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Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

2013

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Near-Infrared Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence Using Silver Nanoparticles In Solution, Michael D. Furtaw Dec 2013

Near-Infrared Surface-Enhanced Fluorescence Using Silver Nanoparticles In Solution, Michael D. Furtaw

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Fluorescence spectroscopy is a widely used detection technology in many research and clinical assays. Further improvement to assay sensitivity may enable earlier diagnosis of disease, novel biomarker discovery, and ultimately, improved outcomes of clinical care along with reduction in costs. Near-infrared, surface-enhanced fluorescence (NIR-SEF) is a promising approach to improve assay sensitivity via simultaneous increase in signal with a reduction in background. This dissertation describes research conducted with the overall goal to determine the extent to which fluorescence in solution may be enhanced by altering specific variables involved in the formation of plasmonactive nanostructures of dye-labeled protein and silver nanoparticles ...


An Integrated Multidisciplinary Nanoscience Concentration Certificate Program For Stem Education, Karen S. Martirosyan, Mikhail M. Bouniaev, Malik Rachmanov, Ahmed Touhami, Nazmul Islam, Davood Askari, Tarek Trad, Dmitri Litvinov, Sergey E. Lyshevski Dec 2013

An Integrated Multidisciplinary Nanoscience Concentration Certificate Program For Stem Education, Karen S. Martirosyan, Mikhail M. Bouniaev, Malik Rachmanov, Ahmed Touhami, Nazmul Islam, Davood Askari, Tarek Trad, Dmitri Litvinov, Sergey E. Lyshevski

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations

Integration of nanoscience and nanotechnology curricula into the College of Science, Mathematics, and Technology (CSMT) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) is reported. The rationale for the established multidisciplinary Nanoscience Concentration Certificate Program (NCCP) is to: (i) develop nanotechnology-relevant courses within a comprehensive Science, Engineering and Technology curriculum, and, to offer students an opportunity to graduate with a certificate in nanoscience and nanotechnology; (ii) to contribute to students' success in achieving student outcomes across all college's majors, and, improve the breath, depth and quality of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduates' education; (iii) through NCCP, recruit ...


Elementary Studies Of Twisted Bilayer Graphene, Branden P. Burns, Yong P. Chen Oct 2013

Elementary Studies Of Twisted Bilayer Graphene, Branden P. Burns, Yong P. Chen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In the nanotechnology field, some existing materials and applications are harmful to the environment, not efficient for certain tasks, or too expensive to be fully utilized. Graphene is a strong and cheap material that can be used to improve current nanotechnologies for more practical uses in society. Twisted bilayer graphene (TBG) is an orientation of graphene layers that exhibit different properties than regular bilayer graphene. It is made by placing a single layer of graphene on top of another at an angle with respect to the other lattice orientation. Understanding the characteristics of TBG is important to uncover more physics ...


Structural Properties Of Ferroelectric Lead (Zirconium0.5,Titanium0.5)Oxygen3 Nanotube Array And Electronic Structure Of Lao Delta-Doped Strontium Titanate, Rajendra Prasad Adhikari Aug 2013

Structural Properties Of Ferroelectric Lead (Zirconium0.5,Titanium0.5)Oxygen3 Nanotube Array And Electronic Structure Of Lao Delta-Doped Strontium Titanate, Rajendra Prasad Adhikari

Theses and Dissertations

In this Dissertation we begin with two introductions on: 1) ferroelectricity and related phenomena, and 2) novel properties of Oxide electronics and the generation of two dimensional electron gas. We then give theoretical background of density functional theory (including LDA+U) and pseudopotentials. The first part of research work is about structural, polarization, and dielectric properties of ferroelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) solid solution in the form of a nanotube array, embedded in a matrix medium of different ferroelectric strengths. We use the effective Hamiltonian derived from first-principles and finite-temperature Monte Carlo methods to determine the various properties. We revealed ...


Multiscale Study Of Batio3 Nanostructures And Nanocomposites, Lydie Louis Louis Aug 2013

Multiscale Study Of Batio3 Nanostructures And Nanocomposites, Lydie Louis Louis

Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in integrated nanoelectronics will continue to require the use of unique materials or systems of materials with diverse functionalities in increasingly confined spaces.

Hence, research on finite-dimensional systems strive to unearth and expand the knowledge of fundamental physical properties in certain key materials which exhibit numerous concurrent and exploitable functions.

Correspondingly, ferroelectric nanostructures, which particularly display a plethora of complex phenomena, prevalent in countless fields of research, are noteworthy candidates. Presently, however, the assimilation of zero-(0D) and one-dimensional (1D) ferroelectric into micro- or nano-electronics has been lagging, in part due to a lack of applied and fundamental studies ...


Atmospheric Pressure He-Air Plasma Jet: Breakdown Process And Propagation Phenomenon, Asma Begum, Mounir Laroussi, Mohammad Rasel Pervez Jun 2013

Atmospheric Pressure He-Air Plasma Jet: Breakdown Process And Propagation Phenomenon, Asma Begum, Mounir Laroussi, Mohammad Rasel Pervez

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma ...


Novel Bimetallic Plasmonic Nanomaterials, Ritesh Sachan May 2013

Novel Bimetallic Plasmonic Nanomaterials, Ritesh Sachan

Doctoral Dissertations

Plasmonic nanomaterials have attracted a lot of attention recently due to their application in various fields such as chemical and biological sensing, catalysis, energy harvesting and optical devices. However, there is a need to address several outstanding issues with these materials, including cost-effective synthesis, tunability in plasmonic characteristics, and long term stability. In this thesis, we have focused on bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of Ag and Co due to their immiscibility as well as their individual properties. First, a pulsed laser induced dewetting route was used to synthesize Ag-Co bimetallic plasmonic NPs. An synthesis parameter space was derived to show the ...


Femtosecond Laser Patterned Templates And Imprinted Polymer Structures, Deepak Rajput May 2013

Femtosecond Laser Patterned Templates And Imprinted Polymer Structures, Deepak Rajput

Doctoral Dissertations

Femtosecond laser machining is a direct-write lithography technique by which user-defined patterns are efficiently and rapidly generated at the surface or within the bulk of transparent materials. When femtosecond laser machining is performed with tightly focused amplified pulses in single-pulse mode, transparent substrates like fused silica can be surface patterned with high aspect ratio (>10:1) and deep (>10 μm) nanoholes. The main objective behind this dissertation is to develop single-pulse amplified femtosecond laser machining into a novel technique for the production of fused silica templates with user-defined patterns made of high aspect ratio nanoholes. The size of the nanoholes ...


Nanowire Metal-Insulator-Metal Plasmonic Devices, Joseph W. Haus, Li Li, Cong Deng, Nkorni Katte, Michael Scalora, Domenico De Ceglia, Maria Antonietta Vincenti May 2013

Nanowire Metal-Insulator-Metal Plasmonic Devices, Joseph W. Haus, Li Li, Cong Deng, Nkorni Katte, Michael Scalora, Domenico De Ceglia, Maria Antonietta Vincenti

Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty Publications

In this paper we theoretically study the responsivity of Metal-Insulator-Metal nanostructures to light illumination over a broad wavelength band (1 - 25 microns) and we examine the role of a local field enhancement and electrostatic field on the responsivity.


The Geometry And Sensitivity Of Ion-Beam Sculpted Nanopores For Single Molecule Dna Analysis, Ryan Connor Rollings May 2013

The Geometry And Sensitivity Of Ion-Beam Sculpted Nanopores For Single Molecule Dna Analysis, Ryan Connor Rollings

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, the relationship between the geometry of ion-beam sculpted solid-state nanopores and their ability to analyze single DNA molecules using resistive pulse sensing is investigated. To accomplish this, the three dimensional shape of the nanopore is determined using energy filtered and tomographic transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that this information enables the prediction of the ionic current passing through a voltage biased nanopore and improves the prediction of the magnitude of current drop signals when the nanopore interacts with single DNA molecules. The dimensional stability of nanopores in solution is monitored using this information and is improved ...


Directed Percolation And The Abstract Tile Assembly Model, Tyler Garrett Moore May 2013

Directed Percolation And The Abstract Tile Assembly Model, Tyler Garrett Moore

Theses and Dissertations

Self-assembly is a process by which simple components build complex structures through local interactions. Directed percolation is a statistical physical model for describing competitive spreading processes on lattices. The author describes an algorithm which can transform a tile assembly system in the abstract Tile Assembly Model into a directed percolation problem, and then shows simulations of the aTAM which support this algorithm. The author also investigates two new constructs designed for Erik Winfree's abstract Tile Assembly Model called the NULL tile and temperature 1.5. These constructs aid the translation between self-assembly and directed percolation and may assist self-assembly ...


Design And Fabrication Of Nanofluidic Systems With Integrated Sensing Electrodes For Rapid Biomolecule Characterization, Taylor Bradley Busch May 2013

Design And Fabrication Of Nanofluidic Systems With Integrated Sensing Electrodes For Rapid Biomolecule Characterization, Taylor Bradley Busch

Theses and Dissertations

A transparent nanofluidic system with embedded sensing electrodes was designed and fabricated by integrating Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nanolithography, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and metal deposition, and standard microfabrication processing. The fabrication process started with the evaporation of chrome/gold (Cr/Au) onto a Pyrex 7740 wafer followed by photolithography and wet etching of the microchannels. The wafer was patterned a second time to form Au microelectrodes with 15-45 micrometer separation gaps in the nanochannel region. Sensing electrodes (up to one micron wide) were then deposited using FIB to bridge the gaps. The nanochannels were realized through both AFM ...


Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford May 2013

Plasmonic Nanostructures For The Absorption Enhancement Of Silicon Solar Cells, Nathan Matthias Burford

Theses and Dissertations

In this work, computational investigation of plasmonic nanostructures was conducted using the commercial finite element electromagnetics solver Ansys® HFSS. Arrays of silver toroid nanoparticles located on the surface of an amorphous silicon thin-film absorbing layer were studied for particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm in outer diameter. Parametric optimization by calculating an approximation of the photocurrent enhancement due to the nanoparticles was performed to determine optimal surface coverage of the nanoparticles. A comparison was made between these optimized nanotoroid arrays and optimized nanosphere arrays based on spectral absorption enhancement and potential photocurrent enhancement in an amorphous silicon ...


Modeling Complex Properties Of Ferroelectric Nanocomposites, Raymond T. Walter Apr 2013

Modeling Complex Properties Of Ferroelectric Nanocomposites, Raymond T. Walter

Raymond Walter

No abstract provided.


Study Of The Growth And Switching Kinetics On Ferroelectric Nanocrystals Of Copolymer Vinylidene Fluoride And Trifluoroethylene On An Atomic Force Microscope, R. V. Gaynutdinov, O. A. Lysova, A. L. Tolstikhina, V. M. Fridkin, S. G. Yudin, Stephen Ducharme Mar 2013

Study Of The Growth And Switching Kinetics On Ferroelectric Nanocrystals Of Copolymer Vinylidene Fluoride And Trifluoroethylene On An Atomic Force Microscope, R. V. Gaynutdinov, O. A. Lysova, A. L. Tolstikhina, V. M. Fridkin, S. G. Yudin, Stephen Ducharme

Stephen Ducharme Publications

The growth of nanocrystals obtained from Langmuir-Blodgett films of ferroelectric copolymer consisting of 70% vinylidene fluoride and 30% trifluoroethylene has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The radius and concentration of nanocrystals are found to depend on the annealing time of the film. A model for nanocrystal growth is proposed which yields adequate time dependences for nanocrystal size parameters. The switching kinetics of individual ferroelectric nanocrystals with an average diameter of 100–200 nm and a height of 15–20 nm has been investigated in the piezoelectric response mode. It is shown that the switching of nanocrystals has an ...


Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal Feb 2013

Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Stochastic Charge Transport In Multi-Island Single-Electron Tunneling Devices, Madhusudan A. Savaikar Jan 2013

Stochastic Charge Transport In Multi-Island Single-Electron Tunneling Devices, Madhusudan A. Savaikar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

The physics of the operation of singe-electron tunneling devices (SEDs) and singe-electron tunneling transistors (SETs), especially of those with multiple nanometer-sized islands, has remained poorly understood in spite of some intensive experimental and theoretical research. This computational study examines the current-voltage (IV) characteristics of multi-island single-electron devices using a newly developed multi-island transport simulator (MITS) that is based on semi-classical tunneling theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The dependence of device characteristics on physical device parameters is explored, and the physical mechanisms that lead to the Coulomb blockade (CB) and Coulomb staircase (CS) characteristics are proposed.

Simulations using MITS demonstrate ...


Fabrication Of Two-Dimensional Nanostructures On Glass Using Nanosphere Lithography, Elmer Jim Wang Jan 2013

Fabrication Of Two-Dimensional Nanostructures On Glass Using Nanosphere Lithography, Elmer Jim Wang

Wayne State University Theses

It is desired to have artificial optical materials with controllable optical properties. Optical glass is the most common optical material for various applications. This research will attempt to create a thin layer on the substrate with controllable optical properties. The thin layer is a composite material with nanoscale features and controllable refractive index. Two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures will be created on the surface of optical glass using nanosphere lithography. In comparison with conventional techniques, this approach is more efficient and cost-effective for the creation of large areas of thin surface layers as an artificial material. A uniform monolayer of nanospheres will ...


Engineering Tunable Plasmonic Nanostructures To Enhance Upconversion Luminescence, Marjan Saboktakin Jan 2013

Engineering Tunable Plasmonic Nanostructures To Enhance Upconversion Luminescence, Marjan Saboktakin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Plasmonic nanostructures, which can confine and manipulate light below the diffraction limit, are becoming increasingly important in many areas of optical physics and devices. One of the areas that can greatly benefit from surface-plasmon mediated confinement of optical fields is the enhancement of emission in low quantum yield materials. The resonant wavelength for plasmonic structures used for emission enhancement is either the excitation or emission wavelengths of the luminescent material. Therefore, a key component in designing plasmonic structures used in luminescent enhancement applications is the ability to engineer and tune plasmonic building blocks to create structures resonant at the desired ...


Quantum Computing With Steady State Spin Currents, Brian Matthew Sutton Jan 2013

Quantum Computing With Steady State Spin Currents, Brian Matthew Sutton

Open Access Theses

Many approaches to quantum computing use spatially confined qubits in the presence of dynamic fields to perform computation. These approaches are contrasted with proposals using mobile qubits in the presence of static fields. In this thesis, steady state quantum computing using mobile electrons is explored using numerical modeling. Firstly, a foundational introduction to the case of spatially confined qubits embodied via quantum dots is provided. A collection of universal gates implemented with dynamic fields is described using simulations. These gates are combined to implement a five-qubit Grover search to provide further insight on the time-dependent field approach. Secondly, the quantum ...


Ultrastable Atomic Force Microscopy For Biophysics, Allison Beth Churnside Jan 2013

Ultrastable Atomic Force Microscopy For Biophysics, Allison Beth Churnside

Physics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a multifunctional workhorse of nanoscience and molecular biophysics, but instrumental drift remains a critical issue that limits the precision and duration of experiments. We have significantly reduced the two most important types of drift: in position and in force. The first, position drift, is defined as uncontrolled motion between the tip and the sample, which occurs in all three dimensions. By scattering a laser off the apex of a commercial AFM tip, we locally measured and thereby actively controlled its three-dimensional position above a sample surface to <0.4Å(Δf = 0.01-10 Hz) in air at room ...


Dispersion And Self-Assembly Of Anisotropic Plasmonic Nanoparticles In Liquid Crystalline Media, Julian Samuel Goodwin Evans Jan 2013

Dispersion And Self-Assembly Of Anisotropic Plasmonic Nanoparticles In Liquid Crystalline Media, Julian Samuel Goodwin Evans

Physics Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Noble metal nanoparticles possess extraordinary optical properties due to their plasmon modes that make them desirable for inclusion into materials. Non-dipolar plasmon modes are one of the simplest known ways to control the magnetic properties of a material; consequently gold nanoparticles are one of the most promising systems to produce metamaterials. In order to fully utilize the properties of gold nanoparticles for device applications, one needs to control the interparticle spacing, distribution, and orientation of anisotropic gold nanoparticles within a material. Liquid crystalline host materials can allow for alignment and self-assembly of nanoparticles through viscoelastic forces. In this thesis, I ...


Transparent Actuator Made With Few Layer Graphene Electrode And Dielectric Elastomer, For Variable Focus Lens, Taeseon Hwang, Hyeok-Yong Kwon, Joon-Suk Oh, Jung-Pyo Hong, Seung-Chul Hong, Youngkwan Lee, Hyouk Ryeo Choi, Kwang J. Kim, Mainul Hossain Bhuiya, Jae Do Nam Jan 2013

Transparent Actuator Made With Few Layer Graphene Electrode And Dielectric Elastomer, For Variable Focus Lens, Taeseon Hwang, Hyeok-Yong Kwon, Joon-Suk Oh, Jung-Pyo Hong, Seung-Chul Hong, Youngkwan Lee, Hyouk Ryeo Choi, Kwang J. Kim, Mainul Hossain Bhuiya, Jae Do Nam

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

A transparent dielectric elastomer actuator driven by few-layer-graphene (FLG) electrode was experimentally investigated. The electrodes were made of graphene, which was dispersed inN-methyl-pyrrolidone. The transparent actuator was fabricated from developed FLG electrodes.The FLG electrode with its sheet resistance of 0.45 kΩ/sq (80 nm thick) was implemented to mask silicone elastomer. The developed FLG-driven actuator exhibited an optical transparency of over 57% at a wavenumber of 600 nm and produced bending displacement performance ranging from 29 to 946 μm as functions of frequency and voltage. The focus variation was clearly demonstrated under actuation to study ...


Plasmonics Based Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Quincy Jay Garner Jan 2013

Plasmonics Based Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Quincy Jay Garner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since the advent of the Information Age, there has been an ever growing demand to continually shrink and reduce the cost of semiconductor products. To meet this demand, a great amount of research has been done to improve our current micro/nano manufacturing processes and develop the next generation of semiconductor fabrication techniques. High throughput, low cost, smaller features, high repeatability, and the simplification of the manufacturing processes are all targets that researchers continually strive for. To this day, there are no perfect systems capable of simultaneously achieving all of these targets. For this reason, much research time is spent ...


Surface Plasmon Polaritons And Waveguide Modes At Structured And Inhomogeneous Surfaces, Javier Polanco Jan 2013

Surface Plasmon Polaritons And Waveguide Modes At Structured And Inhomogeneous Surfaces, Javier Polanco

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In chapter 1, properties of a p-polarized surface plasmon polariton are studied, propagating circumferentially around a portion of a cylindrical interface between vacuum and a metal, a situation investigated earlier by M. V. Berry (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 8, (1975) 1952). When the metal is convex toward the vacuum this mode is radiative and consequently is attenuated as it propagates on the cylindrical surface. An approximate analytic solution of the dispersion relation for this wave is obtained by an approach different from the one used by Berry, and plots of the real and imaginary parts of its wave number ...


Scaling Of The Coercive Field In Ferroelectrics At The Nanoscale, R. V. Gaynutdinov, M. Minnekaev, S. Mitko, A. L. Tolstikhina, A. Zenkevich, Stephen Ducharme, Vladimir M. Fridkin Jan 2013

Scaling Of The Coercive Field In Ferroelectrics At The Nanoscale, R. V. Gaynutdinov, M. Minnekaev, S. Mitko, A. L. Tolstikhina, A. Zenkevich, Stephen Ducharme, Vladimir M. Fridkin

Stephen Ducharme Publications

The scaling of the coercive field in ferroelectric films at the nanoscale is investigated experimentally. The scaling in the films of copolymer vinylidene fluoride and BaTiO3 with thickness equal by the order of value to the critical domain nucleus size 1–10 nm reveals deviation from the well-known Kay–Dunn law. At this thickness region coercive field does not depend on thickness and coincides with Landau–Ginzburg–Devonshire value.


Magnetization Dynamics And Related Phenomena In Nanostructures, Sayan Chandra Jan 2013

Magnetization Dynamics And Related Phenomena In Nanostructures, Sayan Chandra

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Collective magnetic behavior in nanostructures is a phenomenon commonly observed in various magnetic systems. It arises due to competing inter/intra–particle interactions and size distribution and can manifest in phenomena like magnetic freezing, magnetic aging, and exchange bias (EB) effect. In order to probe these rather complex phenomena, conventional DC and AC magnetic measurements have been performed along with radio–frequency transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements. We also demonstrate the magnetic entropy change as a parameter sensitive to subtle changes in the magnetization dynamics of nanostructures. The focus of this dissertation is to study the collective magnetic behavior in core-shell ...