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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Analysis Of Primary Stripper Foils At The Spallation Neutron Source By An Electron Beam Foil Test Stand, Eric Paul Barrowclough Dec 2017

Analysis Of Primary Stripper Foils At The Spallation Neutron Source By An Electron Beam Foil Test Stand, Eric Paul Barrowclough

Doctoral Dissertations

Diamond films are used at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) as the primary charge exchange foils (i.e., stripper foils) of the accelerated 1 GeV (Gigaelectron volts) hydride ions. The most common type of film used is a nanocrystalline diamond film, typically 17 mm x 45 mm (millimeter) with an aerial density of 350 μg/cm2 (microgram per square centimeter). The diamond film is deposited on a corrugated silicon substrate using plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. After the growth of the diamond film, 30 mm of the silicon substrate is etched away, leaving a freestanding diamond foil with a silicon ...


Electronic And Magnetic Materials Under External Stimuli, Kenneth Robert O'Neal Aug 2017

Electronic And Magnetic Materials Under External Stimuli, Kenneth Robert O'Neal

Doctoral Dissertations

The interaction between spin, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom leads to exotic and useful properties in multifunctional materials. This delicate balance of energy scales allows external stimuli such as temperature, magnetic field, or pressure to drive to novel phases. As a local probe technique, spectroscopy can provide insight into the microscopic mechanism of the phase transitions. In this dissertation I present spectroscopic studies of functional materials under extreme conditions.

Nanomaterials have attracted attention because nanoscale confinement affects various material properties and often reduces energy scales or suppress phase transitions. Combining Raman and infrared spectroscopies reveals that the breakdown mechanism ...


Understanding Three-Body Interactions In Hexagonal Close Packed Solid He-4, Ashleigh Locke Barnes May 2017

Understanding Three-Body Interactions In Hexagonal Close Packed Solid He-4, Ashleigh Locke Barnes

Doctoral Dissertations

The ground state properties of hexagonal close packed (hcp) solid 4He [He-4] are dominated by large atomic zero point motions which make the primary contribution to the solid’s low-temperature Debye-Waller (DW) factors. Preliminary investigations have also suggested that three-body interactions can play an important role in this system, particularly at higher densities. However, due to their computational cost, these interactions are not generally incorporated into theoretical models of solid 4He [He-4]. In order to accurately treat both zero point motion and three-body interactions, we have developed a perturbative treatment in which the three-body energy is added as ...


Investigating The Properties Of Superfluid He-4 Through Density Functional Calculations, Matthew Francis Dutra May 2017

Investigating The Properties Of Superfluid He-4 Through Density Functional Calculations, Matthew Francis Dutra

Doctoral Dissertations

We present a study of isotopically pure He-4 systems evaluated using helium density functional theory (He-DFT) with the intent of better understanding their ground state structural and energetic properties, particularly within the scope of singularly-doped helium droplets. We self-consistently solve for the density profiles and chemical potentials for a wide range of pure helium droplet sizes (up to 9500 atoms) via an imaginary time propagation method, and fit the resultant energetic data to a power law formula to be able to extrapolate values for even larger droplets. Subsequent calculations on singularly-doped droplets within the same size range yield accurate binding ...


Contact Angles And Contact Lines Around Particles At Isotropic And Anisotropic Liquid Interfaces, Nesrin Senbil Jan 2015

Contact Angles And Contact Lines Around Particles At Isotropic And Anisotropic Liquid Interfaces, Nesrin Senbil

Doctoral Dissertations

Liquid interfaces, capillarity and self-assembly of particles at interfaces are important in nature and technology. When a particle is adsorbed to a liquid interface, the contact line of the particle with the liquid interface and the associated contact angle are the crucial parameters that drive assembly of the particles. We looked at how the shape of the liquid interface and the shape of the particle affect the contact angle and the shape of the contact line. We used millimeter-sized PDMS-coated glass spheres and measured the contact angles at isotropic (planar) and anisotropic interfaces (saddle and cylindrical in shape). Anisotropy of ...


Aggregation And Interfacial Behavior Of Charged Surfactants In Ionic Liquids, Lang Chen Jan 2015

Aggregation And Interfacial Behavior Of Charged Surfactants In Ionic Liquids, Lang Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit a unique set of properties, leading to opportunities for numerous applications such as green solvents, batteries and lubricants. Their properties can be greatly tuned and controlled by addition of surfactants. It is therefore critical to obtain a better understanding of the aggregation and interfacial behavior of surfactants within ILs.

Firstly, the phase diagram and aggregation isotherms of surfactants in several distinct ILs were investigated by solubility and tensiometry. A connection between solubility of the surfactant and the physical properties of the underlying ionic liquid was established. We found that the interfacial energy was crucial in ...


Optical And Scanning Probe Studies Of Isolated Poly (3-Hexylthiophene) Nanofibers, Mina Baghgarbostanabad May 2014

Optical And Scanning Probe Studies Of Isolated Poly (3-Hexylthiophene) Nanofibers, Mina Baghgarbostanabad

Doctoral Dissertations

Plastic electronics have an essential role in the future technologies owing to their compelling characteristics such as light weight, biocompatibity, low cost fabrication, and tunable optoelectronic properties. However, the performance of polymer-based devices strongly depends on the efficiency of exciton formation and dynamics that are themselves strongly sensitive to polymer molecular packing and structural order. Therefore, the current challenge in achieving high efficiency is establishing a correlation between molecular packing and exciton coupling.

P3HT nanofibers represent an attractive platform for studying optical and electronic properties of exciton coupling because their nominal (highly crystalline) internal chain packing structure is known. A ...


Understanding The Plasmonic Properties Of Metallic Nanostructures With Correlated Photon- And Electron-Driven Excitations, Vighter Ozezinimize Iberi May 2014

Understanding The Plasmonic Properties Of Metallic Nanostructures With Correlated Photon- And Electron-Driven Excitations, Vighter Ozezinimize Iberi

Doctoral Dissertations

The collective oscillation of the conduction band electrons in metal nanostructures, known as plasmons, can be used to manipulate light on length scales that are smaller than the diffraction limit of visible light. In this dissertation, a correlated approach is used to probe localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in metallic nanostructures, and their application to surface-enhanced spectroscopy. This correlated approach involves the measurement of LSPRs with dark-field optical microscopy (resonance-Rayleigh scattering), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Structural parameters of the exact same nanostructures obtained from the STEM are subsequently used in performing fully ...


Magneto-Optical Properties Of Complex Oxides, Peng Chen Dec 2013

Magneto-Optical Properties Of Complex Oxides, Peng Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

Complex oxides give rise to rich physics and exotic cross-coupled electronic and magnetic properties. This is because of the competing interaction between charge, structure, and magnetism in the materials. In this dissertation I present a spectroscopic investigation of several model complex oxides under external stimuli of magnetic field and temperature. The compounds of interest include BiFeO3 [bismuth ferrite] nanoparticles and tetragonal film, Bi1-xNdxFeO3 [neodymium doped bismuth ferrite], α-Fe2O3 [hematite], Ni3V2O8 [nickel vanadate], and RIn1-xMnxO3 [manganese doped rare earth indium oxide ...


Alkane Adsorption On Mgo(100): Volumetric Isotherm, Inelastic Neutron Scattering, And Computational Studies, Andrew Spencer Hicks May 2013

Alkane Adsorption On Mgo(100): Volumetric Isotherm, Inelastic Neutron Scattering, And Computational Studies, Andrew Spencer Hicks

Doctoral Dissertations

Volumetric adsorption isotherms and computational molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for nonane and decane adfilms on MgO(100) nanocubes. From the isotherms, variety of thermodynamic quantities are calculated. These values, along with visual inspection of the isotherms, indicate a layer by layer trend from 2D to 3D behavior. This is attributed to the increasing importance of vertical adsorbate-adsorbate interactions as distance from the surface increases. Additionally, a 2D phase transition is observed for the first adsorbed layer as indicated by the evolution of the widths of the isotherm first derivative peaks. These experimental results are complemented by the MD ...


Charge, Bonding, And Magneto-Elastic Coupling In Nanomaterials, Qi Sun Dec 2012

Charge, Bonding, And Magneto-Elastic Coupling In Nanomaterials, Qi Sun

Doctoral Dissertations

Phonons are exquisitely sensitive to finite length scale effects in a wide variety of materials because they are intimately connected to charge, structure, and magnetism, and a quantitative analysis of their behavior can reveal microscopic aspects of chemical bonding and spin-phonon coupling. To investigate these effects, we measured infrared vibrational properties of bulk and nanoscale MoS2 [molybdenum disulfide], MnO [manganese(II) oxide], and CoFe2O4 [cobalt iron oxide]. From an analysis of frequencies, oscillator strengths, and high-frequency dielectric constants, we extracted Born and local effective charges, and polarizability for MoS2 and MnO. For MoS2 nanoparticles ...


Confinement Effects Of Solvation On A Molecule Physisorbed On A Metal Particle, Jacob Fosso Tande Dec 2012

Confinement Effects Of Solvation On A Molecule Physisorbed On A Metal Particle, Jacob Fosso Tande

Doctoral Dissertations

We describe and present results of the implementation of the surface and volume polarization for electrostatics~(SVPE) and the iso-density surface solvation models. Unlike most other implementation of the solvation models where the solute and the solvent are described with multiple numerical representation, our implementation uses a multiresolution, adaptive multiwavelet basis to describe both solute and the solvent. This requires reformulation to use integral equations throughout as well as a conscious management of numerical properties of the basis.

Likewise, we investigate the effects of solvation on the static properties of a molecule physisorbed on a spherical particle, modeled as a ...