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## Full-Text Articles in Physics

Second Order Phase Transition Temperature Of Single Crystals Of Gd5si1.3ge2.7 And Gd5si1.4ge2.6, Ravi L. Hadimani, Yevgen Melikhov, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Kevin W. Dennis, R. William Mccallum, David C. Jiles

#### Second Order Phase Transition Temperature Of Single Crystals Of Gd5si1.3ge2.7 And Gd5si1.4ge2.6, Ravi L. Hadimani, Yevgen Melikhov, Deborah L. Schlagel, Thomas A. Lograsso, Kevin W. Dennis, R. William Mccallum, David C. Jiles

*Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications*

Gd5(Six Ge 1−x)4 has mixed phases in the composition range 0.32 < x < 0.41, which have not been widely studied. In this paper, we have synthesized and indexed single crystal samples of Gd5Si1.3 Ge 2.7 and Gd5Si1.4 Ge 2.6. We have investigated the first order and second orderphase transition temperatures of these samples using magnetic moment vs. temperature andmagnetic moment vs. magnetic field at different temperatures. We have used a modified Arrott plot technique that was developed and reported by us previously to determine the “hidden” second order phase transition temperature of the orthorhombic II phase.

Deep Brain Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Variable “Halo Coil” System, Y. Meng, Ravi L. Hadimani, Lawrence J. Crowther, Z. Xu, J. Qu

#### Deep Brain Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Variable “Halo Coil” System, Y. Meng, Ravi L. Hadimani, Lawrence J. Crowther, Z. Xu, J. Qu

*Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications*

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The “Halo coil” configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brainwith lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing “Halo coil” configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current “Halo coil” design along with a graphicaluser interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable “Halo ...

Phenomenological Modelling Of First Order Phase Transitions In Magnetic Systems, Yevgen Melikhov, Ravi L. Hadimani, Arun Raghunathan

#### Phenomenological Modelling Of First Order Phase Transitions In Magnetic Systems, Yevgen Melikhov, Ravi L. Hadimani, Arun Raghunathan

*Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications*

First order phase transitions may occur in several magnetic systems, with two structural phases having different magnetic properties each and a structural transition between them. Here, a novel physics based phenomenological model of such systems is proposed, in which magnetization is represented by the volumetric amounts of ferromagnetism (described by extended Jiles-Atherton theory) and paramagnetism (described by the Curie-Weiss law) in respective phases. An identification procedure to extract material parameters from experimental data is proposed. The proposed phenomenological approach was successfully applied to magnetocaloric Gd5(Six Ge 1−x)4 system and also has the potential to describe the behavior ...

Application Of Chebyshev Formalism To Identify Nonlinear Magnetic Field Components In Beam Transport System, Michael Spata

#### Application Of Chebyshev Formalism To Identify Nonlinear Magnetic Field Components In Beam Transport System, Michael Spata

*Physics Theses & Dissertations*

An experiment was conducted at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility to develop a beam-based technique for characterizing the extent of the nonlinearity of the magnetic fields of a beam transport system. Horizontally and vertically oriented pairs of air-core kicker magnets were simultaneously driven at two different frequencies to provide a time-dependent transverse modulation of the beam orbit relative to the unperturbed reference orbit. Fourier decomposition of the position data at eight different points along the beamline was then used to measure the amplitude of these frequencies. For a purely linear transport system one expects to find solely ...

Microelectromagnetic Ferrofluid-Based Actuator, Y. Melikhov, S. J. Lee, David C. Jiles, D. H. Schmidt, Marc D. Porter, Ruth Shinar

#### Microelectromagnetic Ferrofluid-Based Actuator, Y. Melikhov, S. J. Lee, David C. Jiles, D. H. Schmidt, Marc D. Porter, Ruth Shinar

*Ames Laboratory Publications*

Computer simulations were used to investigate the performance of a microscale ferrofluid-based magnetic actuator developed for liquid dispensing in microfluidic channels. The actuation was based on the movement of a ferrofluid plug in a magnetic field gradient generated by on-chip effectively infinite parallel conductors. The movement, positioning, and retaining of ferrofluid plugs with different lengths at various locations along a microfluidic channel were investigated for two cases. In case (a), the magnetic field gradient was generated by a single conductor; when the ferrofluid reached its equilibrium position, the current was switched off and the nearest neighbor conductor was energized. A ...

In Situ Applied Field Imaging Of A Magnetic Tunnel Junction Using Magnetic Force Microscopy, J. S. Leib, Chester C.H. Lo, John E. Snyder, David C. Jiles

#### In Situ Applied Field Imaging Of A Magnetic Tunnel Junction Using Magnetic Force Microscopy, J. S. Leib, Chester C.H. Lo, John E. Snyder, David C. Jiles

*Materials Science and Engineering Publications*

Knowledge of domain behavior in magnetic tunnel junctions is an essential component, together with knowledge of the electron band structure, for understanding their magnetoelectronic properties. To this purpose, the magnetization reversal processes of a multilayertunnel junction of structure substrate/NiFe/AlOx/FeCo/CrPtMn/Al of tapered half-ellipsoid shape have been imaged using a magnetic force microscope(MFM) with*in situ* applied magnetic fields. Stripe domains through both the stack and free layers observed at zero applied field were erased by a ∼100 Oe field applied to the left followed by applying a small field to the right. Magnetic domain structure ...

Superparamagnetic Magnetization Equation In Two Dimensions, David C. Jiles, S. J. Lee, J. M. Kenkel, K. L. Metlov

#### Superparamagnetic Magnetization Equation In Two Dimensions, David C. Jiles, S. J. Lee, J. M. Kenkel, K. L. Metlov

*Ames Laboratory Publications*

An equation for the dependence of magnetization on magnetic field in the case of two-dimensional (base plane) anisotropy has been derived. The resulting equation is expressed as an infinite series of modified Bessel functions, unlike the elementary function expressions that are applicable to the one-dimensional (axially anisotropic) and three-dimensional (isotropic) cases. Nevertheless, in the low-field limit, the series can be effectively truncated to give an approximate solution, while, in the high-field limit, an alternative expression has been derived which represents the limiting function as the field strength tends to infinity. The resulting expressions can be used to describe the superparamagnetic ...

An Extended Model Of The Barkhausen Effect Based On The Abbm Model, D. M. Clatterbuck, V. J. Garcia, M. J. Johnson, David C. Jiles

#### An Extended Model Of The Barkhausen Effect Based On The Abbm Model, D. M. Clatterbuck, V. J. Garcia, M. J. Johnson, David C. Jiles

*Ames Laboratory Publications*

The Barkhausen model of Alessandro et al. [J. Appl. Phys. **68**, 2901 (1990)] has been extended to nonstationary domain walldynamics. The assumptions of the original model limit, its use to situations where the differential permeability, and time derivative of applied field are constant. The later model of Jiles et al. assumes that the Barkhausen activity in a given time interval is proportional to the rate of change of irreversible magnetization which can be calculated from hysteresis models. The extended model presented here incorporates ideas from both of these. It assumes that the pinning field and domain wall velocity behave according ...

Temperature Dependence Of The Magnetomechanical Effect In Metal-Bonded Cobalt Ferrite Composites Under Torsional Strain, Y. Chen, John E. Snyder, Kevin W. Dennis, R. William Mccallum, David C. Jiles

#### Temperature Dependence Of The Magnetomechanical Effect In Metal-Bonded Cobalt Ferrite Composites Under Torsional Strain, Y. Chen, John E. Snyder, Kevin W. Dennis, R. William Mccallum, David C. Jiles

*Materials Science and Engineering Publications*

Metal-bonded cobaltferrite composites are promising candidates for torquesensors and other magnetostrictive sensing and actuating applications. In the present study, the temperature dependence of the magnetomechanical effect in a ring-shape cobaltferrite composite under torsional strain has been investigated in the temperature range of −37 to 90 °C. The changes of external axial magnetic field were measured as a function of applied torque. Magnetomechanical sensitivity of ΔHext/Δτ=65 A N−1 m−2 was observed with a magnetomechanical hysteresis of Δτ=±0.62 N m at room temperature (22 °C). These were then measured as a function of temperature. Both decreased ...

Finite Element Analysis Of The Influence Of A Fatigue Crack On Magnetic Properties Of Steel, Y. Shi, David C. Jiles

#### Finite Element Analysis Of The Influence Of A Fatigue Crack On Magnetic Properties Of Steel, Y. Shi, David C. Jiles

*Center for Nondestructive Evaluation Publications*

Fatigue can affect the magnetic properties of materials due to microstructural changes. Previous investigations have shown that several structure sensitive magnetic properties, such as coercivityHc and remanenceBr, changed systematically as a result of fatigue. When approaching failure the accumulated changes in microstructure resulted in the occurrence of fatigue cracks and the magnetic properties showed dramatic changes which mainly resulted from the geometrical changes in samples due to the cracks. It was found that the remanenceBr followed the changes in stress, while the coercivityHc sometimes showed different trends. In this article the influence of the size and the position of a ...

Frequency Dependence Of Hysteresis Curves In Conducting Magnetic Materials, David C. Jiles

#### Frequency Dependence Of Hysteresis Curves In Conducting Magnetic Materials, David C. Jiles

*Ames Laboratory Publications*

An extension of the hysteresis model has been developed that takes into account the effects on the hysteresis curves of eddycurrents in electrically conducting media. In the derivation presented it is assumed that the frequency of the applied field is low enough (or the thickness of the material medium small enough) that the skin effect can be ignored so that the magnetic field penetrates uniformly throughout the material. In this case, the dc hysteresis equation is extended by the addition of a classical eddy‐current‐loss term depending on (i) the rate of change of magnetization with time, (ii) the ...

A Model For Hysteretic Magnetic Properties Under The Application Of Noncoaxial Stress And Field, Martin J. Sablik, S. W. Rubin, L. A. Riley, David C. Jiles, David A. Kaminski, S. B. Biner

#### A Model For Hysteretic Magnetic Properties Under The Application Of Noncoaxial Stress And Field, Martin J. Sablik, S. W. Rubin, L. A. Riley, David C. Jiles, David A. Kaminski, S. B. Biner

*Center for Nondestructive Evaluation Publications*

Although descriptions of the effect of stress on spontaneous magnetization within a single domain already exist, there remains no adequate mathematical model for the effects of noncoaxial magnetic field and stress on bulk magnetization in a multidomained specimen. This article addresses the problem and provides a phenomenological theory that applies to the case of bulk isotropic materials. The magnetomechanical hysteresis model of Sablik and Jiles is thus extended to treat magnetic properties in the case of noncoaxial stress and magnetic field in an isotropic, polycrystalline medium. In the modeling, noncollinearity between magnetization and magnetic field is taken into account. The ...

Measurements Of Magnetic Circuit Characteristics For Comprehension Of Intrinsic Magnetic Properties Of Materials From Surface Inspection, Z. J. Chen, Michael K. Devine, David C. Jiles

#### Measurements Of Magnetic Circuit Characteristics For Comprehension Of Intrinsic Magnetic Properties Of Materials From Surface Inspection, Z. J. Chen, Michael K. Devine, David C. Jiles

*Ames Laboratory Publications*

A transfer function is presented for calculating magnetic field and flux density inside a test material as a result of surface measurement. By considering flux leakage, we introduce a parameter η, called the leakage coefficient, which can be experimentally determined. It is introduced into the equations to make the transfer function more practical. The distribution of field inside a test material is then discussed in accordance with a surfacemagnetic charge model.

Analytic Model Calculation Of Magnetic Field In A Magnetic Half‐Space Due To Surface Magnetic Charge, Z. J. Chen, Madhav Rao Govindaraju, David C. Jiles

#### Analytic Model Calculation Of Magnetic Field In A Magnetic Half‐Space Due To Surface Magnetic Charge, Z. J. Chen, Madhav Rao Govindaraju, David C. Jiles

*Ames Laboratory Publications*

By analogy with electrostatic field, a simple analytic model is presented on the distribution of magnetic field inside a test material as a result of surface inspection with a magnetic probe. According to this model, the penetration depth of the magnetic field is defined and the permeability of the material at different depths is calculated. Finally, the magnetic flux inside the inspection head when placed on samples of different thicknesses is calculated and compared with experimental results.

Pressure Cell For Magnetostrictive Measurements, Jerome E. Ostenson, Douglas K. Finnemore, David C. Jiles

#### Pressure Cell For Magnetostrictive Measurements, Jerome E. Ostenson, Douglas K. Finnemore, David C. Jiles

*Ames Laboratory Publications*

A pressure cell has been designed to study the magnetostrictive properties of a material as a function of both pressure and magnetic field. For changes in length on the order of 2000 ppm, it is necessary to have a substantial compliance in the pressure cell to retain a constant stress over the length of travel.

Effects On Electrolytic Cells Of Magnetic Fields Applied To Single Electrodes, Craig Allen Cousins

#### Effects On Electrolytic Cells Of Magnetic Fields Applied To Single Electrodes, Craig Allen Cousins

*Dissertations and Theses*

The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects associated with the application of magnetic fields to single electrodes.