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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Improved Gas Sensing Performance Of Ald Azo 3-D Coated Zno Nanorods, P. Lin, X. Chen, K. Zhang, H. Baumgart Dec 2018

Improved Gas Sensing Performance Of Ald Azo 3-D Coated Zno Nanorods, P. Lin, X. Chen, K. Zhang, H. Baumgart

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper reports an enhancement on the sensing performance of ZnO nanorod ethanol sensors with a new approach by utilizing nested coatings of Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technology. ZnO nanorods were grown by the hydrothermal method with the ZnO seed layer synthesized on Silicon wafers by ALD. To enhance the sensing performance of ZnO nanorod ethanol sensors, multiple coated AZO thin film 3-D coatings were deposited on the surface of the intrinsic ZnO nanorods by ALD.To investigate the sensing performance of the ZnO nanorods sensor for the detection of ethanol vapor, a ...


No2- And No3- Enhance Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induced Cancer Cell Death By Generation Of Onoo-, Dehui Xu, Qingjie Cui, Yujing Xu, Zhijie Liu, Zeyu Chen, Wenjie Xia, Hao Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong Oct 2018

No2- And No3- Enhance Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induced Cancer Cell Death By Generation Of Onoo-, Dehui Xu, Qingjie Cui, Yujing Xu, Zhijie Liu, Zeyu Chen, Wenjie Xia, Hao Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a rapidly developed technology that has been widely applied in biomedicine especially in cancer treatment. Due to the generation of various active species in plasma, CAP could induce various tumor cells death and showed a promising potential in cancer therapy. To enhance the biological effects of gas plasma, changing the discharging parameters is the most commonly used method, yet increasing discharging power will lead to a higher possibility of simultaneously damage surrounding tissues. In this study, by adding nontoxic concentration of additional nitrite and nitrate in the medium, we found that anti-tumor effect of CAP ...


Electroosmotic Flow Of Viscoelastic Fluid In A Nanoslit, Lanju Mei, Hongna Zhang, Hongxia Meng, Shizhi Qian Mar 2018

Electroosmotic Flow Of Viscoelastic Fluid In A Nanoslit, Lanju Mei, Hongna Zhang, Hongxia Meng, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

The electroosmotic flow (EOF) of viscoelastic fluid in a long nanoslit is numerically studied to investigate the rheological property effect of Linear Phan-Thien-Tanner (LPTT) fluid on the fully developed EOF. The non-linear Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations governing the electric potential and the ionic concentration distribution within the channel are adopted to take into account the effect of the electrical double layer (EDL), including the EDL overlap. When the EDL is not overlapped, the velocity profiles for both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids are plug-like and increase sharply near the charged wall. The velocity profile resembles that of pressure-driven flow when the EDL is ...


Characterization And Analysis Of Real-Time Capillary Convective Pcr Toward Commercialization, Xianbo Qiu, Shiyin Zhang, Lanju Mei, Di Wu, Ke Li, Shengxiang Ge, Xiangzhong Ye, Ningshao Xia, Michael G. Mauk Mar 2017

Characterization And Analysis Of Real-Time Capillary Convective Pcr Toward Commercialization, Xianbo Qiu, Shiyin Zhang, Lanju Mei, Di Wu, Ke Li, Shengxiang Ge, Xiangzhong Ye, Ningshao Xia, Michael G. Mauk

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Almost all the reported capillary convective polymerase chain reaction (CCPCR) systems to date are still limited to research use stemming from unresolved issues related to repeatability, reliability, convenience, and sensitivity. To move CCPCR technology forward toward commercialization, a couple of critical strategies and innovations are discussed here. First, single- and dual-end heating strategies are analyzed and compared between each other. Especially, different solutions for dual-end heating are proposed and discussed, and the heat transfer and fluid flow inside the capillary tube with an optimized dual-end heating strategy are analyzed and modeled. Second, real-time CCPCR is implemented with light-emitting diode and ...


Light Soaking Phenomena In Organic-Inorganic Mixed Halide Perovskite Single Crystals, Hye Ryung Byun, Dae Young Park, Hye Min Oh, Gon Namkoong, Mun Seok Jeong Jan 2017

Light Soaking Phenomena In Organic-Inorganic Mixed Halide Perovskite Single Crystals, Hye Ryung Byun, Dae Young Park, Hye Min Oh, Gon Namkoong, Mun Seok Jeong

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Recently, organic inorganic mixed halide perovskite (MAPbX3; MA = CH3NH3+, X = Cl-, Br-, or I-) single crystals with low defect densities have been highlighted as candidate materials for high-efficiency photovoltaics and optoelectronics. Here we report the optical and structural investigations of mixed halide perovskite (MAPbBr3-xIx) single crystals. Mixed halide perovskite single crystals showed strong light soaking phenomena with light illumination conditions that were correlated to the trapping and detrapping events from defect sites. By systematic investigation with optical analysis, we found that the pseudocubic phase of mixed halide perovskites generates light soaking phenomena. These ...


Dynamic Transition Of Vortices Into Phase Slips And Generation Of Vortex-Antivortex Pairs In Thin Film Josephson Junctions Under Dc And Ac Currents, Ahmad Sheikhzada, Alex Gurevich Jan 2017

Dynamic Transition Of Vortices Into Phase Slips And Generation Of Vortex-Antivortex Pairs In Thin Film Josephson Junctions Under Dc And Ac Currents, Ahmad Sheikhzada, Alex Gurevich

Physics Faculty Publications

We present theoretical and numerical investigations of vortices driven by strong dc and ac currents in long Josephson junctions described by a nonlinear integro-differential equation which takes into account nonlocal electrodynamics of films, vortex bremsstrahlung, and Cherenkov radiation amplified by the attraction of vortices to the edges of the junction. This work focuses on the dynamics of vortices in Josephson junctions in thin films where the effects of Josephson nonlocality are essential but London screening is negligible. We obtained an exact solution for a vortex driven by an arbitrary time-dependent current in an overdamped junction where the vortex turns into ...


Uv Light-Induced Aggregation Of Titania Submicron Particles, Can Zhou, Yashar Bashirzadeh, Timothy A. Bernadowsky Jr., Xiaoyu Zhang Jan 2016

Uv Light-Induced Aggregation Of Titania Submicron Particles, Can Zhou, Yashar Bashirzadeh, Timothy A. Bernadowsky Jr., Xiaoyu Zhang

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

In this study, aggregation of TiO2 (rutile and anatase) submicron particles in deionized (DI) water under ultra-violet (UV) light irradiation was investigated. While no aggregation was observed in the dark, rutile and anatase submicron particles started aggregating upon application of UV light and ceased aggregation in about 2 and 8.4 h, respectively. It has been demonstrated that UV light directly mitigated the particle mobility of TiO2, resulting in a neutralization effect of the Zeta potential. It was also observed that rutile particles aggregated much faster than anatase particles under UV radiation, indicating that the Zeta potential of ...


Maximum Screening Fields Of Superconducting Multilayer Structures, Alex Gurevich Jan 2015

Maximum Screening Fields Of Superconducting Multilayer Structures, Alex Gurevich

Physics Faculty Publications

It is shown that a multilayer comprised of alternating thin superconducting and insulating layers on a thick substrate can fully screen the applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating fields Hsof both the superconducting layers and the substrate, the maximum Meissner field is achieved at an optimum multilayer thickness. For instance, a dirty layer of thickness ~0.1μm at the Nb surface could increase Hs similar or equal to 240 mT of a clean Nb up to Hs similar or equal to 290 mT. Optimized multilayers of Nb3Sn, NbN, some of the iron pnictides, or ...


An Unexpected Particle Oscillation For Electrophoresis In Viscoelastic Fluids Through A Microchannel Constriction, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Meng Zhang, Sang Woo Joo, Shizhi Qian, Amod Ogale, Xiangchun Xuan Jan 2014

An Unexpected Particle Oscillation For Electrophoresis In Viscoelastic Fluids Through A Microchannel Constriction, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Meng Zhang, Sang Woo Joo, Shizhi Qian, Amod Ogale, Xiangchun Xuan

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Electrophoresis plays an important role in many applications, which, however, has so far been extensively studied in Newtonian fluids only. This work presents the first experimental investigation of particle electrophoresis in viscoelastic polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions through a microchannel constriction under pure DC electric fields. An oscillatory particle motion is observed in the constriction region, which is distinctly different from the particle behavior in a polymer-free Newtonian fluid. This stream-wise particle oscillation continues until a sufficient number of particles form a chain to pass through the constriction completely. It is speculated that such an unexpected particle oscillating phenomenon is a ...


Microfluidic Electrical Sorting Of Particles Based On Shape In A Spiral Microchannel, John Dubose, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Shizhi Qian, Sang Woo Joo Jan 2014

Microfluidic Electrical Sorting Of Particles Based On Shape In A Spiral Microchannel, John Dubose, Xinyu Lu, Saurin Patel, Shizhi Qian, Sang Woo Joo

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Shape is an intrinsic marker of cell cycle, an important factor for identifying a bioparticle, and also a useful indicator of cell state for disease diagnostics. Therefore, shape can be a specific marker in label-free particle and cell separation for various chemical and biological applications. We demonstrate in this work a continuous-flow electrical sorting of spherical and peanut-shaped particles of similar volumes in an asymmetric double-spiral microchannel. It exploits curvature-induced dielectrophoresis to focus particles to a tight stream in the first spiral without any sheath flow and subsequently displace them to shape-dependent flow paths in the second spiral without any ...


Enhancing The Insulation Of Wide-Range Spectrum In The Pva/N Thin Film By Doping Zno Nanowires, Yu-Chen Lin, Ching-Hsiang Vhen, Liang-Yih Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shizhi Qian Jan 2014

Enhancing The Insulation Of Wide-Range Spectrum In The Pva/N Thin Film By Doping Zno Nanowires, Yu-Chen Lin, Ching-Hsiang Vhen, Liang-Yih Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

In this study, polyvinyl alcohol/nitrogen (PVA/N) hybrid thin films doped with sharp-sword ZnO nanowires with insulating effect and wide-range spectrum are demonstrated for the first time. PVA/N doped ZnO nanocomposites were developed by blending PVA and N-doped ZnO nanowires in water at room temperature. Measurements from the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and photoluminescence emission (PL) spectra of the products show that nitrogen is successfully doped into the ZnO wurtzite crystal lattice. In addition, the refractive index of PVA/N doped ZnO hybrid thin films can be controlled by varying the doped ...


Atmospheric Pressure He-Air Plasma Jet: Breakdown Process And Propagation Phenomenon, Asma Begum, Mounir Laroussi, Mohammad Rasel Pervez Jun 2013

Atmospheric Pressure He-Air Plasma Jet: Breakdown Process And Propagation Phenomenon, Asma Begum, Mounir Laroussi, Mohammad Rasel Pervez

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma ...


Microfluidic Separation Of Live And Dead Yeast Cells Using Reservoir-Based Dielectrophoresis, Saurin Patel, Daniel Showers, Pallavi Vedantam, Tzuen-Rong Tzeng, Shizhi Qian, Xiangchun Xuan Jan 2012

Microfluidic Separation Of Live And Dead Yeast Cells Using Reservoir-Based Dielectrophoresis, Saurin Patel, Daniel Showers, Pallavi Vedantam, Tzuen-Rong Tzeng, Shizhi Qian, Xiangchun Xuan

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Separating live and dead cells is critical to the diagnosis of early stage diseases and to the efficacy test of drug screening, etc. This work demonstrates a novel microfluidic approach to dielectrophoretic separation of yeast cells by viability. It exploits the cell dielectrophoresis that is induced by the inherent electric field gradient at the reservoir-microchannel junction to selectively trap dead yeast cells and continuously separate them from live ones right inside the reservoir. This approach is therefore termed reservoir-based dielectrophoresis (rDEP). It has unique advantages as compared to existing dielectrophoretic approaches such as the occupation of zero channel space and ...


Synthesis Of Ald Zinc Oxide And Thin Film Materials Optimization For Uv Photodetector Applications, Kandabara Nouhoum Tapily Apr 2011

Synthesis Of Ald Zinc Oxide And Thin Film Materials Optimization For Uv Photodetector Applications, Kandabara Nouhoum Tapily

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a direct, wide bandgap semiconductor material. It is thermodynamically stable in the wurtzite structure at ambient temperature conditions. ZnO has very interesting optical and electrical properties and is a suitable candidate for numerous optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, LEDs and UV-photodetectors. ZnO is a naturally n-type semiconductor. Due to the lack of reproducible p-type ZnO, achieving good homojunction ZnO-based photodiodes such as UV-photodetectors remains a challenge. Meanwhile, heterojunction structures of ZnO with p-type substrates such as SiC, GaN, NiO, AlGaN, Si etc. are used; however, those heterojunction diodes suffer from low efficiencies. ZnO is an ...


Nonuniformity In Lattice Contraction Of Bismuth Nanoclusters Heated Near Its Melting Point, A. Esmail, M. Abdel-Fattah, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali Jan 2011

Nonuniformity In Lattice Contraction Of Bismuth Nanoclusters Heated Near Its Melting Point, A. Esmail, M. Abdel-Fattah, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The structural properties of bismuth nanoclusters were investigated with transmission high-energy electron diffraction from room temperature up to 525 ± 6 K. The Bi nanoclusters were fabricated by thermal evaporation at room temperature on transmission electron microscope grids coated with an ultrathin carbon film, followed by thermal and femtosecond laser annealing. The annealed sample had an average cluster size of ∼14 nm along the minor axis and ∼16 nm along the major axis. The Debye temperature of the annealed nanoclusters was found to be 53 ± 6 K along the [012] direction and 86 ± 9 K along the [110] direction. At T ...


Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Of Single Silver Nanoparticles Studied By Dark-Field Optical Microscopy And Spectroscopy, Wei Cao, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali Jan 2011

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Of Single Silver Nanoparticles Studied By Dark-Field Optical Microscopy And Spectroscopy, Wei Cao, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with different shapes and disk-shaped Ag NP pairs with varying interparticle distance is studied using dark-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy (DFOMS). Disk-, square-, and triangular-shaped Ag NPs were fabricated on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by electron beam lithography. The LSPR spectra collected from single Ag NPs within 5×5 arrays using DFOMS exhibited pronounced redshifts as the NP shape changed from disk to square and to triangular. The shape-dependent experimental LSPR spectra are in good agreement with simulations using the discrete dipole approximation model, although there are small deviations in ...


Precise Control Of Highly Ordered Arrays Of Nested Semiconductor/Metal Nanotubes, Diefeng Gu, Helmut Baumgart, Kandabara Tapily, Pragya Shrestha, Gon Namkoong, Xianyu Ao, Frank Müller Jan 2011

Precise Control Of Highly Ordered Arrays Of Nested Semiconductor/Metal Nanotubes, Diefeng Gu, Helmut Baumgart, Kandabara Tapily, Pragya Shrestha, Gon Namkoong, Xianyu Ao, Frank Müller

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Lithographically defined microporous templates in conjunction with the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique enable remarkable control of complex novel nested nanotube structures. So far three-dimensional control of physical process parameters has not been fully realized with high precision resolution, and requires optimization in order to achieve a wider range of potential applications. Furthermore, the combination of composite insulating oxide layers alternating with semiconducting layers and metals can provide various types of novel applications and eventually provide unique and advanced levels of multifunctional nanoscale devices. Semiconducting TiO2 nanotubes have potential applications in photovoltaic devices. The combination of nanostructured semiconducting materials ...


A Cell Electrofusion Microfluidic Device Integrated With 3d Thin-Film Microelectrode Arrays, Ning Hu, Jun Yang, Shizhi Qian, Sang W. Joo, Xiaolin Zheng Jan 2011

A Cell Electrofusion Microfluidic Device Integrated With 3d Thin-Film Microelectrode Arrays, Ning Hu, Jun Yang, Shizhi Qian, Sang W. Joo, Xiaolin Zheng

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

A microfluidic device integrated with 3D thin film microelectrode arrays wrapped around serpentine-shaped microchannel walls has been designed, fabricated and tested for cell electrofusion. Each microelectrode array has 1015 discrete microelectrodes patterned on each side wall, and the adjacent microelectrodes are separated by coplanar dielectric channel wall. The device was tested to electrofuse K562 cells under a relatively low voltage. Under an AC electric field applied between the pair of the microelectrode arrays, cells are paired at the edge of each discrete microelectrode due to the induced positive dielectrophoresis. Subsequently, electric pulse signals are sequentially applied between the microelectrode arrays ...


Negative Dielectrophoretic Capture Of Bacterial Spores In Food Matrices, Mehti Koklu, Seungkyung Park, Suresh D. Pillai, Ali Beskok Sep 2010

Negative Dielectrophoretic Capture Of Bacterial Spores In Food Matrices, Mehti Koklu, Seungkyung Park, Suresh D. Pillai, Ali Beskok

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

A microfluidic device with planar square electrodes is developed for capturing particles from high conductivity media using negative dielectrophoresis (n-DEP). Specifically, Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium sporogenes spores, and polystyrene particles are tested in NaCl solution (0.05 and 0.225 S/m), apple juice (0.225 S/m), and milk (0.525 S/m). Depending on the conductivity of the medium, the Joule heating produces electrothermal flow (ETF), which continuously circulates and transports the particles to the DEP capture sites. Combination of the ETF and n-DEP results in different particle capture efficiencies as a function of the conductivity. Utilizing 20 ...


Dielectrophoretic Choking Phenomenon In A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Shizhi Qian, Sheng Liu, Sang W. Joo Jan 2010

Dielectrophoretic Choking Phenomenon In A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Shizhi Qian, Sheng Liu, Sang W. Joo

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Experiments show that particles smaller than the throat size of converging-diverging microchannels can sometimes be trapped near the throat. This critical phenomenon is associated with the negative dc dielectrophoresis arising from nonuniform electric fields in the microchannels. A finite-element model, accounting for the particle-fluid-electric field interactions, is employed to investigate the conditions for this dielectrophoretic (DEP) choking in a converging-diverging microchannel for the first time. It is shown quantitatively that the DEP choking occurs for high nonuniformity of electric fields, high ratio of particle size to throat size, and high ratio of particle's zeta potential to that of microchannel ...


Dc Electrokinetic Transport Of Cylindrical Cells In Straight Microchannels, Ye Ai, Ali Beskok, David T. Gauthier, Sang W. Joo, Shizhi Qian Jan 2009

Dc Electrokinetic Transport Of Cylindrical Cells In Straight Microchannels, Ye Ai, Ali Beskok, David T. Gauthier, Sang W. Joo, Shizhi Qian

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Electrokinetic transport of cylindrical cells under dc electric fields in a straight microfluidic channel is experimentally and numerically investigated with emphasis on the dielectrophoretic (DEP) effect on their orientation variations. A two-dimensional multiphysics model, composed of the Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid flow and the Laplace equation for the electric potential defined in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework, is employed to capture the transient electrokinetic motion of cylindrical cells. The numerical predictions of the particle transport are in quantitative agreement with the obtained experimental results, suggesting that the DEP effect should be taken into account to study the electrokinetic transport of ...


Pressure-Driven Transport Of Particles Through A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Sang W. Joo, Xiangchun Xuan, Shizhi Qian Jan 2009

Pressure-Driven Transport Of Particles Through A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Sang W. Joo, Xiangchun Xuan, Shizhi Qian

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Pressure-driven transport of particles through a symmetric converging-diverging microchannel is studied by solving a coupled nonlinear system, which is composed of the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite-element technique. The predicted particle translation is in good agreement with existing experimental observations. The effects of pressure gradient, particle size, channel geometry, and a particle's initial location on the particle transport are investigated. The pressure gradient has no effect on the ratio of the translational velocity of particles through a converging-diverging channel to that in the upstream straight channel. Particles are generally accelerated in the converging region and ...


121.6 Nm Radiation Source For Advanced Lithography, Jianxun Yan, Ashraf El-Dakrouri, Mounir Laroussi, Mool C. Gupta Jan 2002

121.6 Nm Radiation Source For Advanced Lithography, Jianxun Yan, Ashraf El-Dakrouri, Mounir Laroussi, Mool C. Gupta

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source based on a high-pressure cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been developed. Intense and spectrally clean Lyman-α line at 121.6 nm was obtained by operating a DBD discharge in neon with a small admixture of hydrogen. The spectrum, optical power, stability, and efficiency of the source were measured. The influence of the gas mixture and total gas pressure on the VUV intensity has been investigated. Maximum optical power of 3.2 W and spectral width 0.03 nm was achieved. Power stability of 2% for 100 h of operation has also been obtained ...