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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Finite-Strain Scale-Free Phase-Field Approach To Multivariant Martensitic Phase Transformations With Stress-Dependent Effective Thresholds, Hamed Babaei, Valery I. Levitas Nov 2020

Finite-Strain Scale-Free Phase-Field Approach To Multivariant Martensitic Phase Transformations With Stress-Dependent Effective Thresholds, Hamed Babaei, Valery I. Levitas

Aerospace Engineering Publications

A scale-free phase-field model for martensitic phase transformations (PTs) at finite strains is developed as an essential generalization of small-strain models in Levitas et al. (2004) and Idesman et al. (2005). The theory includes finite elastic and transformational strains and rotations as well as anisotropic and different elastic properties of phases. The gradient energy term is excluded, and the model is applicable for any scale greater than 100 nm. The model tracks finite-width interfaces between austenite and the mixture of martensitic variants only; volume fractions of martensitic variants are the internal variables rather than order parameters. The concept of the ...


Substitutional And Interstitial Doping In Laco5 System For The Development Of Hard Magnetic Properties: A First Principles Study, Huseyin Ucar, Renu Choudhary, Durga Paudyal Sep 2020

Substitutional And Interstitial Doping In Laco5 System For The Development Of Hard Magnetic Properties: A First Principles Study, Huseyin Ucar, Renu Choudhary, Durga Paudyal

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We investigate here the changes in the electronic structure at the transition metal sites of the RE-TM5 structure (RE = Rare Earth, TM = Transition Metal) while doping the interstitial sites with nitrogen. LaCo5 compound is taken as the baseline compound owing to its critically needed intrinsic magnetic properties such as magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of ≈5 meV/fu [1] due to the contributions from the cobalt network. In addition, because of the lack of 4f electrons in lanthanum, complications originating from the treatment of the 4f localized electrons are absent in this compound; making it an ideal reference material to all ...


Emulating Condensed Matter Systems In Classical Wave Metamaterials, Matthew Weiner Sep 2020

Emulating Condensed Matter Systems In Classical Wave Metamaterials, Matthew Weiner

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

One of the best tools we have for the edification of physics is the analogy. When we take our classical set of states and dynamical variables in phase space and treat them as vectors and Hermitian operators respectively in Hilbert space through the canonical quantization, we lose out on a lot of the intuition developed with the previous classical physics. With classical physics, through our own experiences and understanding of how systems should behave, we create easy-to-understand analogies: we compare the Bohr model of the atom to the motion of the planets, we compare electrical circuits to the flow of ...


Fifth-Degree Elastic Energy For Predictive Continuum Stress–Strain Relations And Elastic Instabilities Under Large Strain And Complex Loading In Silicon, Hao Chen, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Valery I. Levitas, Duane D. Johnson, Xiancheng Zhang Aug 2020

Fifth-Degree Elastic Energy For Predictive Continuum Stress–Strain Relations And Elastic Instabilities Under Large Strain And Complex Loading In Silicon, Hao Chen, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Valery I. Levitas, Duane D. Johnson, Xiancheng Zhang

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Materials under complex loading develop large strains and often phase transformation via an elastic instability, as observed in both simple and complex systems. Here, we represent a material (exemplified for Si I) under large Lagrangian strains within a continuum description by a 5th-order elastic energy found by minimizing error relative to density functional theory (DFT) results. The Cauchy stress—Lagrangian strain curves for arbitrary complex loadings are in excellent correspondence with DFT results, including the elastic instability driving the Si I → II phase transformation (PT) and the shear instabilities. PT conditions for Si I → II under action of cubic axial ...


Cooking Systems Using Aluminum Foam, Ryan Tetsuo Mizukami Aug 2020

Cooking Systems Using Aluminum Foam, Ryan Tetsuo Mizukami

Physics

In developing countries, the use of wood burning fires for cooking is cause for illness and death. With this in mind, research was conducted to develop a solar cooking device capable of cooking of soup within 15 mins in order to reduce the negative impacts of cooking with wood. Current methods of solar-based cooking, such as solar concentrators and solar tube ovens, are impractical. A small solar panel is a cost-effective way to produce energy but will not produce enough power to cook within a reasonable amount of time. Even if it is assumed that all of the energy produced ...


Developing Arduino Coding Curriculum, Tyler Brown, Riley Bucheitte, Timothy Kidd Jul 2020

Developing Arduino Coding Curriculum, Tyler Brown, Riley Bucheitte, Timothy Kidd

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

No abstract provided.


Generation Of Correlated Dual Frequency Combs With Pm Fiber Lasers For High-Precision Metrology, Hanieh Afkhamiardakani Jul 2020

Generation Of Correlated Dual Frequency Combs With Pm Fiber Lasers For High-Precision Metrology, Hanieh Afkhamiardakani

Optical Science and Engineering ETDs

Intracavity Phase Interferometry (IPI) using two correlated, counter-propagating frequency combs (pulse trains) in mode-locked lasers has evolved into a powerful technique for high-precision metrology. In this method a physical parameter to be measured imparts a phase shift onto a pulse circulating in the laser cavity. Inside a laser cavity, that phase shift becomes a frequency shift (phase shift/round-trip time) applied to the whole frequency comb created by this pulse as it exits the cavity at each round-trip. This frequency shift is measured by interfering this comb with a reference comb created by a reference pulse circulating in the same ...


Development Of A Mobile Device For Drying Paddy, Botirali R. Bekkulov Jun 2020

Development Of A Mobile Device For Drying Paddy, Botirali R. Bekkulov

Scientific Bulletin. Physical and Mathematical Research

The author of the article describes the results of scientific research aimed at creating a patented new design of a mobile drum device and ensuring an increase in the amount of paddy due to high-quality drying by substantiating its parameters. Firstly, an analysis of scientific research and patent information materials of existing devices for drying sludge working in a convective way, the existing advantages and the main disadvantages of existing devices are determined. Based on the analysis, the requirements of the newly developed device for drying the paddy are formed, theoretical research is carried out, the purpose of which was ...


Optimization Of The Automatic Operation Of The Plastic Crushing Machine, Yokubjon E. Kurbonov, Madaminjon K. Mahkamov, Nodirbek Sh. Kimsanboyev Jun 2020

Optimization Of The Automatic Operation Of The Plastic Crushing Machine, Yokubjon E. Kurbonov, Madaminjon K. Mahkamov, Nodirbek Sh. Kimsanboyev

Scientific Bulletin. Physical and Mathematical Research

The main costs in the production of plastic products that affect the cost of the product is the cost of materials. It accounts from 70% to 77% of all expenses. For this reason, the processing of plastic products and their use as secondary raw materials reduces the cost of production and leads to increased economic efficiency.

In order to obtain high-quality secondary raw materials by crushing plastic products, it is necessary to divide them into types before crushing. For classification and identification of plastic products, a fluorescent material is used to determine the composition and concentration of plastic. The result ...


Corrosion Prevention, Matthew Walker Jun 2020

Corrosion Prevention, Matthew Walker

Physics

In Insulated Solar Electric Cooking (ISEC), heating is done by passing current through a chain of diodes directly connected to a solar panel (Gius et al, 2019). It is crucially important that the wires remain conducting, but not conduct to any metal surface that might short the heating circuit. Corrosion of any wires will cause a loosening of the mechanical (twisted) wire connection and could result in a loss of electrical connection completely, or undesired increased resistance.


Mechani-Kits Senior Design Project, Jake Utley, Sophie Carson, Vincent Seguin Jun 2020

Mechani-Kits Senior Design Project, Jake Utley, Sophie Carson, Vincent Seguin

Mechanical Engineering

Studies suggest that when designed and executed well, hands-on activities can enhance student understanding of key mechanics concepts. Current products are expensive and typically not designed to meet a variety of learning objectives. Through the Mechanics of Inclusion and Inclusivity in Mechanics grant, the Cal Poly Physics and Engineering Departments are seeking to incorporate new hands-on activities into their courses. Our team has designed three inexpensive ”MechaniKits” to be used in physics, statics and dynamics courses [1]. This Final Design Review outlines our findings, objectives, and final designs for this project. It also explains our manufacturing and design verification plans ...


Towards Realism Interpretation Of Wave Mechanics Based On Maxwell Equations In Quaternion Space And Some Implications, Including Smarandache’S Hypothesis, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati Jun 2020

Towards Realism Interpretation Of Wave Mechanics Based On Maxwell Equations In Quaternion Space And Some Implications, Including Smarandache’S Hypothesis, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


Non-Equilibrium Growth Of Metal Clusters On A Layered Material: Cu On Mos2, Dapeng Jing, Ann Lii-Rosales, King C. Lai, Qiang Li, Jaeyoun Kim, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel May 2020

Non-Equilibrium Growth Of Metal Clusters On A Layered Material: Cu On Mos2, Dapeng Jing, Ann Lii-Rosales, King C. Lai, Qiang Li, Jaeyoun Kim, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

We use a variety of experimental techniques to characterize Cu clusters on bulk MoS2 formed via physical vapor deposition of Cu in ultrahigh vacuum, at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 900 K. We find that large facetted clusters grow at elevated temperatures, using high Cu exposures. The cluster size distribution is bimodal, and under some conditions, large clusters are surrounded by a denuded zone. We propose that defect-mediated nucleation, and coarsening during deposition, are both operative in this system. At 780 K, a surprising type of facetted cluster emerges, and at 900 K this type predominates: pyramidal clusters with ...


Development Of Wearable Sensors For Gait Analysis, Jorden Smyth May 2020

Development Of Wearable Sensors For Gait Analysis, Jorden Smyth

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In an ongoing experiment being conducted at The Williamsburg Landing by The Center for Balance and Aging Studies (CBAS), gait analysis is being performed on senior citizens in order to identify gait characteristics that are predictive of an increased likelihood to fall. This thesis describes the design and analysis of wearable sensors meant to assist the Williamsburg Landing study by increasing the efficiency and breadth of data collection. These sensors collect distance data from the foot to the ground over the course of multiple steps and return an approximation of the average step cycle for the subject. From my analysis ...


Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw May 2020

Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The World Health Organization reports that falls are the second-leading cause of accidental death among senior adults around the world. Currently, a research team at William & Mary’s Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences attempts to recognize and correct aging-related factors that can result in falling. To meet this goal, the members of that team videotape walking tests to examine individual gait parameters of older subjects. However, they undergo a slow, laborious process of analyzing video frame by video frame to obtain such parameters. This project uses computer vision software to reconstruct walking models from residents of an independent living retirement ...


Design And Construction Of A Computer Controlled Astronomical Spectropolarimeter, Jacob Marchio May 2020

Design And Construction Of A Computer Controlled Astronomical Spectropolarimeter, Jacob Marchio

Honors College

A theoretical description of a simple optical train, modulated signal based spectropolarimeter is discussed. The design includes, after the telescope optical tube (in this case, a 9.25” Schmidt Cassegrain), a rotating quarter waveplate (compensator), a fixed linear polarizer (analyzer), and transmission grating of 100l/mm, with a ZWO ASI290mm astronomical camera. The practical constraints on implementing such an instrument are discussed, and the construction of the spectropolarimeter is detailed, including the necessary optics, optomechanics, and electromechanics. The rotation and recording of the rotating compensator is facilitated by a motorized connection with proportional feedback control, and the uncertainty in measuring ...


The Parity-Violating Asymmetry In The N→Δ Transition At Low Q2, Thamraa A. Alshayeb May 2020

The Parity-Violating Asymmetry In The N→Δ Transition At Low Q2, Thamraa A. Alshayeb

Doctoral Dissertations

Qweak has used the parity violating asymmetry to test the Standard Model (SM) by constantly flipping helicity states of a longitudinally polarized electron beam that scatters in the unpolarized LH2 target. The main focus of the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab was the recently published determination of the proton’s weak charge. In order to make corrections to the measured asymmetry at low 𝑄 2 due to inelastically scattered electrons, dedicated measurements were made of the parity violating asymmetry in the N→∆ transition at two different beam energies.

The measured inelastic asymmetries are used to extract the low energy constant ...


An Investigation Of Diode Failure, Nicholas James Adams May 2020

An Investigation Of Diode Failure, Nicholas James Adams

Physics

Solar electricity can be used to cheaply cook food and charge electronic devices. We investigate the viability of using diodes as heating elements for insulated solar electric cooking (ISEC). In addition, information on designing and constructing ISEC compatible phone chargers and rechargeable LED lighting systems is included.


Uav 6dof Simulation And Kalman Filter For Localizing Radioactive Sources, John G. Goulet May 2020

Uav 6dof Simulation And Kalman Filter For Localizing Radioactive Sources, John G. Goulet

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) expand the available mission-space for a wide range of budgets. Using MATLAB, this project has developed a six degree of freedom (6DOF) simulation of UAV flight, an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), and an algorithm for localizing radioactive sources using low-cost hardware. The EKF uses simulated low-cost instruments in an effort to estimate the UAV state throughout simulated flight.

The 6DOF simulates aerodynamics, physics, and controls throughout the flight and provides outputs for each time step. Additionally, the 6DOF simulation offers the ability to control UAV flight via preset waypoints or in realtime via keyboard input.

Using ...


285— Modifications Of Cosmic Watch Muon Detectors For Deployment At Letchworth State Park, Kevin Seitz Apr 2020

285— Modifications Of Cosmic Watch Muon Detectors For Deployment At Letchworth State Park, Kevin Seitz

GREAT Day

For an American Physical Society funded physics outreach project, fifteen Cosmic Watch cosmic ray muon detectors, designed at MIT, are being assembled by students at Geneseo. Over the summer of 2020, ten detectors will be deployed around Letchworth State Park to educate park visitors about cosmic rays. The muon detection rate and cumulative count are displayed on a small OLED screen, with an LED flashing every time a muon passes through the detector’s scintillator. Each incidence is also logged to a micro SD card. Customized open-source software was used to allow the OLED and SD card to work simultaneously ...


Single-Atom-Layer Traps In A Solid Electrolyte For Lithium Batteries, Feng Zhu, Md Shafiqul Islam, Lin Zhou, Zhenqi Gu, Ting Liu, Xinchao Wang, Jun Luo, Ce-Wen Nan, Yifei Mo, Cheng Ma Apr 2020

Single-Atom-Layer Traps In A Solid Electrolyte For Lithium Batteries, Feng Zhu, Md Shafiqul Islam, Lin Zhou, Zhenqi Gu, Ting Liu, Xinchao Wang, Jun Luo, Ce-Wen Nan, Yifei Mo, Cheng Ma

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

In order to fully understand the lithium-ion transport mechanism in solid electrolytes for batteries, not only the periodic lattice but also the non-periodic features that disrupt the ideal periodicity must be comprehensively studied. At present only a limited number of non-periodic features such as point defects and grain boundaries are considered in mechanistic studies. Here, we discover an additional type of non-periodic feature that significantly influences ionic transport; this feature is termed a “single-atom-layer trap” (SALT). In a prototype solid electrolyte Li0.33La0.56TiO3, the single-atom-layer defects that form closed loops, i.e., SALTs, are found ubiquitous by atomic-resolution electron ...


Syllabus Ee330 Electromagnetics, Nicholas Madamopoulos Mar 2020

Syllabus Ee330 Electromagnetics, Nicholas Madamopoulos

Open Educational Resources

Concepts covered in the undergraduate electrical engineering class of electromagnetics


Optimizing Llrf Parameters In The Electron-Ion Collider, William M. Bjorndahl Mar 2020

Optimizing Llrf Parameters In The Electron-Ion Collider, William M. Bjorndahl

Physics

To improve particle interaction in the future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), we investigated different feedback implementations to control the accelerating voltage and examined the power and beam phase for each instance. Using MATLAB, we studied three feedback mechanisms: Direct, One Turn, and Feedforward. Enacting feedforward yielded the best performance. To minimize the klystron power consumption, we analyzed different Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) parameters such as detuning. Combining theory and simulated results, we found the optimal detuning value that minimizes klystron power consumption.


Pair-A-Dice Lost: Experiments In Dice Control, Robert H. Scott Iii, Donald R. Smith Jan 2020

Pair-A-Dice Lost: Experiments In Dice Control, Robert H. Scott Iii, Donald R. Smith

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

This paper presents our findings from experiments designed to test whether we could use a custom-made dice throwing machine applying common dice control methods to produce dice rolls that differ from random. In earlier research we calculated the percentages of control a craps player needs to break even or beat the house (Smith and Scott, 2018). Using the most common practices of dice control in craps, we established how dice should be configured (i.e., set) and thrown to achieve certain outcomes such as not rolling a seven in the point cycle. We decided to run experiments to see if ...


Agenda, Revised, Shubha Tewari Jan 2020

Agenda, Revised, Shubha Tewari

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

Materials from the seminars. The agenda was revised to include online sessions due to the Covid-19 pandemic.


Detection Of Decoupled Surface And Bulk States In Epitaxial Orthorhombic Sriro3 Thin Films, Prescott E. Evans, Takashi Komesu, Le Zhang, Ding-Fu Shao, Andrew J. Yost, Shiv Kumar, Eike F. Schwier, Kenya Shimada, Evgeny Y. Tsymbal, Xia Hong, P. A. Dowben Jan 2020

Detection Of Decoupled Surface And Bulk States In Epitaxial Orthorhombic Sriro3 Thin Films, Prescott E. Evans, Takashi Komesu, Le Zhang, Ding-Fu Shao, Andrew J. Yost, Shiv Kumar, Eike F. Schwier, Kenya Shimada, Evgeny Y. Tsymbal, Xia Hong, P. A. Dowben

Peter Dowben Publications

We report the experimental evidence of evolving lattice distortion in high quality epitaxial orthorhombic SrIrO3(001) thin films fully strained on (001) SrTiO3 substrates. Angle-resolved X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies show that the surface layer of 5 nm SrIrO3 films is Sr–O terminated, and subsequent layers recover the semimetallic state, with the band structure consistent with an orthorhombic SrIrO3(001) having the lattice constant of the substrate. While there is no band folding in the experimental band structure, additional super-periodicity is evident in low energy electron diffraction measurements, suggesting the emergence of a transition layer with crystal symmetry evolving from ...


Rod-Shape Theranostic Nanoparticles Facilitate Antiretroviral Drug Biodistribution And Activity In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Susceptible Cells And Tissues, Bhavesh D. Kevadiya, Brendan Ottemann, Insiya Z. Mukadam, Laura Castellanos, Kristen Sikora, James R. Hilaire, Jatin Machhi, Jonathan Herskovitz, Dhruvkumar Soni, Mahmudul Hasan, Wenting Zhang, Anandakumar Sarella, Jered Garrison, Joellyn Mcmillan, Benson Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Richard W. Vachet, Howard E. Gendelman Jan 2020

Rod-Shape Theranostic Nanoparticles Facilitate Antiretroviral Drug Biodistribution And Activity In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Susceptible Cells And Tissues, Bhavesh D. Kevadiya, Brendan Ottemann, Insiya Z. Mukadam, Laura Castellanos, Kristen Sikora, James R. Hilaire, Jatin Machhi, Jonathan Herskovitz, Dhruvkumar Soni, Mahmudul Hasan, Wenting Zhang, Anandakumar Sarella, Jered Garrison, Joellyn Mcmillan, Benson Edagwa, R. Lee Mosley, Richard W. Vachet, Howard E. Gendelman

Faculty Publications from Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience

Human immunodeficiency virus theranostics facilitates the development of long acting (LA) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) by defining drug-particle cell depots. Optimal drug formulations are made possible based on precise particle composition, structure, shape and size. Through the creation of rod-shaped particles of defined sizes reflective of native LA drugs, theranostic probes can be deployed to measure particle-cell and tissue biodistribution, antiretroviral activities and drug retention.

Methods: Herein, we created multimodal rilpivirine (RPV) 177lutetium labeled bismuth sulfide nanorods (177LuBSNRs) then evaluated their structure, morphology, configuration, chemical composition, biological responses and adverse reactions. Particle biodistribution was analyzed by single photon emission ...


Quasiperiodic Ordering In Thick Sn Layer On I-Al-Pd-Mn: A Possible Quasicrystalline Clathrate, Vipin Kumar Singh, Marek Mihalkovic, Marian Krajci, Shuvam Sarkar, Pampa Sadhukhan, M. Maniraj, Abhishek Rai, Katariina Pussi, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Ajay Kumar Shukla, Sudipta Roy Barman Jan 2020

Quasiperiodic Ordering In Thick Sn Layer On I-Al-Pd-Mn: A Possible Quasicrystalline Clathrate, Vipin Kumar Singh, Marek Mihalkovic, Marian Krajci, Shuvam Sarkar, Pampa Sadhukhan, M. Maniraj, Abhishek Rai, Katariina Pussi, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Ajay Kumar Shukla, Sudipta Roy Barman

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Realization of an elemental solid-state quasicrystal has remained a distant dream so far in spite of extensive work in this direction for almost two decades. In the present work, we report the discovery of quasiperiodic ordering in a thick layer of elemental Sn grown on icosahedral (i)-Al-Pd-Mn. The scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images and the low-energy electron diffraction patterns of the Sn layer show specific structural signatures that portray quasiperiodicity but are distinct from the substrate. Photoemission spectroscopy reveals the existence of the pseudogap around the Fermi energy up to the maximal Sn thickness. The structure of the Sn ...


Investigation Of Mnxni1-Xo Thin Films Using Pulsed Laser Deposition, Md Ashif Anwar Jan 2020

Investigation Of Mnxni1-Xo Thin Films Using Pulsed Laser Deposition, Md Ashif Anwar

MSU Graduate Theses

The exchange bias (EB) effect, especially in nanomaterials, is highly promising for use in antiferromagnet-based spintronics applications. NiO is a well known antiferromagnetic material with a high Néel temperature (525K) and can exhibit ferromagnetism/ ferrimagnetism by adding other magnetic transition elements. Our previous work has shown that the antiferromagnetic characteristics of conventional NiO insulating nanostructured material can be altered to have substantial ferrimagnetic characteristics by doping NiO with Mn or Co. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow heterostructures comprised of a nanostructured thin NiO film deposited on the surface of a MgO (100) and Al2O3 ...


Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy Jan 2020

Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy

All Undergraduate Projects

Renewable energies, and fuels that are not fossil fuel-based, are one of the prolific topics of debate in modern society. With climate change now becoming a primary focus for scientists and innovators of today, one of the areas for the largest amount of potential and growth is that of the capturing and utilization of Solar Energy. This method involves using a mechanical system to track the progression of the sun as it traverses the sky throughout the day. A dual-axis solar tracker such as the one designed and built for this project, can follow the sun both azimuthally and in ...