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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Mesoscale Computational Studies Of Thin-Film Bijels, Joseph M. Carmack May 2018

Mesoscale Computational Studies Of Thin-Film Bijels, Joseph M. Carmack

Theses and Dissertations

Bijels are a relatively new class of soft materials that have many potential applications in the technology areas of energy, medicine, and environmental sustainability. They are formed by the arrest of binary liquid spinodal decomposition by a dispersion of solid colloidal nanoparticles. This dissertation presents an in-depth simulation study of Bijels constrained to thin-film geometries and in the presence of electric fields. We validate the computational model by comparing simulation results with previous computational modeling and experimental research. In the absence of suspended particles, we demonstrate that the model accurately captures the rich kinetics associated with diffusion-based surface-directed spinodal decomposition ...


Investigating Phase Transition Temperatures Of Size Separated Gadolinium Silicide Magnetic Nanoparticles, Shivakumar G. Hunagund, Shane M. Harstad, Ahmed A. El-Gendy, Shalbh Gupta, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Ravi L. Hadimani May 2018

Investigating Phase Transition Temperatures Of Size Separated Gadolinium Silicide Magnetic Nanoparticles, Shivakumar G. Hunagund, Shane M. Harstad, Ahmed A. El-Gendy, Shalbh Gupta, Vitalij K. Pecharsky, Ravi L. Hadimani

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Gadolinium silicide (Gd5Si4) nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit different properties compared to their parent bulk materials due to finite size, shape, and surface effects. NPs were prepared by high energy ball-milling of the as-cast Gd5Si4ingot and size separated into eight fractions using time sensitive sedimentation in an applied dc magnetic field with average particle sizes ranging from 700 nm to 82 nm. The largest Gd5Si4 NPs order ferromagnetically at 316 K. A second anomaly observed at 110 K can be ascribed to a Gd5Si3 impurity. As the particle sizes decrease, the volume fraction of Gd5Si3 phase increases at the expense of the ...


Optical Modeling And Analysis Of Disordered Plasmonic Nanoparticle Ensembles, Chen Li Jan 2017

Optical Modeling And Analysis Of Disordered Plasmonic Nanoparticle Ensembles, Chen Li

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Plasmonic nanoparticle synthesis provids a facile and cost-effective bottom-up solution to fabrication of nanoscaled structures. With effective packaging methods like embedding into polymer composites and superlattice assemblies, the chemically synthesized nanoparticles are promising candidates for functional devices. However, compared with precisely patterned surfaces commonly used for device fabrication, the structural inhomogenity and disorder in nanoparticle ensembles give rise to challenge in their characterization using conventional methods and in turn, their application. This work aims to develop models as guideline to design facile characterization methods that can be used to effectively describe the properties of disordered plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles. Two types ...


Symbiotic Plasmonic Nanomaterials: Synthesis And Properties, Abhinav Malasi May 2016

Symbiotic Plasmonic Nanomaterials: Synthesis And Properties, Abhinav Malasi

Doctoral Dissertations

Metal particles of the dimensions of the order of 1 to 100's of nanometers show unique properties that are not clearly evident in their bulk state. These nanoparticles are highly reactive and sensitive to the changes in the vicinity of the particle surface and hence find applications in the field of sensing of chemical and biological agents, catalysis, energy harvesting, data storage and many more. By synthesizing bimetallic nanoparticles, a single nanoparticle can show multifunctional characteristics. The focus of this thesis is to detail the synthesis and understand the properties of bimetallic nanomaterial systems that show interesting optical, chemical ...


Slip-Jump Model For Carbon Combustion Synthesis Of Complex Oxide Nanoparticles, A. A. Markov, Mkhitar A. Hobosyan, Karen S. Martirosyan Jan 2016

Slip-Jump Model For Carbon Combustion Synthesis Of Complex Oxide Nanoparticles, A. A. Markov, Mkhitar A. Hobosyan, Karen S. Martirosyan

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Carbon Combustion Synthesis of Oxides (CCSO) is a promising method to produce submicron- and nano- sized complex oxides. The CCSO was successfully utilized for producing several complex oxides, a complete theoretical model including the sample porosity, fl ow parameters and reaction energetics is needed to predict the combustion parameters for CCSO. In this work, we studied the ignition temperature and combustion wave axial temperature distribution, activation energy, combustion heat and thermal losses for a typical CCSO synthesis for cylindrical samples of Ni-Zn ferrites with high (>85%) porosity. We developed a two level combustion model of chemically active nano-dispersed mixture, using ...


In Vacuo Fabrication And Electronic Structure Characterization Of Atomic Layer Deposition Thin Films, Michael Schaefer Nov 2015

In Vacuo Fabrication And Electronic Structure Characterization Of Atomic Layer Deposition Thin Films, Michael Schaefer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Improvement of novel electronic devices is possible by tailor-designing the electronic structure at device interfaces. Common problems observed at interfaces are related to unwanted band alignment caused by the chemical diversity of interface partners, influencing device performance negatively. One way to address this problem is by introducing ultra-thin interfacial dipole layers, steering the band alignment in a desired direction. The requirements are strict in terms of thickness, conformity and low density of defects, making sophisticated deposition techniques necessary. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) with its Ångstrom-precise thickness control can fulfill those requirements.

The work presented here encompasses the implementation of an ...


Nanoparticle Plasmonics: Going Practical With Transition Metal Nitrides, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva Apr 2015

Nanoparticle Plasmonics: Going Practical With Transition Metal Nitrides, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva

U. Guler

Promising designs and experimental realizations of devices with unusual properties in the field of plasmonics have attracted a great deal of attention over the past few decades. However, the high expectations for realized technology products have not been met so far. The main complication is the absence of robust, high performance, low cost plasmonic materials that can be easily integrated into already established technologies such as microelectronics. This review provides a brief discussion on alternative plasmonic materials for localized surface plasmon applications and focuses on transition metal nitrides, in particular, titanium nitride, which has recently been shown to be a ...


Enhanced Magnetoimpedance And Microwave Absorption Responses Of Soft Ferromagnetic Materials For Biodetection And Energy Sensing, Jagannath Devkota Jan 2015

Enhanced Magnetoimpedance And Microwave Absorption Responses Of Soft Ferromagnetic Materials For Biodetection And Energy Sensing, Jagannath Devkota

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A combination of magnetic sensors with magnetic nanoparticles offers a promising approach for highly sensitive, simple, and rapid detection of cancer cells and biomolecules. The challenge facing the field of magnetic biosensing is the development of low-cost devices capable of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-like field sensitivity at room temperature. In another area of interest, improving the sensitivity of existing electromagnetic field sensors for microwave energy sensing applications is an important and challenging task. In this dissertation, we have explored the excellent magnetoimpedance and microwave absorption responses of soft ferromagnetic amorphous ribbons and microwires for the development of high-performance ...


Comparative Study Of Magnetic Properties Of Nanoparticles By High-Frequency Heat Dissipation And Conventional Magnetometry, V. Malik, J. Goodwill, Surya K. Mallapragada, Tanya Prozorov, Ruslan Prozorov Nov 2014

Comparative Study Of Magnetic Properties Of Nanoparticles By High-Frequency Heat Dissipation And Conventional Magnetometry, V. Malik, J. Goodwill, Surya K. Mallapragada, Tanya Prozorov, Ruslan Prozorov

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The rate of heating of 15 nm uniformly-sized magnetic aqueous nanoparticles suspension by high-amplitude and high-frequency ac magnetic field induced by the resonating LC circuit was measured. The results are analyzed in terms of specific energy absorption rate (SAR). Fitting field amplitude and frequency dependences of SAR to the linear response theory, magnetic moment per particles was extracted. The value of magnetic moment was independently evaluated from dc magnetization measurements of a frozen colloid by fitting field-dependent magnetization to a Langevin function. The two methods produced similar results, which are compared to the theoretical expectation for this particle size. Additionally ...


Nanoscale Manipulation Of Pristine And Functionalized Freestanding Graphene Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Matthew Ackerman Aug 2014

Nanoscale Manipulation Of Pristine And Functionalized Freestanding Graphene Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Matthew Ackerman

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past ten years the 2D material graphene has attracted an enourmous amount of attention from researchers from across diciplines and all over the world. Many of its outstanding electronic properties are present only when it is not interacting with a substrate but is instead freestanding. In this work I demonstrate that pristine and functionalized freestanding graphene can be imaged using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and that imaging a flexible 2D surface is fundamentally different from imaging a bulk material due to the attraction between the STM tip and the sample. This attraction can be used to manipulate ...


The Optical Properties Of Spiky Gold Nanoshells, Simon Hastings Jan 2014

The Optical Properties Of Spiky Gold Nanoshells, Simon Hastings

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Plasmonic nanoparticles are a powerful and versatile tool for molecular sensing, drug delivery, and cancer treatment. When exposed to incident light, these nanoparticles have greatly increased far-field scattering and near-field enhancement. Spiky gold nanoshells are a recently developed class of nanoparticles composed of sharp gold spikes decorating a polystyrene core. Spiky nanoshells are synthesized using the templated surfactant-assisted seed growth method, which enables extensive control of the nanoparticle morphology. Here, it is shown that these particles have a tailorable far-field resonance, extremely uniform single-particle surface enhanced Raman scattering, and modal interference in dark-field microscopy measurements. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are performed ...


Fabrication Of Yttrium Ferrite Nanoparticles By Solution Combustion Synthesis, A. A. Saukhimov, Mkhitar A. Hobosyan, Gamage C. Dannangoda, N. N. Zhumabekova, S. E. Kumekov Jan 2014

Fabrication Of Yttrium Ferrite Nanoparticles By Solution Combustion Synthesis, A. A. Saukhimov, Mkhitar A. Hobosyan, Gamage C. Dannangoda, N. N. Zhumabekova, S. E. Kumekov

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

The ternary oxide system Y-Fe-O presents fascinating magnetic properties that are sensitive to the crystalline size of particles. There is a major challenge to fabricate these materials in nano-crystalline forms due to particle conglomeration during nucleation and synthesis. In this paper we report the fabrication of nano sized crystalline yttrium ferrite by solution combustion synthesis (SCS) where yttrium and iron nitrates were used as metal precursors with glycine as a fuel. The magnetic properties of the product can be selectively controlled by adjusting the ratio of glycine to metal nitrates. Yttrium ferrite nano-powder was obtained by using three concentration of ...


Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford May 2013

Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford

Theses and Dissertations

In this work, computational investigation of plasmonic nanostructures was conducted using the commercial finite element electromagnetics solver Ansys® HFSS. Arrays of silver toroid nanoparticles located on the surface of an amorphous silicon thin-film absorbing layer were studied for particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm in outer diameter. Parametric optimization by calculating an approximation of the photocurrent enhancement due to the nanoparticles was performed to determine optimal surface coverage of the nanoparticles. A comparison was made between these optimized nanotoroid arrays and optimized nanosphere arrays based on spectral absorption enhancement and potential photocurrent enhancement in an amorphous silicon ...


Plasmonics Based Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Quincy Jay Garner Jan 2013

Plasmonics Based Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Quincy Jay Garner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since the advent of the Information Age, there has been an ever growing demand to continually shrink and reduce the cost of semiconductor products. To meet this demand, a great amount of research has been done to improve our current micro/nano manufacturing processes and develop the next generation of semiconductor fabrication techniques. High throughput, low cost, smaller features, high repeatability, and the simplification of the manufacturing processes are all targets that researchers continually strive for. To this day, there are no perfect systems capable of simultaneously achieving all of these targets. For this reason, much research time is spent ...


Reactive Self-Heating Model Of Aluminum Spherical Nanoparticles, Karen S. Martirosyan, Maxim Zyskin Jan 2013

Reactive Self-Heating Model Of Aluminum Spherical Nanoparticles, Karen S. Martirosyan, Maxim Zyskin

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Aluminum-oxygen reaction is important in highly energetic and high pressure generating systems. Recent experiments with nanostructured thermites suggest that oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles occurs in a few microseconds. Such rapid reaction cannot be explained by a conventional diffusion-based mechanism. We present a rapid oxidation model of a spherical aluminum nanoparticle, using Cabrera-Mott moving boundary mechanism, and taking self-heating into account. In our model, electric potential solves the nonlinear Poisson equation. In contrast with the Coulomb potential, a “double-layer” type solution for the potential and self-heating leads to enhanced oxidation rates. At maximal reaction temperature of 2000 C, our model predicts ...


Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Of Single Silver Nanoparticles Studied By Dark-Field Optical Microscopy And Spectroscopy, Wei Cao, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali Jan 2011

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Of Single Silver Nanoparticles Studied By Dark-Field Optical Microscopy And Spectroscopy, Wei Cao, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with different shapes and disk-shaped Ag NP pairs with varying interparticle distance is studied using dark-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy (DFOMS). Disk-, square-, and triangular-shaped Ag NPs were fabricated on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by electron beam lithography. The LSPR spectra collected from single Ag NPs within 5×5 arrays using DFOMS exhibited pronounced redshifts as the NP shape changed from disk to square and to triangular. The shape-dependent experimental LSPR spectra are in good agreement with simulations using the discrete dipole approximation model, although there are small deviations in ...


Effect Of Particle Properties And Light Polarization On The Plasmonic Resonances In Metallic Nanoparticles, U. Guler, R. Turan Jul 2010

Effect Of Particle Properties And Light Polarization On The Plasmonic Resonances In Metallic Nanoparticles, U. Guler, R. Turan

U. Guler

The resonance behavior of localized surface plasmons in silver and gold nanoparticles was studied in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Arrays of nano-sized gold (Au) and silver (Ag) particles with different properties were produced with electron-beam lithography technique over glass substrates. The effect of the particle size, shape variations, period, thickness, metal type, substrate type and sulfidation were studied via transmission and reflectance measurements. The results are compared with the theoretical calculations based on the DDA simulations performed by software developed in this study. We propose a new intensity modulation technique based on localized surface plasmons ...


Far-Field Optical Nanoscopy Based On Continuous Wave Laser Stimulated Emission Depletion, C. Kuang, Wei Zhao, Guiren Wang Jan 2010

Far-Field Optical Nanoscopy Based On Continuous Wave Laser Stimulated Emission Depletion, C. Kuang, Wei Zhao, Guiren Wang

Faculty Publications

Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy is one of the breakthrough technologies that belong to far-field optical microscopy and can achieve nanoscale spatial resolution. We demonstrate a far-field optical nanoscopy based on continuous wave lasers with different wavelengths, i.e., violet and green lasers for excitation and STED, respectively. Fluorescent dyes Coumarin 102 and Atto 390 are used for validating the depletion efficiency. Fluorescent nanoparticles are selected for characterizing the spatial resolution of the STED system. Linear scanning of the laser beams of the STED system along one line of a microscope slide, which is coated with the nanoparticles, indicates that ...


Research On The Transport And Deposition Of Nanoparticles In A Rotating Curved Pipe, Jianzhong Lin, Peifeng Lin, Huajun Chen Jan 2009

Research On The Transport And Deposition Of Nanoparticles In A Rotating Curved Pipe, Jianzhong Lin, Peifeng Lin, Huajun Chen

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

A finite-volume code and the SIMPLE scheme are used to study the transport and deposition of nanoparticles in a rotating curved pipe for different angular velocities, Dean numbers, and Schmidt numbers. The results show that when the Schmidt number is small, the nanoparticle distributions are mostly determined by the axial velocity. When the Schmidt number is many orders of magnitude larger than 1, the secondary flow will dominate the nanoparticle distribution. When the pipe corotates, the distribution of nanoparticle mass fraction is similar to that for the stationary case. There is a “hot spot” deposition region near the outside edge ...


Exafs Characterization Of Dendrimer‐Derived Pt/Γ‐Al2O3, A. Siani, Oleg S. Alexeev, Christopher T. Williams, Harry J. Ploehn, Michael D. Amiridis Jan 2007

Exafs Characterization Of Dendrimer‐Derived Pt/Γ‐Al2O3, A. Siani, Oleg S. Alexeev, Christopher T. Williams, Harry J. Ploehn, Michael D. Amiridis

Faculty Publications

The various steps involved in the preparation of a Pt/γ‐Al2O3 material using hydroxyl‐terminated generation four (G4OH) PAMAM dendrimers as templates were monitored by EXAFS. The results indicate that Cl ligands in the Pt precursors (H2PtCl6 and K2PtCl4) were partially replaced by aquo ligands upon hydrolysis to form [PtCl3(H2O)3]+ and [PtCl2(H2O)2] species. After interaction of such species with G4OH, Cl ligands from the first coordination shell of Pt were further replaced by nitrogen atoms from the dendrimer interior, indicating ...


Synthesis And Magnetic Properties Of Copt–Poly(Methylmethacrylate) Nanostructured Composite Material, Jiye Fang, Kevin L. Stokes, Jibao He, Weillie L. Zhou, Charles J. O'Connor, Daniela Caruntu Jan 2002

Synthesis And Magnetic Properties Of Copt–Poly(Methylmethacrylate) Nanostructured Composite Material, Jiye Fang, Kevin L. Stokes, Jibao He, Weillie L. Zhou, Charles J. O'Connor, Daniela Caruntu

Physics Faculty Publications

We have prepared nanometer-sized CoPt particles dispersed in a poly~methyl methacrylate~PMMA!matrix, as a novel nanostructured magnetic plastic, through a soft chemical processing route. In this work, CoPt nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from a solution phase reduction system in the presence of capping ligands and stabilizing agents at high temperature. The CoPt nanoparticles were annealed at 400 °C for 3 h, and were subsequently re-dispersed inmethylmethacrylate~monomer! . The polymerization was induced by a UV source and the hardness of final product was adjusted by varying the amount of monomeric cross-link agent. Annealed bare CoPt nanoparticles as a ‘‘core ...