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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Refractive Indices Of Liquid Crystals And Their Applications In Display And Photonic Devices, Jun Li Jan 2005

Refractive Indices Of Liquid Crystals And Their Applications In Display And Photonic Devices, Jun Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Liquid crystals (LCs) are important materials for flat panel display and photonic devices. Most LC devices use electrical field-, magnetic field-, or temperature-induced refractive index change to modulate the incident light. Molecular constituents, wavelength, and temperature are the three primary factors determining the liquid crystal refractive indices: ne and no for the extraordinary and ordinary rays, respectively. In this dissertation, we derive several physical models for describing the wavelength and temperature effects on liquid crystal refractive indices, average refractive index, and birefringence. Based on these models, we develop some high temperature gradient refractive index LC mixtures for photonic applications, such ...


Discrete Wave Propagation In Quadratically Nonlinear Media, Robert Iwanow Jan 2005

Discrete Wave Propagation In Quadratically Nonlinear Media, Robert Iwanow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Discrete models are used in describing various microscopic phenomena in many branches of science, ranging from biology through chemistry to physics. Arrays of evanescently coupled, equally spaced, identical waveguides are prime examples of optical structures in which discrete dynamics can be easily observed and investigated. As a result of discretization, these structures exhibit unique diffraction properties with no analogy in continuous systems. Recently nonlinear discrete optics has attracted a growing interest, triggered by the observation of discrete solitons in AlGaAs waveguide arrays reported by Eisenberg et al. in 1998. So far, the following experiments involved systems with third order nonlinearities ...


Coherence Properties Of Optical Near-Fields, Adela Apostol Jan 2005

Coherence Properties Of Optical Near-Fields, Adela Apostol

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Next generation photonics-based technologies will ultimately rely on novel materials and devices. For this purpose, phenomena at subwavelength scales are being studied to advance both fundamental knowledge and experimental capabilities. In this dissertation, concepts specific to near-field optics and experimental capabilities specific to near-field microscopy are used to investigate various aspects of the statistical properties of random electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of optically inhomogeneous media which emit or scatter radiation. The properties of such fields are being characterized within the frame of the coherence theory. While successful in describing the far-field properties of optical fields, the fundamental results of ...


Design And Assessment Of Compact Optical Systems Towards Special Effects Imaging, Vesselin Chaoulov Jan 2005

Design And Assessment Of Compact Optical Systems Towards Special Effects Imaging, Vesselin Chaoulov

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A main challenge in the field of special effects is to create special effects in real time in a way that the user can preview the effect before taking the actual picture or movie sequence. There are many techniques currently used to create computer-simulated special effects, however current techniques in computer graphics do not provide the option for the creation of real-time texture synthesis. Thus, while computer graphics is a powerful tool in the field of special effects, it is neither portable nor does it provide work in real-time capabilities. Real-time special effects may, however, be created optically. Such approach ...


Liquid Crystal Materials And Tunable Devices For Optical Communications, Fang Du Jan 2005

Liquid Crystal Materials And Tunable Devices For Optical Communications, Fang Du

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, liquid crystal materials and devices are investigated in meeting the challenges for photonics and communications applications. The first part deals with polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) materials and devices. Three polymer-stabilized liquid crystal systems are developed for optical communications. The second part reports the experimental investigation of a novel liquid-crystal-infiltrated photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and explores its applications in fiber-optic communications. The curing temperature is found to have significant effects on the PSLC performance. The electro-optic properties of nematic polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) at different curing temperatures are investigated experimentally. At high curing temperature, a high contrast ...


Spectral Signature Modification By Application Of Infrared Frequency-Selective Surfaces, Brian Monacelli Jan 2005

Spectral Signature Modification By Application Of Infrared Frequency-Selective Surfaces, Brian Monacelli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is desirable to modify the spectral signature of a surface, particularly in the infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. To alter the surface signature in the IR, two methods are investigated: thin film application and antenna array application. The former approach is a common and straightforward incorporation of optically-thin film coatings on the surface designated for signature modification. The latter technique requires the complex design of a periodic array of passive microantenna elements to cover the surface in order to modify its signature. This technology is known as frequency selective surface (FSS) technology and is established in the ...


Optical Wave Propagation In Discrete Waveguide Arrays, Jared Hudock Jan 2005

Optical Wave Propagation In Discrete Waveguide Arrays, Jared Hudock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The propagation dynamics of light in optical waveguide arrays is characteristic of that encountered in discrete systems. As a result, it is possible to engineer the diffraction properties of such structures, which leads to the ability to control the flow of light in ways that are impossible in continuous media. In this work, a detailed theoretical investigation of both linear and nonlinear optical wave propagation in one- and two-dimensional waveguide lattices is presented. The ability to completely overcome the effects of discrete diffraction through the mutual trapping of two orthogonally polarized coherent beams interacting in Kerr nonlinear arrays of birefringent ...


Design Of A Dynamic Focusing Microscope Objective For Oct Imaging, Supraja Murali Jan 2005

Design Of A Dynamic Focusing Microscope Objective For Oct Imaging, Supraja Murali

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a novel optical imaging technique that has assumed significant importance in bio-medical imaging in the last two decades because it is non-invasive and provides accurate, high resolution images of three dimensional cross-sections of body tissue, exceeding the capabilities of the current predominant imaging technique ┬ľultrasound. In this thesis, high resolution OCT is investigated for in vivo detection of abnormal skin pathology for the early diagnosis of cancer. The technology presented is based on a dynamic focusing microscopic imaging probe conceived for skin imaging and the detection of abnormalities in the epithelium. A novel method for ...


High Gain / Broadband Oxide Glasses For Next Generation Raman Amplifiers, Clara Rivero Jan 2005

High Gain / Broadband Oxide Glasses For Next Generation Raman Amplifiers, Clara Rivero

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Interest in Raman amplification has undergone a revival due to the rapidly increasing bandwidth requirements for communications transmission, both for long haul and local area networks, and recent developments in the telecom fiber industry and diode laser technology. In contrast to rare earth doped fiber amplifiers, for which the range of wavelengths is fixed and limited, Raman gain bandwidths are larger and the operating wavelength is fixed only by the pump wavelength and the bandwidth of the Raman active medium. In this context, glasses are the material of choice for this application due to their relatively broad spectral response, and ...


A New Hybrid Diffractive Photo-Mask Technology, Jin Won Sung Jan 2005

A New Hybrid Diffractive Photo-Mask Technology, Jin Won Sung

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the field of photolithography for micro-chip manufacturing, the photo-mask is used to print desired patterns on a proper photo-resist on wafer. The most common type of photo-mask is binary amplitude mask made an opaque layer of chrome. The principle and potential application of hybrid photo-mask with diffractive phase element and binary amplitude is presented in this dissertation paper from both numerical modeling and experimental research. The first important application is the characterization of aberration in the stepper system using hybrid diffractive photo-mask. By utilizing multiple diffractive illumination conditions, it is possible to characterize Zernike wave front aberration coefficients up ...


System Design And Optimization Of Optical Coherence Tomography, Avni Ceyhun Akcay Jan 2005

System Design And Optimization Of Optical Coherence Tomography, Avni Ceyhun Akcay

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical coherence imaging, including tomography (OCT) and microscopy (OCM), has been a growing research field in biomedical optical imaging in the last decade. In this imaging modality, a broadband light source, thus of short temporal coherence length, is used to perform imaging via interferometry. A challenge in optical coherence imaging, as in any imaging system towards biomedical diagnosis, is the quantification of image quality and optimization of the system components, both a primary focus of this research. We concentrated our efforts on the optimization of the imaging system from two main standpoints: axial point spread function (PSF) and practical steps ...


Interferometry-Based Free Space Communication And Information Processing, Muzamil Arshad Arain Jan 2005

Interferometry-Based Free Space Communication And Information Processing, Muzamil Arshad Arain

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation studies, analyzes, and experimentally demonstrates the innovative use of interference phenomenon in the field of opto-electronic information processing and optical communications. A number of optical systems using interferometric techniques both in the optical and the electronic domains has been demonstrated in the filed of signal transmission and processing, optical metrology, defense, and physical sensors. Specifically it has been shown that the interference of waves in the form of holography can be exploited to realize a novel optical scanner called Code Multiplexed Optical Scanner (C-MOS). The C-MOS features large aperture, wide scan angles, 3-D beam control, no moving parts ...


Liquid Crystal Optics For Communications, Signal Processing And 3-D Microscopic Imaging, Sajjad Khan Jan 2005

Liquid Crystal Optics For Communications, Signal Processing And 3-D Microscopic Imaging, Sajjad Khan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation proposes, studies and experimentally demonstrates novel liquid crystal (LC) optics to solve challenging problems in RF and photonic signal processing, freespace and fiber optic communications and microscopic imaging. These include free-space optical scanners for military and optical wireless applications, variable fiber-optic attenuators for optical communications, photonic control techniques for phased array antennas and radar, and 3-D microscopic imaging. At the heart of the applications demonstrated in this thesis are LC devices that are non-pixelated and can be controlled either electrically or optically. Instead of the typical pixel-by-pixel control as is custom in LC devices, the phase profile across ...


Optimizing The Performance Of As-Manufactured Grazing Incidence X-Ray Telescopes Using Mosaic Detector Arrays, Martina Atanassova Jan 2005

Optimizing The Performance Of As-Manufactured Grazing Incidence X-Ray Telescopes Using Mosaic Detector Arrays, Martina Atanassova

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The field of X-ray astronomy is only forty (43) years old, and grazing incidence X-ray telescopes have only been conceived and designed for a little over fifty (50) years. The Wolter Type I design is particularly well suited for stellar astronomical telescopes (very small field-of-view). The first orbiting X-ray observatory, HEAO-1 was launched in 1977, a mere twenty-eight (28) years ago. Since that time large nested Wolter Type I X-ray telescopes have been designed, build, and launched by the European Space Agency (ROSAT) and NASA (the Chandra Observatory). Several smaller grazing incidence telescopes have been launched for making solar observations ...


The Effects Of Electrode Geometry On Current Pulse Caused By Electrical Discharge Over An Ultra-Fast Laser Filament, Matthew Bubelnik Jan 2005

The Effects Of Electrode Geometry On Current Pulse Caused By Electrical Discharge Over An Ultra-Fast Laser Filament, Matthew Bubelnik

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The time-resolved electrical conductivity of a short-pulse generated plasma filament in air was studied. Close-coupled metal electrodes were used to discharge the stored energy of a high-voltage capacitor and the resulting microsecond-scale electrical discharge was measured using fast current sensors. Significant differences in the time dependence of the current were seen with the two electrode geometries used. Using sharp-tipped electrodes additional peaks in the time-resolved conductivity were seen, relative to the single peak seen with spherical electrodes. We attribute these additional features to secondary electron collisional ionization brought about by field enhancement at the tips. Additional discrepancies in the currents ...


Tunable Liquid Crystal Photonic Devices, Yun-Hsing Fan Jan 2005

Tunable Liquid Crystal Photonic Devices, Yun-Hsing Fan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Liquid crystal (LC)-based adaptive optics are important for information processing, optical interconnections, photonics, integrated optics, and optical communications due to their tunable optical properties. In this dissertation, we describe novel liquid crystal photonic devices and their fabrication methods. The devices presented include inhomogeneous polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC), polymer network liquid crystals (PNLC) and phase-separated composite film (PSCOF). Liquid crystal/polymer composites could exist in different forms depending on the fabrication conditions. In Chap. 3, we demonstrate a novel nanoscale PDLC device that has inhomogeneous droplet size distribution. In such a PDLC, the inhomogeneous droplet size distribution is obtained by ...