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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Investigation Of Negative Refractive Index In Reciprocal Chiral Materials, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee, Pradeep R. Anugula Aug 2006

Investigation Of Negative Refractive Index In Reciprocal Chiral Materials, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee, Pradeep R. Anugula

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

It is well known that there exist both natural materials (such as milk or sugar solution) possessing chiral (or handed) properties, as well as an increasing list of man-made materials (such as sodium bromate) that exhibit chirality. One of the principal properties of chirality is that light of any arbitrary polarization, when propagating through a chiral material, splits up into two circular polarizations propagating in different directions. In the past decade or longer, researchers have investigated electromagnetic transverse (plane) wave propagation across a non-chiral/chiral interface, and determined the electromagnetic Fresnel coefficients for such propagation. Traditionally, such coefficients are derived ...


Adaptive Beam Director For A Tiled Fiber Array, Mikhail Vorontsov, Jim F. Riker, Ernst Polnau, Svetlana Lachinova, Venkata S. Rao Gudimetla Jan 2006

Adaptive Beam Director For A Tiled Fiber Array, Mikhail Vorontsov, Jim F. Riker, Ernst Polnau, Svetlana Lachinova, Venkata S. Rao Gudimetla

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

We present the concept development of a novel atmospheric compensation system based on adaptive tiled fiber array architecture operating with target-in-the-loop scenarios for directed beam applications. The adaptive tiled fiber array system is integrated with adaptive beam director (ABD). Wavefront control and sensing functions are performed directly on the beam director telescope primary mirror. The beam control of the adaptive tiled fiber array aims to compensate atmospheric turbulence-induced dynamic phase aberrations and results in a corresponding brightness increase on the illuminated extended object. The system is specifically designed for tiled fiber system architectures operating in strong intensity scintillation and speckle-modulation ...


Pocket Deformable Mirror For Adaptive Optics Applications, Leonid A. Beresnev, Mikhail Vorontsov, Peter Wangsness Jan 2006

Pocket Deformable Mirror For Adaptive Optics Applications, Leonid A. Beresnev, Mikhail Vorontsov, Peter Wangsness

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Adaptive/active optical elements are designed to improve optical system performance in the presence of phase aberrations. For atmospheric optics and astronomical applications, an ideal deformable mirror should have sufficient frequency bandwidth for compensation of fast changing wave front aberrations induced by either atmospheric turbulences or by turbulent air flows surrounding a flying object (air optical effects). In many applications, such as atmospheric target tracking, remote sensing from flying aircraft, boundary layer imaging, laser communication and laser beam projection over near horizontal propagation paths the phase aberration frequency bandwidth can exceed several kHz. These fast-changing aberrations are currently compensated using ...


Enhanced Cerenkov Second-Harmonic Generation In Patterned Lithium Niobate, Cong Deng, Joseph W. Haus, Andrew Sarangan, Aziz Mahfoud, Concita Sibilia, Michael Scalora, Aleksei M. Zheltikov Jan 2006

Enhanced Cerenkov Second-Harmonic Generation In Patterned Lithium Niobate, Cong Deng, Joseph W. Haus, Andrew Sarangan, Aziz Mahfoud, Concita Sibilia, Michael Scalora, Aleksei M. Zheltikov

Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty Publications

We present experimental results of second harmonic generation enhancement through the resonance of the band edge in a photonic crystal based on lithium niobate. Proton exchange technique was used to fabricate a waveguide near the surface of the lithium niobate substrate. The photonic crystal structure over the waveguide was made by UV laser interferometry. Subsequently experiments were designed to quantify the Cerenkov second-harmonic generation (CSHG) radiated into the substrate. The SHG radiated inside the waveguides was also experimentally investigated. In our experiments, the second guided mode of the waveguide was tuned to the band edge resonance to enhance the second ...


Up-Conversion In Rare-Earth Doped Micro-Particles Applied To New Emissive 2d Dislays, Anne Milliez Jan 2006

Up-Conversion In Rare-Earth Doped Micro-Particles Applied To New Emissive 2d Dislays, Anne Milliez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Up-conversion (UC) in rare-earth co-doped fluorides to convert diode laser light in the near infrared to red, green and blue visible light is applied to make possible high performance emissive displays. The infrared-to-visible UC in the materials we study is a sequential form of non-linear two photon absorption in which a strong absorbing constituent absorbs two low energy photons and transfers this energy to another constituent which emits visible light. Some of the UC emitters' most appealing characteristics for displays are: a wide color gamut with very saturated colors, very high brightness operation without damage to the emitters, long lifetimes ...


Radiation Studies Of The Tin-Doped Microscopic Droplet Laser Plasma Light Source Specific To Euv Lithography, Chiew-Seng Koay Jan 2006

Radiation Studies Of The Tin-Doped Microscopic Droplet Laser Plasma Light Source Specific To Euv Lithography, Chiew-Seng Koay

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Extreme ultraviolet lithography(EUVL) is being developed worldwide as the next generation technology to be inserted in ~ 2009 for the mass production of IC chips with feature sizes <35 nm. One major challenge to its implementation is the development of a 13.5 nm EUV source of radiation that meets the requirements of current roadmap designs of the source of illumination in commercial EUVL scanners. The light source must be debris-free, in a free-space environment with the imaging EUV optics that must provide sufficient, narrow spectral band EUV power to print 100 wafers/hr. To meet this need, extensive studies on emission from a laser plasma source utilizing tin-doped droplet target was conducted. Presented in this work, are the many optical techniques such as spectroscopy, radiometry, and imaging, that were employed to characterize and optimize emission from the laser plasma source State of the art EUV spectrographs were employed to observe the source's spectrum under various laser irradiation conditions. Comparing the experimental spectra to those from theory, has allowed the determination of the Sn ion stages responsible for emitting into the useful EUV bandwidth. Experimental results were compared to spectral simulations obtained using Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium (CRE) model, as well. Moreover, extensive measurements surveying source emission from 2 nm to 30 nm, which is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as EUV, was accomplished. Absolutely calibrated metrology was employed with the Flying Circus instrument from which the source's conversion efficiency (CE)--from laser to the useful EUV energy--was characterized under various laser irradiation conditions. Hydrodynamic simulations of the plasma expansion together with the CRE model predicted the condition at which optimum conversion could be attained. The condition was demonstrated experimentally, with the highest CE to be slightly above 2%, which is the highest value among all EUV source contenders. In addition to laser intensity, the CE was found to depend on the laser wavelength. For better understanding, this observation is compared to results from simulations. Through a novel approach in imaging, the size of the plasma was characterized by recording images of the plasma within a narrow band, around 13.5 nm. The size, approximately 100 ìm, is safely within the etendue limit set by the optical elements in the EUV scanner. Finally, the notion of irradiating the target with multiple laser beams was explored for the possibility of improving the source's conversion efficiency.


Fast Response Liquid Crystal Devices, Yung-Hsun Wu Jan 2006

Fast Response Liquid Crystal Devices, Yung-Hsun Wu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Liquid crystal (LC) has been widely used for displays, spatial light modulators, variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and other tunable photonic devices. The response time of these devices is mainly determined by the employed liquid crystal material. How to obtain fast response for the LC devices is a fundamentally important and technically challenging task. In this dissertation, we investigate several methods to improve liquid crystal response time, for examples, using dual-frequency liquid crystals, polymer stabilized liquid crystals, and sheared polymer network liquid crystals. We discover a new class of material, denoted as sheared polymer network liquid crystal (SPNLC) which exhibits a ...


Direct Nonlinear Optics Measurements Of Raman Gain In Bulk Glasses And Estimates Of Fiber Performance, Robert Stegeman Jan 2006

Direct Nonlinear Optics Measurements Of Raman Gain In Bulk Glasses And Estimates Of Fiber Performance, Robert Stegeman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The need for more bandwidth in communications has stimulated the search for new fiberizable materials with properties superior to fused silica which is the current state-of-the-art. One of the key properties is Raman gain by which a pump beam amplifies a signal beam of longer wavelength. An apparatus capable of directly measuring the spectral dependence and absolute magnitude of the material Raman gain coefficient using nonlinear optics techniques has been built. Using radiation from a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser as the pump and from a tunable Optical Parametric Generator and Amplifier as the signal, the Raman gain spectrum was ...


Antenna-Coupled Infrared And Millimeter-Wave Detectors: Fabrication, Measurement And Optimization, Charles Middleton Jan 2006

Antenna-Coupled Infrared And Millimeter-Wave Detectors: Fabrication, Measurement And Optimization, Charles Middleton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Antenna-coupled detectors provide uncooled, cost-effective solutions for infrared and millimeter-wave imaging. This work describes the design, fabrication, measurement, and optimization of several types of antenna-coupled detectors for LWIR (8 - 12 µm) and 94 GHz radiation. Two types of millimeter-wave antenna-coupled detectors were fabricated and tested: a slot antenna coupled to a bolometer, and a patch antenna coupled to a SiC Schottky diode. Electromagnetic modeling of the antennas helped guide the design of antennas with better impedance matching to the detectors. Schottky diodes are discussed as detectors for millimeter-wave and infrared radiation, with the goal of increasing the cutoff frequency to ...


Integrated Wavelength Stabilization Of Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers Using A Dual Grating Reflector, Jason O'Daniel Jan 2006

Integrated Wavelength Stabilization Of Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers Using A Dual Grating Reflector, Jason O'Daniel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A new fully integrated wavelength stabilization scheme based on grating-coupled surface-emitting lasers is explored. This wavelength stabilization scheme relies on two gratings. The first grating is fabricated on the p-side of the semiconductor laser in close proximity to the laser waveguide such that it couples light out of the guided mode of the waveguide into a propagating mode in the substrate; this grating is known as the grating coupler. The second grating is fabricated on the n-side of the substrate such that for the stabilization wavelength, this second grating operates in the Littrow condition and is known as the feedback ...


Integrated Inp Photonic Switches, Daniel May-Arrioja Jan 2006

Integrated Inp Photonic Switches, Daniel May-Arrioja

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photonic switches are becoming key components in advanced optical networks because of the large variety of applications that they can perform. One of the key advantages of photonic switches is that they redirect or convert light without having to make any optical to electronic conversions and vice versa, thus allowing networking functions to be lowered into the optical layer. InP-based switches are particularly attractive because of their small size, low electrical power consumption, and compatibility with integration of laser sources, photo-detectors, and electronic components. In this dissertation the development of integrated InP photonic switches using an area-selective zinc diffusion process ...


Propagation Effect In Inhomogeneous Media, Including Media With Light-Induced And Fixed Gratings, Chang-Ching Tsai Jan 2006

Propagation Effect In Inhomogeneous Media, Including Media With Light-Induced And Fixed Gratings, Chang-Ching Tsai

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical waves propagation in various types of volume gratings, materials with constant impendence and optical fibers are studied. Instability of cross–phase modulation and of Energy transfer via GRON-type (Grating-type Orientational Nonlinearity in Liquid Crystal) Stimulated Scattering is numerically observed. Two diffractive optical elements made of volume gratings are suggested and analyzed. A transmission hologram based on the analogy with Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) in nonlinear optics is proposed. This transmission hologram demonstrates high diffraction efficiency and low sensitivity to polarization and hologram strength. The other is a reflection hologram with two crossed-gratings. It features good angular selectivity in ...


All-Semiconductor High Power Mode-Locked Laser System, Kyungbum Kim Jan 2006

All-Semiconductor High Power Mode-Locked Laser System, Kyungbum Kim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

All-optical synchronization and its application in advanced optical communications have been investigated in this dissertation. Dynamics of all-optical timing synchronization (clock recovery) using multi-section gain-coupled distributed-feedback (MS-GC DFB) lasers are discussed. A record speed of 180-GHz timing synchronization has been demonstrated using this device. An all-optical carrier synchronization (phase and polarization recovery) scheme from PSK (phase shift keying) data is proposed and demonstrated for the first time. As an application of all-optical synchronization, the characterization of advanced modulation formats using a linear optical sampling technique was studied. The full characterization of 10-Gb/s RZ-BPSK (return-to-zero binary PSK) data has been ...


Polarization-Independent Liquid Crystal Devices, Yi-Hsin Lin Jan 2006

Polarization-Independent Liquid Crystal Devices, Yi-Hsin Lin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Liquid crystal (LC) devices can be operated as amplitude modulators and phase modulators. LC amplitude modulation is commonly used in liquid crystal display (LCD) while phase-only modulation is useful for laser beam steering, tunable grating, prism, lens, and other photonic devices. Most LC devices are polarization dependent and require at least one polarizer. As a result, the optical efficiency is low. To enhance display brightness, a power hungry backlight has to be used leading to a high power consumption and short battery life. In a LC phase modulator, the polarization dependent property complicates the laser beam steering system. It is ...


Experimental Techniques For Nonlinear Material Characterization: A Nonlinear Spectrometer Using A White-Light Continuum Z-Scan, Mihaela Balu Jan 2006

Experimental Techniques For Nonlinear Material Characterization: A Nonlinear Spectrometer Using A White-Light Continuum Z-Scan, Mihaela Balu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The main goal of this dissertation is to introduce and demonstrate a new method for the rapid determination of the nonlinear absorption spectra and the dispersion of the nonlinear refraction of optical materials in the visible and near IR spectral regions. However, conventional methods like, white-light continuum pump-probe and Z-scan techniques were used to measure the peak 2PA cross-sections for a number of commercially available photoinitiators. In the new method mentioned above, a high energy, broadband femtosecond white-light continuum is used to replace the single wavelength source conventionally used in a Z-scan experiment. In a Z-scan experiment, the transmittance of ...


Synchronization In Advanced Optical Communications, Inwoong Kim Jan 2006

Synchronization In Advanced Optical Communications, Inwoong Kim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is to generate high power ultrashort optical pulses from an all-semiconductor mode-locked laser system. The limitations of semiconductor optical amplifier in high energy, ultrashort pulse amplification are reviewed. A method to overcome the fundamental limit of small stored energy inside semiconductor optical amplifier called "eXtreme Chirped Pulse Amplification (X-CPA)" is proposed and studied theoretically and experimentally. The key benefits of the concept of X-CPA are addressed. Based on theoretical and experimental study, an all-semiconductor mode-locked X-CPA system consisting of a mode-locked master oscillator, an optical pulse pre-stretcher, a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) pulse picker, an ...


Applications Of Linear And Nonlinear Optical Effects In Liquid Crystals, Hakob Sarkissian Jan 2006

Applications Of Linear And Nonlinear Optical Effects In Liquid Crystals, Hakob Sarkissian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Liquid crystals have been a major subject of research for the past decades. Aside from the variety of structures they can form, they exhibit a vast range of optical phenomena. Many of these phenomena found applications in technology and became an essential part of it. In this dissertation thesis we continue the line to propose a number of new applications of optical effects in liquid crystals and develop their theoretical framework. One such application is the possibility of beam combining using Orientational Stimulated Scattering in a nematic liquid crystal cell. Our numerical study of the OSS process shows that normally ...


Design And Optimization Of Nano-Optical Elements By Coupling Fabrication To Optical Behavior, Raymond Rumpf Jan 2006

Design And Optimization Of Nano-Optical Elements By Coupling Fabrication To Optical Behavior, Raymond Rumpf

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photonic crystals and nanophotonics have received a great deal of attention over the last decade, largely due to improved numerical modeling and advances in fabrication technologies. To this day, fabrication and optical behavior remain decoupled during the design phase and numerous assumptions are made about "perfect" geometry. As research moves from theory to real devices, predicting device behavior based on realistic geometry becomes critical. In this dissertation, a set of numerical tools was developed to model micro and nano fabrication processes. They were combined with equally capable tools to model optical performance of the simulated structures. Using these tools, it ...


Predicting Surface Scatter Using A Linear Systems Formulation Of Non-Paraxial Scalar Diffraction, Andrey Krywonos Jan 2006

Predicting Surface Scatter Using A Linear Systems Formulation Of Non-Paraxial Scalar Diffraction, Andrey Krywonos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Scattering effects from rough surfaces are non-paraxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected wavefront. The ability to predict these effects is important in a variety of applications including x-ray and EUV imaging, the design of stray light rejection systems, and reflection modeling for rendering realistic scenes and animations of physical objects in computer graphics. Rayleigh-Rice (small perturbation method) and Beckmann-Kirchoff (Kirchhoff approximation) theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. In addition, Harvey and Shack developed a linear systems formulation of surface scatter phenomena in which the scattering behavior is characterized by a surface transfer ...


Polarimetry Of Random Fields, Jeremy Ellis Jan 2006

Polarimetry Of Random Fields, Jeremy Ellis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

On temporal, spatial and spectral scales which are small enough, all fields are fully polarized. In the optical regime, however, instantaneous fields can rarely be examined, and, instead, only average quantities are accessible. The study of polarimetry is concerned with both the description of electromagnetic fields and the characterization of media a field has interacted with. The polarimetric information is conventionally presented in terms of second order field correlations which are averaged over the ensemble of field realizations. Motivated by the deficiencies of classical polarimetry in dealing with specific practical situations, this dissertation expands the traditional polarimetric approaches to include ...


Effect Of Germanium Doping On Erbium Sensitization In The Erbium Doped Silicon Rich Silica Material System, Forrest Ruhge Jan 2006

Effect Of Germanium Doping On Erbium Sensitization In The Erbium Doped Silicon Rich Silica Material System, Forrest Ruhge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The continued size reduction in electronic integrated circuits has lead to a demand for on-chip high-bandwidth and low loss communication channels. Optical interconnects are considered an essential addition to the silicon electronics platform. A major challenge in the field of integrated Si photonics is the development of cost effective silicon compatible light sources. This thesis investigates the sensitization of group IV doped silica films emitting at 1.535μm for applications as silicon compatible light sources. Thin erbium-doped silica films containing excess silicon and germanium were deposited using a multi-gun sputter system. The composition of the deposited materials was verified by ...


Molecular Structure-Nonlinear Optical Property Relationships For A Series Of Polymethine And Squaraine Molecules, Jie Fu Jan 2006

Molecular Structure-Nonlinear Optical Property Relationships For A Series Of Polymethine And Squaraine Molecules, Jie Fu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports on the investigation of the relationships between molecular structure and two-photon absorption (2PA) properties for a series of polymethine and squaraine molecules. Current and emerging applications exploiting the quadratic dependence upon laser intensity, such as two-photon fluorescence imaging, three-dimensional microfabrication, optical data storage and optical limiting, have motivated researchers to find novel materials exhibiting strong 2PA. Organic materials are promising candidates because their linear and nonlinear optical properties can be optimized for applications by changing their structures through molecular engineering. Polymethine and squaraine dyes are particularly interesting because they are fluorescent and showing large 2PA. We used ...


Three-Photon Absorption Process In Organic Dyes Enhanced By Surface Plasmon Resonance, Ion Cohanoschi Jan 2006

Three-Photon Absorption Process In Organic Dyes Enhanced By Surface Plasmon Resonance, Ion Cohanoschi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multi-photon absorption processes have received significant attention from the scientific community during the last decade, mainly because of their potential applications in optical limiting, data storage and biomedical fields. Perhaps, one of the most investigated processes studied so far has been two-photon absorption (2PA). These investigations have resulted in successful applications in all the fields mentioned above. However, 2PA present some limitations in the biomedical field when pumping at typical 2PA wavelengths. In order to overcome these limitations, three-photon absorption (3PA) process has been proposed. However, 3PA in organic molecules has a disadvantage, typical values of σ3' are small (10-81 ...


External Cavity Multiwavelength Semiconductor Mode-Locked Laser Gain Dynamics, Luis Archundia-Berra Jan 2006

External Cavity Multiwavelength Semiconductor Mode-Locked Laser Gain Dynamics, Luis Archundia-Berra

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

External cavity semiconductor mode-locked lasers can produce pulses of a few picoseconds. The pulses from these lasers are inherently chirped with a predominant linear chirp component that can be compensated resulting in sub-picosecond pulses. External cavity semiconductor mode-locked lasers can be configured as multiwavelength pulse sources and are good candidates for time and wavelength division multiplexing applications. The gain medium in external cavity semiconductor mode-locked lasers is a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), and passive and hybrid mode-locked operation are achieved by the introduction of a saturable absorber (SA) in the laser cavity. Pump-probe techniques were used to measure the intracavity ...


On The Use Of Variable Coherence In Inverse Scattering Problems, Erwan Baleine Jan 2006

On The Use Of Variable Coherence In Inverse Scattering Problems, Erwan Baleine

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Even though most of the properties of optical fields, such as wavelength, polarization, wavefront curvature or angular spectrum, have been commonly manipulated in a variety of remote sensing procedures, controlling the degree of coherence of light did not find wide applications until recently. Since the emergence of optical coherence tomography, a growing number of scattering techniques have relied on temporal coherence gating which provides efficient target selectivity in a way achieved only by bulky short pulse measurements. The spatial counterpart of temporal coherence, however, has barely been exploited in sensing applications. This dissertation examines, in different scattering regimes, a variety ...


High Birefringence And Low Viscosity Liquid Crystals, Chien-Hui Wen Jan 2006

High Birefringence And Low Viscosity Liquid Crystals, Chien-Hui Wen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, liquid crystal (LC) materials and devices are investigated in order to meet the challenges for photonics and displays applications. We have studied three kinds of liquid crystal materials: positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, negative dielectric anisotropic LCs, and dual- frequency LCs. For the positive dielectric anisotropic LCs, we have developed some high birefringence isothiocyanato tolane LC compounds with birefringence ~0.4, and super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane LC compounds with birefringence as high as ~0.7. Moreover, we have studied the photostability of several high birefringence LC compounds, mixtures, and LC alignment layers in order to determine the ...


Ultrashort, High Power, And Ultralow Noise Mode-Locked Optical Pulse Generation Using Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Lasers, Myoung-Taek Choi Jan 2006

Ultrashort, High Power, And Ultralow Noise Mode-Locked Optical Pulse Generation Using Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Lasers, Myoung-Taek Choi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores various aspects and potential of optical pulse generation based on active, passive, and hybrid mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor lasers with target applications such as optical interconnect and high speed signal processing. Design guidelines are developed for the single mode operation with suppressed reflection from waveguide discontinuities. The device fabrication procedure is explained, followed by characteristics of FP laser, SOA, and monolithic two-section devices. Short pulse generation from an external cavity mode-locked QD two-section diode laser is studied. High quality, sub-picosecond (960 fs), high peak power (1.2 W) pulse trains are obtained. The sign and magnitude of ...


Probing Random Media With Singular Waves, Chaim Schwartz Jan 2006

Probing Random Media With Singular Waves, Chaim Schwartz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years a resurgence of interest in wave singularities (of which optical vortices are a prominent example), light angular momentum and the relations between them has occurred. Many applications in various areas of linear and non-linear optics have been based on studying effects related to angular momentum and optical vortices. This dissertation examines the use of such wave singularities for studying the light propagation in highly inhomogeneous media and the relationship to angular momentum transfer. Angular momentum carried by light can be, in many cases, divided in two terms. The first one relates to the polarization of light and ...


Additive Lithography Fabrication And Integration Of Micro Optics, Mahesh Pitchumani Jan 2006

Additive Lithography Fabrication And Integration Of Micro Optics, Mahesh Pitchumani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical elements are the fundamental components in photonic systems and are used to transform an input optical beam into a desired beam profile or to couple the input beam into waveguides, fibers, or other optical systems or devices. Macroscopic optical elements are easily fabricated using grinding and polishing techniques, but few methods exist for inexpensive fabrication of micro optical elements. In this work we present an innovative technique termed Additive Lithography that makes use of binary masks and controlled partial exposures to sculpt photoresist into the desired optical surface relief profile. We explore various masking schemes for fabricating a variety ...


Optical Characterization Of Ferromagnetic Heterostructure *Interfaces And Thin Films, Haibin Zhao Jan 2006

Optical Characterization Of Ferromagnetic Heterostructure *Interfaces And Thin Films, Haibin Zhao

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis presents optical characterizations of interfaces in ferromagnetic heterostructures and thin films used for spin polarized electronic devices. In these experiments, femtosecond laser spectroscopies are exploited to investigate the interface magnetization reversal, spin precession, and band offset, which are crucial in determining the performances of spintronic devices.;First, magnetization-induced second-harmonic-generation (MSHG) is applied to study interface magnetism in a hybrid structure containing a noncentrosymmetric semiconductor---Fe/AlGaAs. The reversal process of Fe interface layer magnetization is compared with the bulk magnetization reversal. In Fe/AlGaAs (001), the interface magnetization is found to be decoupled from the bulk magnetization based on ...