manson

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

The Xe 5s nondipole photoelectron parameter γ is obtained experimentally and theoretically from threshold to ∼200 eV photon energy. Significant nondipole effects are seen even in the threshold region of this valence shell photoionization. In addition, contrary to previous understanding, clear evidence of interchannel coupling among quadrupole photoionization channels is found.

E1-E2 Interference In The Vuv Photoionization Of He, E. P. Kanter, B. Krassig, S. H. Southworth, Renaud Guillemin, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle, R. Wehlitz, M. Ya Amusia, L. V. Chernysheva, N. L. S. Martin

#### E1-E2 Interference In The Vuv Photoionization Of He, E. P. Kanter, B. Krassig, S. H. Southworth, Renaud Guillemin, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle, R. Wehlitz, M. Ya Amusia, L. V. Chernysheva, N. L. S. Martin

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

We have measured the forward-backward asymmetry of photoelectron angular distributions produced in the vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of helium. This asymmetry, a consequence of the breakdown of the dipole approximation, measures the real part of the ratio of the quadrupole and dipole matrix elements. In the autoionization region, the strong energy dependence of the asymmetry permits an experimental separation of the ratio of those magnitudes from their phase difference. We experimentally determined the Fano parameters of the 2p^{2}^{1}D_{2} quadrupole resonance, and report improved values of the width Γ and line profile parameter q from those previously available ...

Non-Dipolar Electron Angular Distributions From Fixed-In-Space Molecules, Renaud Guillemin, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle, E. Shigemasa, K. Le Guen, D. Ceolin, C. Miron, N. Leclercq, P. Morin, Marc Simon, P. W. Langhoff

#### Non-Dipolar Electron Angular Distributions From Fixed-In-Space Molecules, Renaud Guillemin, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle, E. Shigemasa, K. Le Guen, D. Ceolin, C. Miron, N. Leclercq, P. Morin, Marc Simon, P. W. Langhoff

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

The first indication of nondipole effects in the azimuthal dependence of photoelectron angular distributions emitted from fixed-in-space molecules is demonstrated in N_{2}. Comparison of the results with angular distributions observed for randomly oriented molecules and theoretical derivations for the nondipole correction first order in photon momentum suggests that higher orders will be needed to describe distributions measured in the molecular frame.

Photoexcitation Of A Dipole-Forbidden Resonance In Helium, B. Krassig, E. P. Kanter, S. H. Southworth, Renaud Guillemin, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle, R. Wehlitz, N. L. S. Martin

#### Photoexcitation Of A Dipole-Forbidden Resonance In Helium, B. Krassig, E. P. Kanter, S. H. Southworth, Renaud Guillemin, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle, R. Wehlitz, N. L. S. Martin

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

We have observed photoexcitation of the dipole-forbidden 1s^{2}^{1}S_{0}→2p^{2}^{1}D_{2} resonance in helium by measuring the nondipolar forward-backward asymmetry of photoelectron angular distributions in the 2ℓ2ℓ^{′} autoionizing region. By exploiting the electric dipole-quadrupole interference in the excitation of both the 2s2p^{1}P_{1} and 2p^{2}^{1}D_{2} levels, we have observed the quadrupole resonance in photoabsorption and extracted its Fano line shape parameters and the relative phase of the 1sEp and 1sEd continua. We find the quadrupole line profile index q_{2} to be markedly different from theoretical expectations.

Large Nondipole Effects In The Angular Distributions Of K-Shell Photoelectrons From Molecular Nitrogen, Oliver Hemmers, H. Wang, P. Focke, I. A. Sellin, Dennis W. Lindle, J. C. Arce, J. A. Sheehy, P. W. Langhoff

#### Large Nondipole Effects In The Angular Distributions Of K-Shell Photoelectrons From Molecular Nitrogen, Oliver Hemmers, H. Wang, P. Focke, I. A. Sellin, Dennis W. Lindle, J. C. Arce, J. A. Sheehy, P. W. Langhoff

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

Measurements of angular distributions of K-shell electrons photoejected from molecular nitrogen are reported which reveal large deviations at relatively low photon energies ( ħω≤500eV) from emission patterns anticipated from the dipole approximation to interactions between radiation and matter. A concomitant theoretical analysis incorporating the effects of electromagnetic retardation attributes the observed large nondipole behaviors in N_{2} to bond-length-dependent terms in the E1⊗(E2,M1) photoelectron emission amplitudes which are indicative of a potentially universal nondipole behavior in molecular photoionization.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy And The Dipole Approximation, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle

#### Photoelectron Spectroscopy And The Dipole Approximation, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

Over the past three decades, the dipole approximation has facilitated a basic understanding of the photoionization process in atoms and molecules. Advances in gas-phase photoemission experiments using synchrotron radiation have recently highlighted nondipole effects at relatively low photon energies while probing the limits of the dipole approximation. Breakdowns in this approximation are manifested primarily as deviations from dipolar angular distributions of photoelectrons. Detailed new results demonstrate nondipolar angular-distribution effects are easily observable in atomic gases at energies well below 1 keV, and, in molecules, a previously unexpected phenomenon greatly enhances the breakdown of the dipole approximation just above the core-level ...

Beyond The Dipole Approximation: Angular-Distribution Effects In The 1s Photoemission From Small Molecules, Dennis W. Lindle, Oliver Hemmers, H. Wang, P. Focke, I. A. Sellin, J. D. Mills, J. A. Sheehy, P. W. Langhoff

#### Beyond The Dipole Approximation: Angular-Distribution Effects In The 1s Photoemission From Small Molecules, Dennis W. Lindle, Oliver Hemmers, H. Wang, P. Focke, I. A. Sellin, J. D. Mills, J. A. Sheehy, P. W. Langhoff

*Environmental Studies Faculty Publications*

Over the past two decades, the dipole approximation has facilitated a basic understanding of the photoionization process in atoms and molecules. Recent experiments on the 1*s* inner shells of small molecules at relatively low photon energies (⩽ 1000 eV) show strong nondipole effects. They are significant and measurable at energies close to threshold, in conflict with a common assumption that the dipole approximation is valid for photon energies below 1 keV.