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Physical Chemistry

2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 37

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Hydrogen Bond-Mediated Structural Order In Hydroxylated Bis-Mpa Dendritic Polymers: Experimental And Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study, Maliha N. Syed Dec 2015

Hydrogen Bond-Mediated Structural Order In Hydroxylated Bis-Mpa Dendritic Polymers: Experimental And Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study, Maliha N. Syed

Dissertations

Dendritic architectures are echoed throughout nature. While the significance of these pervasive patterns is not entirely clear, connections between their structures and physical properties are fascinating to contemplate. Particular interest has been paid to a family of synthetically manufactured and commercially available dendritic polymers based on 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) as a monomer. Composed of two hydroxyls and a carboxyl group, bis-MPA based structures hydrogen bond (H-bond) profusely. Given the high concentration and unique spatial orientation of end-groups, as well as the multitude of carbonyl, ester, and ether interior H-bond acceptors, a set of distinct H-bond organizations may ...


Crystal Structure Of The Alcanivorax Borkumensis Ydah Transporter Reveals An Unusual Topology, Jani Reddy Bolla, Chih-Chia Su, Jared A. Delmar, Pattathil Radhakrishnan, Nitin Kumar, Tsung-Han Chou, Feng Long, Kanagalaghatta R. Rajashankar, Edward Yu Dec 2015

Crystal Structure Of The Alcanivorax Borkumensis Ydah Transporter Reveals An Unusual Topology, Jani Reddy Bolla, Chih-Chia Su, Jared A. Delmar, Pattathil Radhakrishnan, Nitin Kumar, Tsung-Han Chou, Feng Long, Kanagalaghatta R. Rajashankar, Edward Yu

Edward Yu

The potential of the folic acid biosynthesis pathway as a target for the development of antibiotics has been clinically validated. However, many pathogens have developed resistance to these antibiotics, prompting a re-evaluation of potential drug targets within the pathway. The ydaH gene of Alcanivorax borkumensis encodes an integral membrane protein of the AbgT family of transporters for which no structural information was available. Here we report the crystal structure of A. borkumensis YdaH, revealing a dimeric molecule with an architecture distinct from other families of transporters. YdaH is a bowl-shaped dimer with a solvent-filled basin extending from the cytoplasm to ...


Statistical Biophysics Blog: Faq On Trajectory Ensembles, Daniel M. Zuckerman Nov 2015

Statistical Biophysics Blog: Faq On Trajectory Ensembles, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

The basics of trajectories and the different types of trajectory ensembles are explained.


Energy-Efficient Computational Chemistry: Comparison Of X86 And Arm Systems, Kristopher Keipert, Gaurav Mitra, Vaibhav Sunriyal, Sarom S. Leang, Masha Sosonkina, Alistair P. Rendell, Mark S. Gordon Nov 2015

Energy-Efficient Computational Chemistry: Comparison Of X86 And Arm Systems, Kristopher Keipert, Gaurav Mitra, Vaibhav Sunriyal, Sarom S. Leang, Masha Sosonkina, Alistair P. Rendell, Mark S. Gordon

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Faculty Publications

The computational efficiency and energy-to-solution of several applications using the GAMESS quantum chemistry suite of codes is evaluated for 32-bit and 64-bit ARM-based computers, and compared to an x86 machine. The x86 system completes all benchmark computations more quickly than either ARM system and is the best choice to minimize time to solution. The ARM64 and ARM32 computational performances are similar to each other for Hartree-Fock and density functional theory energy calculations. However, for memory-intensive second-order perturbation theory energy and gradient computations the lower ARM32 read/write memory bandwidth results in computation times as much as 86% longer than on ...


Fused-Molecular Systems For Organic Light Emitting Diodes, Avinash Jami Oct 2015

Fused-Molecular Systems For Organic Light Emitting Diodes, Avinash Jami

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are electronic devices made by sandwitching organic light emissive materials between two electrodes. When voltage is applied across the two conductors, a bright light is generated. The color of the emitting light depends on the band gap of the semiconducting material. The work described here focuses on designing and synthesizing narrow band gap molecular systems derived from fused-arene derivatives for producing organic blue light emitting diodes. Three molecular systems derived from anthracene, pyrene, and carbazole, were designed and synthesized. Two molecular systems of anthracen-9-ylmethyl anthracene-9- carboxylate and pyren-1-ylmethyl 4-bromobenzoate were synthesized through Steglich esterification reaction ...


Gas-Phase Electron Diffraction From Laser-Aligned Molecules, Jie Yang, Martin Centurion Aug 2015

Gas-Phase Electron Diffraction From Laser-Aligned Molecules, Jie Yang, Martin Centurion

Martin Centurion Publications

Electron diffraction is a valuable tool to capture structural information from molecules in the gas phase. However, the information contained in the diffraction patterns is limited due to the random orientation of the molecules. Additional structural information can be retrieved if the molecules are aligned. Molecules can be impulsively aligned with femtosecond laser pulses, producing a transient alignment. The alignment persists only for a time on the order of a picosecond, so a pulsed electron gun is needed to record the diffraction patterns. In this manuscript, we describe the alignment process and show the changes in the diffraction pattern as ...


Statistical Biophysics Blog: Everything Is Markovian; Nothing Is Markovian, Daniel M. Zuckerman Jul 2015

Statistical Biophysics Blog: Everything Is Markovian; Nothing Is Markovian, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

Most behavior, observed via a subset of coordinates or discretized states, should not be Markovian even though the underlying dynamics generally will be.


A Lego® Brewster Angle Microscope For Quantitative Monolayer Film Analysis, Nicholas Benz Jul 2015

A Lego® Brewster Angle Microscope For Quantitative Monolayer Film Analysis, Nicholas Benz

Physics

In order to study single-molecule thick films and their phase behavior we built a Brewster Angle Microscope (BAM). BAM’s are inherently expensive due to their accuracy and precision. We built a fully functional BAM using Lego® Mindstorm® kits for the fraction of the price of a commercial BAM. And by utilizing the 10µm patented Lego® tolerance, comparable accuracy was attained. The BAM was mounted to a Langmuir-trough and will be used for laboratory experiments for optics and physical chemistry along with research on lung surfactant and on liquid crystals.


Plotting The Van Der Waals Fluid In Pseudo-3d And The Maxwell Construction, Carl W. David Jul 2015

Plotting The Van Der Waals Fluid In Pseudo-3d And The Maxwell Construction, Carl W. David

Chemistry Education Materials

The van der Waals (from his thesis of 1873) equation is a cubic in the molar volume. Plotting the equation in pseudo 3 dimensions is quite simple to do, but including tie lines is quite difficult. Employing the solutions to the cubic van der Waals equation, the tie lines are readily available and can be easily incorporated into the aforementioned 3D plots.


Titanium Trisulfide Monolayer: Theoretical Prediction Of A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor With High And Anisotropic Carrier Mobility, Jun Dai, Xiao Cheng Zeng Jun 2015

Titanium Trisulfide Monolayer: Theoretical Prediction Of A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor With High And Anisotropic Carrier Mobility, Jun Dai, Xiao Cheng Zeng

Xiao Cheng Zeng Publications

A new two-dimensional (2D) layered material, namely, titanium trisulfide (TiS3) monolayer, is predicted to possess novel electronic properties. Ab initio calculations show that the perfect TiS3 monolayer is a direct-gap semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.02 eV, close to that of bulk silicon, and with high carrier mobility. More remarkably, the in-plane electron mobility of the 2D TiS3 is highly anisotropic, amounting to about 10,000 cm2 V−1 s−1 in the b direction, which is higher than that of the MoS2 monolayer, whereas the hole mobility is about two orders of magnitude ...


Ab Initio Study Of Formazan And 3-Nitroformazan, G. Buemi, F. Zuccarello, P. Venuvanalingam, M. Ramalingam, Salai Ammal May 2015

Ab Initio Study Of Formazan And 3-Nitroformazan, G. Buemi, F. Zuccarello, P. Venuvanalingam, M. Ramalingam, Salai Ammal

Salai C. Ammal

Formazan and 3-nitroformazan have been investigated at abinitio level (MP2/6-31G** and B3LYP/6-31G**) in all their possible conformations, for studying the various possibilities of intramolecular hydrogen bonding formation. The trans-syn-s-cis (TSSC), known also asyellowform, has been found to be the most stable conformer (at least in the gas phase) in both compounds. This particular structure is strongly stabilized by a N–H···N hydrogen bridge, which gives rise to a hexatomic chelate ring, with the possibility of a proton transfer process.This closely resembles that of malondialdehyde, previously studied, in the evolution of the potential energy shape but with ...


Dynamic Path Bifurcation For The Beckmann Reaction: Observation And Implication, H. Yamataka, M. Sato, H. Hasegawa, Salai Ammal May 2015

Dynamic Path Bifurcation For The Beckmann Reaction: Observation And Implication, H. Yamataka, M. Sato, H. Hasegawa, Salai Ammal

Salai C. Ammal

The reaction of oximes to amides, known as the Beckmann rearrangement, may undergo fragmentation to form carbocations + nitriles instead of amides when the cations have reasonable stability. The reactions of oxime derivatives of 1-substituted-phenyl-2-propanones and 3-substituted-phenyl-2-butanones in aqueous solvents gave both rearrangement and fragmentation products, the ratio of which was dependent on substituents. Transition state (TS) optimizations and intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations for the reaction of 1-phenyl-2-propanone oximes showed that there is a single TS for each substituted compound. The IRC path from the TS either led to a rearrangement product or a fragmentation product depending on the substituent ...


Ab Initio And Dft Investigations Of Lithium/Hydrogen Bonded Complexes Of Trimethylamine, Dimethyl Ether And Dimethyl Sulfide, Salai Ammal, P. Venuvanalingam May 2015

Ab Initio And Dft Investigations Of Lithium/Hydrogen Bonded Complexes Of Trimethylamine, Dimethyl Ether And Dimethyl Sulfide, Salai Ammal, P. Venuvanalingam

Salai C. Ammal

Ab initio and DFT computations have been carried out on LiF and HF complexes of a set of n-donors viz. trimethylamine, dimethyl ether and dimethyl sulfide with a 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The effect of correlation has been included with MP2, MP4 and DFT calculations. NBO analyses of the wavefunctions have been performed to examine the intermolecular interaction at the orbital level. Calculations reveal that these donors form strong n→σ* complexes and computed binding energies of the (CH3)2O···HF complex agree very well with the experimental binding energies from IR spectroscopy. LiF forms stronger ...


Statistical Biophysics Blog: A Hello: The Point Of This Blog, Daniel M. Zuckerman Apr 2015

Statistical Biophysics Blog: A Hello: The Point Of This Blog, Daniel M. Zuckerman

Scholar Archive

No abstract provided.


Discontinuous Non-Equilibrium Phase Transition In A Threshold Schloegl Model For Autocatalysis: Generic Two-Phase Coexistence And Metastability, Chi-Jen Wang, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans Apr 2015

Discontinuous Non-Equilibrium Phase Transition In A Threshold Schloegl Model For Autocatalysis: Generic Two-Phase Coexistence And Metastability, Chi-Jen Wang, Da-Jiang Liu, James W. Evans

Physics and Astronomy Publications

Threshold versions of Schloegl's model on a lattice, which involve autocatalytic creation and spontaneous annihilation of particles, can provide a simple prototype for discontinuous non-equilibrium phase transitions. These models are equivalent to so-called threshold contact processes. A discontinuous transition between populated and vacuum states can occur selecting a threshold of N ≥ 2 for the minimum number, N, of neighboring particles enabling autocatalytic creation at an empty site. Fundamental open questions remain given the lack of a thermodynamic framework for analysis. For a square lattice with N = 2, we show that phase coexistence occurs not at a unique value but ...


Sucralose Destabilization Of Protein Structure, Christina M. Othon Mar 2015

Sucralose Destabilization Of Protein Structure, Christina M. Othon

Christina M Othon

Sucralose is a commonly employed artificial sweetener that behaves very differently than its natural disaccharide counterpart, sucrose, in terms of its interaction with biomolecules. The presence of sucralose in solution is found to destabilize the native structure of two model protein systems: the globular protein bovine serum albumin and an enzyme staphylococcal nuclease. The melting temperature of these proteins decreases as a linear function of sucralose concentration. We correlate this destabilization to the increased polarity of the molecule. The strongly polar nature is manifested as a large dielectric friction exerted on the excited-state rotational diffusion of tryptophan using time-resolved fluorescence ...


Importance And Reliability Of Small Basis Set Ccsd(T) Corrections To Mp2 Binding And Relative Energies Of Water Clusters, Berhane Temelso, Carla Renner, George Shields Mar 2015

Importance And Reliability Of Small Basis Set Ccsd(T) Corrections To Mp2 Binding And Relative Energies Of Water Clusters, Berhane Temelso, Carla Renner, George Shields

Berhane Temelso

MP2 describes hydrogen-bonded systems well, yet a higher-order electron correlation correction in the form of a CCSD(T) calculation is usually necessary to achieve benchmark quality energies. We evaluated the importance and reliability of small basis set CCSD(T) corrections to MP2(δCCSD(T)) both on the binding (ΔE) and relative (ΔΔE) MP2 energies for a large number of systems including four water dimer stationary points and 57 other clusters up to undecamers, (H2O)11. By comparing the MP2 energies with CCSD(T) and the explicitly correlated MP2-F12 energies with variants of CCSD(T)-F12 using different basis sets, we ...


Platinum Nanoparticle During Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution: Adsorbate Distribution, Active Reaction Species, And Size Effect, Teck L. Tan, Lin-Lin Wang, Jia Zhang, Duane D. Johnson, Kewu Bai Mar 2015

Platinum Nanoparticle During Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution: Adsorbate Distribution, Active Reaction Species, And Size Effect, Teck L. Tan, Lin-Lin Wang, Jia Zhang, Duane D. Johnson, Kewu Bai

Ames Laboratory Publications

For small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), catalytic activity is, as observed, adversely affected by size in the 1–3 nm range. We elucidate, via first-principles-based thermodynamics, the operation H* distribution and cyclic voltammetry (CV) during the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across the electrochemical potential, including the underpotential region (U ≤ 0) that is difficult to assess in experiment. We consider multiple adsorption sites on a 1 nm Pt NP model and show that the characteristic CV peaks from different H* species correspond well to experiment. We next quantify the activity contribution from each H* species to explain the adverse effect of size ...


Temperature Dependent C-Axis Hole Mobilities In Rubrene Single Crystals Determined By Time-Of-Flight, Russell L. Lidberg, Tom J. Pundsack, Neale O. Haugen, Lucas R. Johnstone, C. Daniel Frisbie Mar 2015

Temperature Dependent C-Axis Hole Mobilities In Rubrene Single Crystals Determined By Time-Of-Flight, Russell L. Lidberg, Tom J. Pundsack, Neale O. Haugen, Lucas R. Johnstone, C. Daniel Frisbie

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Hole mobilities (μ) in rubrene single crystals (space group Cmca) along the crystallographic c-axis have been investigated as a function of temperature and applied electric field by the time-of-fight method. Measurements demonstrate an inverse power law dependence on temperature, namely,μ=μ0T−n with n = 1.8, from room temperature down to 180 K. At 296 K, the average value of μ was found to be 0.29 cm2/Vs increasing to an average value of 0.70 cm2/Vs at 180 K. Below 180 K a decrease in mobility is observed with further cooling. Overall ...


"Probing The Transition State Region In Catalytic Co Oxidation On Ru" Data Files, H. Öström, H. Öberg, H. Xin, Jerry L. Larue, M. Beye, M. Dell'angela, J. Gladh, M. L. Ng, J. A. Sellberg, S. Kaya, G. Mercurio, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, A. Föhlisch, M. Wolf, W. Wurth, M. Persson, J. K. Nørskov, F. Abild-Pedersen, H. Ogasawara, L. G. M. Pettersson, A. Nilsson Feb 2015

"Probing The Transition State Region In Catalytic Co Oxidation On Ru" Data Files, H. Öström, H. Öberg, H. Xin, Jerry L. Larue, M. Beye, M. Dell'angela, J. Gladh, M. L. Ng, J. A. Sellberg, S. Kaya, G. Mercurio, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, A. Föhlisch, M. Wolf, W. Wurth, M. Persson, J. K. Nørskov, F. Abild-Pedersen, H. Ogasawara, L. G. M. Pettersson, A. Nilsson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Data Sets

Femtosecond x-ray laser pulses are used to probe the CO oxidation reaction on Ru initiated by an optical laser pulse. On a timescale of a few hundred femtoseconds, the optical laser pulse excites motions of CO and O on the surface allowing the reactants to collide and, with a transient close to a picosecond (ps), new electronic states appear in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum. Density functional theory calculations indicate that these result from changes in the adsorption site and bond-formation between CO and O with a distribution of OC—O bond lengths close to the transition state (TS ...


Probing The Transition State Region In Catalytic Co Oxidation On Ru, H. Öström, H. Öberg, H. Xin, Jerry L. Larue, M. Beye, M. Dell'angela, J. Gladh, M. L. Ng, J. A. Sellberg, S. Kaya, G. Mercurio, D. Nordlund, M. Hantschmann, F. Hieke, D. Kühn, W. F. Schlotter, G. L. Dakovski, J. J. Turner, M. P. Minitti, A. Mitra, S. P. Moeller, A. Föhlisch, M. Wolf, W. Wurth, M. Persson, J. K. Nørskov, F. Abild-Pedersen, H. Ogasawara, L. G. M. Pettersson, A. Nilsson Feb 2015

Probing The Transition State Region In Catalytic Co Oxidation On Ru, H. Öström, H. Öberg, H. Xin, Jerry L. Larue, M. Beye, M. Dell'angela, J. Gladh, M. L. Ng, J. A. Sellberg, S. Kaya, G. Mercurio, D. Nordlund, M. Hantschmann, F. Hieke, D. Kühn, W. F. Schlotter, G. L. Dakovski, J. J. Turner, M. P. Minitti, A. Mitra, S. P. Moeller, A. Föhlisch, M. Wolf, W. Wurth, M. Persson, J. K. Nørskov, F. Abild-Pedersen, H. Ogasawara, L. G. M. Pettersson, A. Nilsson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Femtosecond x-ray laser pulses are used to probe the CO oxidation reaction on Ru initiated by an optical laser pulse. On a timescale of a few hundred femtoseconds, the optical laser pulse excites motions of CO and O on the surface allowing the reactants to collide and, with a transient close to a picosecond (ps), new electronic states appear in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum. Density functional theory calculations indicate that these result from changes in the adsorption site and bond-formation between CO and O with a distribution of OC—O bond lengths close to the transition state (TS ...


Simultaneous Analysis Of The Ballik-Ramsay And Phillips Systems Of C2 And Observation Of Forbidden Transitions Between Singlet And Triplet States, Wang Chen, Kentarou Kawaguchi, Peter F. Bernath, Jian Tang Feb 2015

Simultaneous Analysis Of The Ballik-Ramsay And Phillips Systems Of C2 And Observation Of Forbidden Transitions Between Singlet And Triplet States, Wang Chen, Kentarou Kawaguchi, Peter F. Bernath, Jian Tang

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

6229 lines of the Ballik-Ramsay system (b3Σg--a3Πu) and the Phillips system (A1Πu-X1Σg+) of C2 up to v = 8 and J = 76, which were taken from the literature or assigned in the present work, were analyzed simultaneously by least-squares fitting with 82 Dunham-like molecular parameters and spin-orbit interaction constants between the b3Σg- and X1Σg+ states with a standard deviation of 0.0037 cm-1 for the whole data set. As a result of the deperturbation analysis, the spin-orbit interaction constant ...


Wigner High-Electron-Correlation Regime Of Non-Uniform Density Systems: A Quantal-Density-Functional-Theory Study, Douglas Mortimer Achan Feb 2015

Wigner High-Electron-Correlation Regime Of Non-Uniform Density Systems: A Quantal-Density-Functional-Theory Study, Douglas Mortimer Achan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Wigner regime of a system of electrons in an external field is characterized by a low electron density and a high electron-interaction energy relative to the kinetic energy. The low correlation regime is in turn described by a high electron density and an electron-interaction energy smaller than the kinetic energy. The Wigner regime of a nonuniform electron density system is investigated via quantal density functional theory (QDFT). Within QDFT, the contributions of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, and correlation-kinetic effects are separately delineated and explicitly defined. The nonuniform electron density system studied is that ...


Real-Time Mri-Guided Catheter Tracking Using Hyperpolarized Silicon Particles, Nicholas Whiting, Jingzhe Hu, Jay V. Shah, Maja C. Cassidy, Erik Cressman, Niki Zacharias Millward, David G. Menter, Charles M. Marcus, Pratip K. Bhattacharya Jan 2015

Real-Time Mri-Guided Catheter Tracking Using Hyperpolarized Silicon Particles, Nicholas Whiting, Jingzhe Hu, Jay V. Shah, Maja C. Cassidy, Erik Cressman, Niki Zacharias Millward, David G. Menter, Charles M. Marcus, Pratip K. Bhattacharya

Nicholas Whiting

Visualizing the movement of angiocatheters during endovascular interventions is typically accomplished using x-ray fluoroscopy. There are many potential advantages to developing magnetic resonance imaging-based approaches that will allow three-dimensional imaging of the tissue/vasculature interface while monitoring other physiologically-relevant criteria, without exposing the patient or clinician team to ionizing radiation. Here we introduce a proof-of-concept development of a magnetic resonance imaging-guided catheter tracking method that utilizes hyperpolarized silicon particles. The increased signal of the silicon particles is generated via low-temperature, solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization, and the particles retain their enhanced signal for ≥40 minutes—allowing imaging experiments over extended time ...


Inżynieria Chemiczna Ćw., Wojciech M. Budzianowski Jan 2015

Inżynieria Chemiczna Ćw., Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

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Tematyka Prac Doktorskich, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Jan 2015

Tematyka Prac Doktorskich, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Crystal Structure Of The Alcanivorax Borkumensis Ydah Transporter Reveals An Unusual Topology, Jani Reddy Bolla, Chih-Chia Su, Jared A. Delmar, Pattathil Radhakrishnan, Nitin Kumar, Tsung-Han Chou, Feng Long, Kanagalaghatta R. Rajashankar, Edward Yu Jan 2015

Crystal Structure Of The Alcanivorax Borkumensis Ydah Transporter Reveals An Unusual Topology, Jani Reddy Bolla, Chih-Chia Su, Jared A. Delmar, Pattathil Radhakrishnan, Nitin Kumar, Tsung-Han Chou, Feng Long, Kanagalaghatta R. Rajashankar, Edward Yu

Physics and Astronomy Publications

The potential of the folic acid biosynthesis pathway as a target for the development of antibiotics has been clinically validated. However, many pathogens have developed resistance to these antibiotics, prompting a re-evaluation of potential drug targets within the pathway. The ydaH gene of Alcanivorax borkumensis encodes an integral membrane protein of the AbgT family of transporters for which no structural information was available. Here we report the crystal structure of A. borkumensis YdaH, revealing a dimeric molecule with an architecture distinct from other families of transporters. YdaH is a bowl-shaped dimer with a solvent-filled basin extending from the cytoplasm to ...


Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy Of Red Fluorescent Proteins, Patrick Eugene Konold Jan 2015

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy Of Red Fluorescent Proteins, Patrick Eugene Konold

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Red-emitting homologues (RFPs) of the native Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) with emission wavelengths beyond 650 nm are desirable probes for in vivo imaging experiments. They offer the potential for deeper tissue penetration and lower background scatter given a cleaner spectral window. However, bioimaging applications are hindered by poor photophysics (e.g. low fluorescence quantum yield, high photobleaching), which limits experimental resolution and represents a significant obstacle towards utilization for low copy-number, long-duration imaging applications. In this thesis, a variety of femtosecond nonlinear electronic spectroscopies were employed jointly with site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the photophysical properties of RFPs. In one study ...


Computational Investigations Of Potential Energy Function Development For Metal-Organic Framework Simulations, Metal Carbenes, And Chemical Warfare Agents, Christian R. Cioce Jan 2015

Computational Investigations Of Potential Energy Function Development For Metal-Organic Framework Simulations, Metal Carbenes, And Chemical Warfare Agents, Christian R. Cioce

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are three-dimensional porous nanomaterials with a variety of applications, including catalysis, gas storage and separation, and sustainable energy. Their potential as air filtration systems is of interest for designer carbon capture materials. The chemical constituents (i.e. organic ligands) can be functionalized to create rationally designed CO2 sequestration platforms, for example. Hardware and software alike at the bleeding edge of supercomputing are utilized for designing first principles-based molecular models for the simulation of gas sorption in these frameworks. The classical potentials developed herein are named PHAST -- Potentials with High Accuracy, Speed, and Transferability, and thus are designed ...


Exchange Mechanisms In Macroscopic Ordered Organic Magnetic Semiconductors, Naveen Rawat Jan 2015

Exchange Mechanisms In Macroscopic Ordered Organic Magnetic Semiconductors, Naveen Rawat

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Small molecule organic semiconductors such as phthalocyanines and their derivatives represent a very interesting alternative to inorganic semiconductor materials for the development of flexible electronic devices such as organic thin field effect transistors, organic Light Emitting Diodes and photo-voltaic cells. Phthalocyanine molecules can easily accommodate a variety of metal atoms as well in the central core of the molecule, resulting in wide range of magnetic properties. Exploration of optical properties of organic crystalline semiconductors thin films is challenging due to sub-micron grain sizes and the presence of numerous structural defects, disorder and grain boundaries. However, this can be overcome by ...