Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Chemistry

2013

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Magneto-Optical Properties Of Complex Oxides, Peng Chen Dec 2013

Magneto-Optical Properties Of Complex Oxides, Peng Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

Complex oxides give rise to rich physics and exotic cross-coupled electronic and magnetic properties. This is because of the competing interaction between charge, structure, and magnetism in the materials. In this dissertation I present a spectroscopic investigation of several model complex oxides under external stimuli of magnetic field and temperature. The compounds of interest include BiFeO3 [bismuth ferrite] nanoparticles and tetragonal film, Bi1-xNdxFeO3 [neodymium doped bismuth ferrite], α-Fe2O3 [hematite], Ni3V2O8 [nickel vanadate], and RIn1-xMnxO3 [manganese doped rare earth indium oxide ...


Solar Energy Conversion And Control Using Organic Photovoltaic Cells, Kurt Wade Woods Dec 2013

Solar Energy Conversion And Control Using Organic Photovoltaic Cells, Kurt Wade Woods

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells are advanced, newly emerging technologies that are lightweight, mechanically flexible devices with highthroughput processes from low cost material in a variety of colors. Rathnayake et al. of Western Kentucky University have developed a nanostructure-based OPV cell. Presented in this thesis is a model and simulation of a generalized PV powered system that can predict the performance of solar arrays in various environmental conditions. The simulation has been carried out in Matlab/Simulink, and upon entering the cell’s parameters, it provides key electrical characteristics such as the cell’s I-V curve and efficiency information. The total ...


Investigation Of Major Intermolecular Interactions In 7,8-Dihydrobenzo(K)Phenanthridin-6(5h)-One Crystal Using Quantum Calculations And Crystallographic Visualization Programs, Zhiwei Liao, Tonglei Li, Mingtao Zhang Oct 2013

Investigation Of Major Intermolecular Interactions In 7,8-Dihydrobenzo(K)Phenanthridin-6(5h)-One Crystal Using Quantum Calculations And Crystallographic Visualization Programs, Zhiwei Liao, Tonglei Li, Mingtao Zhang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, tablets and capsules are the most common ways of delivering drugs. The active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients used to make those tablets and capsules are in their crystalline form generally. However, a single molecule can form multiple different crystal structures because of different packing arrangements of the molecules. These different crystal structures have identical chemical composition but different properties such as solubility, density, stability, etc. This phenomenon is called polymorphism. Occurrence of polymorphism could be a disaster for both patients and pharmaceutical companies, as the drug could lose its efficacy due to changes in properties. Studying intermolecular interactions in ...


On The Origin Of Mode- And Bond-Selectivity In Vibrationally Mediated Reactions On Surfaces, Daniel Killelea, Arthur L. Utz Oct 2013

On The Origin Of Mode- And Bond-Selectivity In Vibrationally Mediated Reactions On Surfaces, Daniel Killelea, Arthur L. Utz

Chemistry: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The experimental observations of vibrational mode- and bond-selective chemistry at the gas–surface interface indicate that energy redistribution within the reaction complex is not statistical on the timescale of reaction. Such behavior is a key prerequisite for efforts to use selective vibrational excitation to control chemistry at the technologically important gas–surface interface. This paper outlines a framework for understanding the origin of non-statistical reactivity on surfaces. The model focuses on the kinetic competition between intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) within the reaction complex, which in the long-time limit leads to statistical behavior, and quenching, scattering, or desorption processes that ...


Near-Unity Nuclear Polarization With An Open-Source 129xe Hyperpolarizer For Nmr And Mri, Panayiotis Nikolaou, Aaron M. Coffey, Laura L. Walkup, Brogan M. Gust, Nicholas Whiting, Hayley Newton, Scott Barcus, Iga Muradyan, Mikayel Dabaghyan, Gregory D. Moroz, Matthew S. Rosen, Samuel Patz, Michael J. Barlow, Eduard Y. Chekmenev, Boyd M. Goodson Aug 2013

Near-Unity Nuclear Polarization With An Open-Source 129xe Hyperpolarizer For Nmr And Mri, Panayiotis Nikolaou, Aaron M. Coffey, Laura L. Walkup, Brogan M. Gust, Nicholas Whiting, Hayley Newton, Scott Barcus, Iga Muradyan, Mikayel Dabaghyan, Gregory D. Moroz, Matthew S. Rosen, Samuel Patz, Michael J. Barlow, Eduard Y. Chekmenev, Boyd M. Goodson

Nicholas Whiting

The exquisite NMR spectral sensitivity and negligible reactivity of hyperpolarized xenon-129 (HP129Xe) make it attractive for a number of magnetic resonance applications; moreover, HP129Xe embodies an alternative to rare and nonrenewable 3He. However, the ability to reliably and inexpensively produce large quantities of HP129Xe with sufficiently high 129Xe nuclear spin polarization (PXe) remains a significant challenge—particularly at high Xe densities. We present results from our “open-source” large-scale (∼1 L/h) 129Xe polarizer for clinical, preclinical, and materials NMR and MRI research. Automated and composed mostly of off-the-shelf components, this “hyperpolarizer” is designed to be readily implementable in other laboratories ...


Fabrication Of Tungsten Tips Suitable For Scanning Probe Microscopy By Electrochemical Etching Methods, Gobind Basnet Aug 2013

Fabrication Of Tungsten Tips Suitable For Scanning Probe Microscopy By Electrochemical Etching Methods, Gobind Basnet

Theses and Dissertations

The fabrication of metal tips is becoming an interesting field for scientists who are working in spectroscopy measurements. A significant amount of work has already been done in the tips fabrication process. Metal tips used to analyze the surface of materials play a key role in the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) technique. It's remarkable quality that it is used to study the surface of material at the atomic level.

There are various methods used in the tips fabrication process. Of diverse methods, three different electrochemical etching methods: submerged method, single lamella drop-off method, and double lamella drop-off method are ...


Low-Temperature Epitaxial Growth Of Thin Metal Films, James W. Evans, D. E. Sanders, Patricia A. Thiel, Andrew E. Depristo Jul 2013

Low-Temperature Epitaxial Growth Of Thin Metal Films, James W. Evans, D. E. Sanders, Patricia A. Thiel, Andrew E. Depristo

Patricia A. Thiel

We present a different mechanism to explain the occurrence of long-lived oscillations in diffraction spot intensities during epitaxial growth of metal films on fcc (100) substrates at low temperature. Rather than rely on the common picture of cyclical nucleation and growth to produce the oscillations, the model invokes ‘‘downward funneling’’ deposition dynamics to fourfold-hollow adsorption sites.


Why Do Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?, Ray Hefferlin, Jonathan Sackett, Jeremy Tatum May 2013

Why Do Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?, Ray Hefferlin, Jonathan Sackett, Jeremy Tatum

Faculty Works

Franck–Condon factors are investigated for sequences of free

main-group diatomic molecules. Theory-based Condon loci

(parabolas) and Morse-potential loci are plotted on Deslandres

tables to verify if they, indeed, follow the largest Franck–Condon

factors. Then, the inclination angles of the Condon loci

are determined. Thus, entire band systems are quantified by

one variable, the angle. For all available isoelectronic sequences,

this angle increases from a central minimum toward

magic-number molecular boundaries. The theory for the Condon

locus gives the angle in terms of the ratio of the upperstate

to the lower-state force constants. It is concluded that

the periodicity ...


Probing Bonding And Dynamics At Heterogeneous Adsorbate/Graphene Interfaces, Eric Charles Mattson May 2013

Probing Bonding And Dynamics At Heterogeneous Adsorbate/Graphene Interfaces, Eric Charles Mattson

Theses and Dissertations

Graphene-based materials are becoming an astoundingly promising choice for many relevant technological and environmental applications. Deriving graphene from the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is becoming a popular and inexpensive route toward the synthesis of these materials. While the desired product from GO reduction is pristine graphene, defects and residual oxygen functional groups inherited from the parent GO render reduced graphene oxide (RGO) distinct from graphene. In this work, the structure and bonding for GO and RGO is investigated to the end of a working understanding of the composition and properties of these materials. In situ selected area electron diffraction ...


Alkane Adsorption On Mgo(100): Volumetric Isotherm, Inelastic Neutron Scattering, And Computational Studies, Andrew Spencer Hicks May 2013

Alkane Adsorption On Mgo(100): Volumetric Isotherm, Inelastic Neutron Scattering, And Computational Studies, Andrew Spencer Hicks

Doctoral Dissertations

Volumetric adsorption isotherms and computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for nonane and decane adfilms on MgO(100) nanocubes. From the isotherms, variety of thermodynamic quantities are calculated. These values, along with visual inspection of the isotherms, indicate a layer by layer trend from 2D to 3D behavior. This is attributed to the increasing importance of vertical adsorbate-adsorbate interactions as distance from the surface increases. Additionally, a 2D phase transition is observed for the first adsorbed layer as indicated by the evolution of the widths of the isotherm first derivative peaks. These experimental results are complemented by the MD ...


Effect Of High Temperature Heat Treatments On The Quality Factor Of A Large-Grain Superconducting Radio-Frequency Niobium Cavity, P Dhakal, G Ciovati, G R. Myneni, K E. Gray, N Groll, P Maheshwari, D M. Mcrae, Robert D. Pike, T Proslier, F Stevie, R P. Walsh, Q Yang, J Zasadzinzki Apr 2013

Effect Of High Temperature Heat Treatments On The Quality Factor Of A Large-Grain Superconducting Radio-Frequency Niobium Cavity, P Dhakal, G Ciovati, G R. Myneni, K E. Gray, N Groll, P Maheshwari, D M. Mcrae, Robert D. Pike, T Proslier, F Stevie, R P. Walsh, Q Yang, J Zasadzinzki

Chemistry Articles & Book Chapters

Large-grain Nb has become a viable alternative to fine-grain Nb for the fabrication of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. In this contribution we report the results from a heat treatment study of a large-grain 1.5 GHz single-cell cavity made of “medium purity” Nb. The baseline surface preparation prior to heat treatment consisted of standard buffered chemical polishing. The heat treatment in the range 800–1400°C was done in a newly designed vacuum induction furnace. Q0 values of the order of 2×1010 at 2.0 K and peak surface magnetic field (Bp) of 90 mT were achieved reproducibly. A Q0 ...


Carbon Nitride And Conjugated Polymer Composite Materials, Josh Byers Mar 2013

Carbon Nitride And Conjugated Polymer Composite Materials, Josh Byers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The semiconductor and photovoltaic properties of carbon nitride (CNx) thin films prepared using a reactive magnetron sputtering technique were investigated both individually and as composites with the organic conjugated polymers polybithiophene (PBT) and poly(3-hextlthiophene) (P3HT). At low nitrogen content, the film structure was dominated by graphitic sp2 percolation networks, whereas at higher nitrogen contents CNx films started to demonstrate semiconductor properties, as evidenced by the occurrence of photoconductivity and the development of a space charge region. When CNx was deposited onto a PBT substrate, it was found to function as an acceptor material improving the photocurrent generation both ...


Density Functional Theory And The Calculation Of Tcmg2O4 Spinel Lattice Parameters, Jon Karlo Macias Mar 2013

Density Functional Theory And The Calculation Of Tcmg2O4 Spinel Lattice Parameters, Jon Karlo Macias

Physics

The cohesive energy, lattice constant and bulk modulus of two simple HCP crystal structures of magnesium and technetium were calculated using the vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) which is based on density functional theory (DFT). The same properties were determined for TcMg2O4 spinel. The theoretical results of the lattice constant of the pure crystals were compared to experimental results and found to be in excellent agreement with a difference of less than 2%. The results for the lattice constant of the TcMg2O4 spinel were found to be in excellent agreement as well with ...


Measurements Of Nh3 Linestrengths And Collisional Broadening Coefficients In N2, O2, Co2, And H2o Near 1103.46 Cm−1, Kyle Owen, Et-Touhami Es-Sebbar, Aamir Farooq Feb 2013

Measurements Of Nh3 Linestrengths And Collisional Broadening Coefficients In N2, O2, Co2, And H2o Near 1103.46 Cm−1, Kyle Owen, Et-Touhami Es-Sebbar, Aamir Farooq

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

Laser-based ammonia gas sensors have useful applications in many fields including combustion, atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics. Calibration-free trace gas sensors require the spectroscopic parameters including linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients to be known. Ammonia's strong ν2 vibrational band between View the MathML source has the high absorption strength needed for sensing small concentrations. Within this band, the 1103.46 cm−1 feature is one of the strongest and has minimal interference from CO2 and H2O. However, the six rotational transitions that make up this feature have not been studied previously with absorption spectroscopy due to their small line ...


Theory Of Model Kohn-Sham Potentials And Its Applications, Alex P. Gaiduk Jan 2013

Theory Of Model Kohn-Sham Potentials And Its Applications, Alex P. Gaiduk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of Kohn-Sham density functional theory is to develop increasingly accurate approximations to the exchange-correlation functional or to the corresponding potential. When one chooses to approximate the potential, the resulting model must be integrable, that is, a functional derivative of some density functional. Non-integrable potentials produce unphysical results such as energies that are not translationally or rotationally invariant. The thesis introduces methods for constructing integrable model potentials, developing properly invariant energy functionals from model potentials, and designing model potentials that yield accurate electronic excitation energies. Integrable potentials can be constructed using powerful analytic integrability conditions derived in this work ...


Effects Of N2o And O2 Addition To Nitrogen Townsend Dielectric Barrier Discharges At Atmospheric Pressure On The Absolute Ground-State Atomic Nitrogen Density, Et. Es-Sebbar, N. Gherardi, F. Massines Jan 2013

Effects Of N2o And O2 Addition To Nitrogen Townsend Dielectric Barrier Discharges At Atmospheric Pressure On The Absolute Ground-State Atomic Nitrogen Density, Et. Es-Sebbar, N. Gherardi, F. Massines

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

Absolute ground-state density of nitrogen atoms N (2p3 4S3/2) in non-equilibrium Townsend dielectric barrier discharges (TDBDs) at atmospheric pressure sustained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 gas mixtures has been measured using Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) spectroscopy. The quantitative measurements have been obtained by TALIF calibration using krypton as a reference gas. We previously reported that the maximum of N (2p3 4S3/2) atom density is around 3 × 1014 cm−3 in pure nitrogen TDBD, and that this maximum depends strongly on the mean energy dissipated in the gas. In the two gas mixtures studied here, results show ...


Tourbillion In The Phase Space Of The Bray-Liebhafsky Nonlinear Oscillatory Reaction And Related Multiple-Time-Scale Model, Zeljko D. Cupic Jan 2013

Tourbillion In The Phase Space Of The Bray-Liebhafsky Nonlinear Oscillatory Reaction And Related Multiple-Time-Scale Model, Zeljko D. Cupic

Zeljko D Cupic

The mixed-mode dynamical states found experimentally in the concentration phase space of the iodate catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition (The Bray-Liebhafsky oscillatory reaction) are discussed theoretically in a related multiple-time-scale model, from the viewpoint of tourbillion. With aim to explain the mixed-mode oscillations obtained by numerical simulations of the various dynamical states of a model for the Bray-Liebhafsky reaction under CSTR conditions, the folded singularity points on the critical manifold of the full system and Andronov-Hopf bifurcation of the fast subsystem are calculated. The interaction between those singularities causes occurrence of tourbillion structure.


Mechaniczny Rozdział Faz Proj., Wojciech M. Budzianowski Jan 2013

Mechaniczny Rozdział Faz Proj., Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Challenges And Prospects Of Processes Utilising Carbonic Anhydrase For Co2 Separation, Patrycja Szeligiewicz, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Jan 2013

Challenges And Prospects Of Processes Utilising Carbonic Anhydrase For Co2 Separation, Patrycja Szeligiewicz, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

This article provides an analysis of processes for separation CO2 by using carbonic anhydrase enzyme with particular emphasis on reactive-membrane solutions. Three available processes are characterised. Main challenges and prospects are given. It is found that in view of numerous challenges practical applications of these processes will be difficult in near future. Further research is therefore needed for improving existing processes through finding methods for eliminating their main drawbacks such as short lifetime of carbonic anhydrase or low resistance of reactive membrane systems to impurities contained in flue gases from power plants.


Engineering Tunable Plasmonic Nanostructures To Enhance Upconversion Luminescence, Marjan Saboktakin Jan 2013

Engineering Tunable Plasmonic Nanostructures To Enhance Upconversion Luminescence, Marjan Saboktakin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Plasmonic nanostructures, which can confine and manipulate light below the diffraction limit, are becoming increasingly important in many areas of optical physics and devices. One of the areas that can greatly benefit from surface-plasmon mediated confinement of optical fields is the enhancement of emission in low quantum yield materials. The resonant wavelength for plasmonic structures used for emission enhancement is either the excitation or emission wavelengths of the luminescent material. Therefore, a key component in designing plasmonic structures used in luminescent enhancement applications is the ability to engineer and tune plasmonic building blocks to create structures resonant at the desired ...


Photodissociation Spectroscopy Of Anionic Transition Metal Complexes, Sydney Hamilton Kaufman Jan 2013

Photodissociation Spectroscopy Of Anionic Transition Metal Complexes, Sydney Hamilton Kaufman

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Transition metal complexes play an important role in many aspects of chemistry; whether in supporting biological functions, as catalysts for organic reactions, in the environment, or in industry. This thesis is comprised of gas-phase spectroscopic studies of four transition metal species with implications for many different chemical applications.

Most knowledge of the target molecules in this thesis are derived from studies in the condensed phase, where the chemical environment can change molecular properties. As a result, it is difficult to gain an understanding of the intrinsic properties in solution as well as a molecular-level picture of chemical reactions that take ...


Enabling Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Electronic Spectroscopy On Quantum Dots, Robert John Hill Jr. Jan 2013

Enabling Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Electronic Spectroscopy On Quantum Dots, Robert John Hill Jr.

Physics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit unique properties not seen in their bulk counterparts. Quantum confinement of carriers causes a size-tunable bandgap, making them attractive candidates for solar cells. Fundamental understanding of their spectra and carrier dynamics is obscured by inhomogeneous broadening arising from the size distribution. Because quantum dots have long excited state lifetimes and are sensitive to both air and moisture, there are many potential artifacts in femtosecond experiments. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy promises insight into the photo-physics, but required key instrumental advances. Optics that can process a broad bandwidth without distortion are required for a two-dimensional optical spectrometer. To control ...


Controlling Reactivity Of Nanoporous Catalyst Materials By Tuning Reaction Product-Pore Interior Interactions: Statistical Mechanical Modeling, Jing Wang, David M. Ackerman, Victor S.-Y. Lin, Marek Pruski, James W. Evans Jan 2013

Controlling Reactivity Of Nanoporous Catalyst Materials By Tuning Reaction Product-Pore Interior Interactions: Statistical Mechanical Modeling, Jing Wang, David M. Ackerman, Victor S.-Y. Lin, Marek Pruski, James W. Evans

Physics and Astronomy Publications

Statistical mechanical modeling is performed of a catalytic conversion reaction within a functionalized nanoporous material to assess the effect of varying the reaction product-pore interior interaction from attractive to repulsive. A strong enhancement in reactivity is observed not just due to the shift in reaction equilibrium towards completion but also due to enhanced transport within the pore resulting from reduced loading. The latter effect is strongest for highly restricted transport (single-file diffusion), and applies even for irreversible reactions. The analysis is performed utilizing a generalized hydrodynamic formulation of the reaction-diffusion equations which can reliably capture the complex interplay between reaction ...


Fundamental Studies And Applications Of Strong Field Ionization, Lu Yan Jan 2013

Fundamental Studies And Applications Of Strong Field Ionization, Lu Yan

Wayne State University Dissertations

In an intense laser field, atoms and molecules experience tunneling ionization directly to the continuum. We used this method to study several aspects and applications of strong field ionization (SFI) in atoms and molecules. One study used SFI to probe the photofragments produced by photodissociation using DC sliced imaging. The photodissociation mechanism of two polyatomic molecules (sulfur dioxide and nitromethane) were investigated. In a second study, we show the strong field ionization rate depends on the sign of the magnetic number distribution. We detect the signal of sequential double ionization of argon dications by a pump-probe method to investigate the ...


Organic Photovoltaics: A Charge Transfer Perspective In The Study Of Donor-Acceptor Systems, Marco Olguin Jan 2013

Organic Photovoltaics: A Charge Transfer Perspective In The Study Of Donor-Acceptor Systems, Marco Olguin

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The present research involves the study of donor-acceptor (D/A) dyad complexes from a charge transfer energy perspective. The aim is to provide insight and predictive understanding into the charge transfer processes of the molecular-level components in donor-acceptor based organic solar cells using computational methods to describe photochemical processes at the quantum mechanical level within the Density Functional Theory (DFT) approximation. Predictive understanding is anchored in reproducing experimental results, wherein the present work a perturbative excited-state DFT method is described in detail and shown to give Charge Transfer (CT) energies in excellent agreement with benchmark experimental data. With an accurate ...


Β-Mn-Type Co8+Xzn12–X As A Defect Cubic Laves Phase: Site Preferences, Magnetism, And Electronic Structure, Weiwei Xie, Srinvasa Timmaiah, Jagat Lamal, Jing Liu, Thomas W. Heitmann, Dante Quirinale, A. I. Goldman, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Gordon J. Miller Jan 2013

Β-Mn-Type Co8+Xzn12–X As A Defect Cubic Laves Phase: Site Preferences, Magnetism, And Electronic Structure, Weiwei Xie, Srinvasa Timmaiah, Jagat Lamal, Jing Liu, Thomas W. Heitmann, Dante Quirinale, A. I. Goldman, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Gordon J. Miller

Chemistry Publications

The results of crystallographic analysis, magnetic characterization, and theoretical assessment of β-Mn-type Co–Zn intermetallics prepared using high-temperature methods are presented. These β-Mn Co–Zn phases crystallize in the space group P4132 [Pearson symbol cP20; a = 6.3555(7)–6.3220(7)], and their stoichiometry may be expressed as Co8+xZn12–x [1.7(2) < x < 2.2(2)]. According to a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, atomic site occupancies establish clear preferences for Co atoms in the 8c sites and Zn atoms in the 12d sites, with all additional Co atoms replacing some Zn atoms, a result that can be rationalized by electronic structure calculations. Magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction of an equimolar Co:Zn sample confirm ferromagnetism in this phase with a Curie temperature of ∼420 K. Neutron powder diffraction and electronic structure calculations using the local spin density approximation indicate that the spontaneous magnetization of this phase arises exclusively from local moments at the Co atoms. Inspection of the atomic arrangements of Co8+xZn12–x reveals that the β-Mn aristotype may be derived from an ordered defect, cubic Laves phase (MgCu2-type) structure. Structural optimization procedures using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) and starting ...


Advanced Topographic Characterization Of Variously Prepared Niobium Surfaces And Linkage To Rf Losses, Chen Xu Jan 2013

Advanced Topographic Characterization Of Variously Prepared Niobium Surfaces And Linkage To Rf Losses, Chen Xu

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) technology is widely adopted in particle accelerators. The shallow penetration (∼ 40 nm) of the RF into superconducting niobium lends great importance to SRF cavity interior surface chemistry and topography. These in turn are strongly influenced by the chemical etching "surface clean-up" that follows fabrication.;The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions ...


Determination Of Kinetic Parameters From The Thermogravimetric Data Set Of Biomass Samples, Karol Postawa, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2012

Determination Of Kinetic Parameters From The Thermogravimetric Data Set Of Biomass Samples, Karol Postawa, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

This article describes methods of the determination of kinetic parameters from the thermogravimetric data set of biomass samples. It presents the methodology of the research, description of the needed equipment, and the method of analysis of thermogravimetric data. It describes both methodology of obtaining quantitative data such as kinetic parameters as well as of obtaining qualitative data like the composition of biomass. The study is focused mainly on plant biomass because it is easy in harvesting and preparation. Methodology is shown on the sample containing corn stover which is subsequently pyrolysed. The investigated sample show the kinetic of first order ...


Temperature-Dependent Absorption Cross-Section Measurements Of 1-Butene (1-C4h8) In Vuv And Ir, Et-Touhami Es-Sebbar, Yves Benilan, Aamir Farooq Dec 2012

Temperature-Dependent Absorption Cross-Section Measurements Of 1-Butene (1-C4h8) In Vuv And Ir, Et-Touhami Es-Sebbar, Yves Benilan, Aamir Farooq

Dr. Et-touhami Es-sebbar

Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) absorption cross-section measurements of 1-butene (1-C4H8; CH2=CHCH2CH3; Butylene) are reported over the temperature range of 296–529 K. The VUV measurements are performed between 115 and 205 nm using synchrotron radiation as a tunable VUV light source. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to measure absorption cross-section and band strengths in the IR region between 1.54 and 25 μm (∼6500–400 cm−1). The measured room-temperature VUV and IR absorption cross-sections are compared with available literature data and are found to be in good agreement. The oscillator strength for the electronic ...