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Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Wide Angle Decentered Lens Beam Steering For Infrared Countermeasures Applications, Jennifer L. Gibson, Bradley D. Duncan, Edward A. Watson, John S. Loomis Oct 2004

Wide Angle Decentered Lens Beam Steering For Infrared Countermeasures Applications, Jennifer L. Gibson, Bradley D. Duncan, Edward A. Watson, John S. Loomis

Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty Publications

A beam-steering system consisting of three cemented achromatic doublets is presented. Intended for use in IR countermeasure applications, our system is designed to operate over the 2- to 5-μm spectrum with minimum angular dispersion. We show that dispersion can be minimized by using doublet lenses fashioned from AMTIR-1 and germanium. Our system is designed to be compact and lightweight, with no internal foci, while allowing steering to ±22.5 deg. We also maintain a minimum 2-in. clear aperture for all steering angles, and a nominal divergence of 1 mrad. Plane wave and Gaussian beam analyses of our system are presented.


Lorentz-Violating Electrostatics And Magnetostatics, Quentin G. Bailey, V. Alan Kostelecký Oct 2004

Lorentz-Violating Electrostatics And Magnetostatics, Quentin G. Bailey, V. Alan Kostelecký

Publications

Electromagnetostatics experiments show promise for improving existing sensitivities to parity-odd coefficients for Lorentz violation in the photon sector.


Volume Holographic Recording And Readout For 90-Deg Geometry, Partha P. Banerjee, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Nickolai Kukhtarev, Tatiana Kukhtareva Sep 2004

Volume Holographic Recording And Readout For 90-Deg Geometry, Partha P. Banerjee, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Nickolai Kukhtarev, Tatiana Kukhtareva

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

When a prerecorded cross-beam hologram is reconstructed (so-called edge-lit readout) with a uniform plane wave and a point source, the resulting exact solutions reveal Bessel-function-type diffracted beam profiles, which are fundamentally modified under weak propagational diffraction. The case of a profiled beam readout with propagational diffraction may be analyzed using a transfer function approach based on 2-D Laplace transforms. In a second series of investigations, dynamic readout from a cross-beam volume hologram recorded with two orthogonal uniform plane waves is considered for various dependences of the refractive index modulation with intensity. Typically, refractive index profiles that are proportional to the ...


Volume Holographic Optical Elements, Ching-Cherng Sun, Partha P. Banerjee Sep 2004

Volume Holographic Optical Elements, Ching-Cherng Sun, Partha P. Banerjee

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The final two papers are concerned with the analysis of novel holograms. Banerjee et al. investigate holographic recording and reconstruction for edge-lit holograms recorded in a 90-degree geometry. Various cases of recording and readout that incorporate propagational diffraction have been modeled. It is shown that the 90-degree geometry can result in beam shaping, as evidenced through preliminary experimental results with photorefractive lithium niobate. Nguyen et al. propose a new approach for designing computer-generated holograms. An artificial neural network is used to initiate the genetic algorithm so that the high computation cost of genetic algorithms for synthesizing holograms is significantly reduced ...


Interferometric And Holographic Imaging Of Surface-Breaking Cracks, James Lawrence Blackshire, Bradley D. Duncan Jun 2004

Interferometric And Holographic Imaging Of Surface-Breaking Cracks, James Lawrence Blackshire, Bradley D. Duncan

Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty Publications

Two advanced nondestructive evaluation systems are developed for imaging surface-breaking cracks in aerospace materials. The systems use scanning heterodyne interferometry and frequency-translated holography principles to image ultrasonic displacement fields on material surfaces with high resolution and sensitivity. Surface-breaking cracks are detected and characterized by visualizing near-field ultrasonic scattering processes, which in turn results in local intensification of ultrasonic displacement fields in the immediate vicinity of a crack. The local intensification permits cracks to be easily distinguished from background levels, and creates unique displacement field images that follow the contours and morphology of the cracks with microscopic precision. The interferometric and ...


Loss And Dispersion Analysis Of Microstructured Fibers By Finite-Difference Method, Shangping Guo, Feng Wu, Sacharia Albin, Hsiang Tai, Robert S. Rogowski Jan 2004

Loss And Dispersion Analysis Of Microstructured Fibers By Finite-Difference Method, Shangping Guo, Feng Wu, Sacharia Albin, Hsiang Tai, Robert S. Rogowski

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The dispersion and loss in microstructured fibers are studied using a full-vectorial compact-2D finite-difference method in frequency-domain. This method solves a standard eigen-value problem from the Maxwell’s equations directly and obtains complex propagation constants of the modes using anisotropic perfectly matched layers. A dielectric constant averaging technique using Ampere’s law across the curved media interface is presented. Both the real and the imaginary parts of the complex propagation constant can be obtained with a high accuracy and fast convergence. Material loss, dispersion and spurious modes are also discussed.


Photonic Band Gap Analysis Using Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method, Shangping Guo, Feng Wu, Sacharia Albin Jan 2004

Photonic Band Gap Analysis Using Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method, Shangping Guo, Feng Wu, Sacharia Albin

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

A finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method is applied for photonic band gap calculations. The Maxwell’s equations under generalized coordinates are solved for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal lattice geometries. Complete and accurate band gap information is obtained by using this FDFD approach. Numerical results for 2D TE/TM modes in square and triangular lattices are in excellent agreements with results from plane wave method (PWM). The accuracy, convergence and computation time of this method are also discussed.


Critical Behavior Of Thermal Expansion And Magnetostriction In The Vicinity Of The First Order Transition At The Curie Point Of Gd5(Si[Subscript X]Ge[Subscript 1-X])4 , Mangui Han Jan 2004

Critical Behavior Of Thermal Expansion And Magnetostriction In The Vicinity Of The First Order Transition At The Curie Point Of Gd5(Si[Subscript X]Ge[Subscript 1-X])4 , Mangui Han

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Thermal expansion (TE) and magnetostriction (MS) measurements have been conducted for Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 with a series of x values to study its critical behavior in the vicinity of transition temperatures.;It was found that the Curie temperature of Gd5(SixGe 1-x)4 for x: 0 ~ 0.5 is dependent on magnetic field, direction of change of temperature (Tc on cooling was lower than Tc on heating), purity of Gd starting material, compositions, material preparation methods, and also can be triggered by the external magnetic field with a different dT/dB rate for different x values. For Gd5(Si1.95Ge ...


Synchrotron Diffraction Studies Of Spontaneous Magnetostriction In Rare Earth Transition Metal Compounds , Ning Yang Jan 2004

Synchrotron Diffraction Studies Of Spontaneous Magnetostriction In Rare Earth Transition Metal Compounds , Ning Yang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Thermal expansion anomalies of R2Fe14B and R 2Fe17Cx (x = 0, 2) (R = Y, Nd, Gd, Tb, Er) stoichiometric compounds are studied with high-energy synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction using Debye-Scherrer geometry in temperature range 10K to 1000K. Large spontaneous magnetostriction up to their Curie temperatures (Tc) is observed. The a-axes show relatively larger invar effects than c-axes in the R 2Fe14B compounds whereas the R2Fe17C x show the contrary anisotropies. The iron sub-lattice is shown to dominate the spontaneous magnetostriction of the compounds. The contribution of the rare earth sublattice is roughly proportional to the spin magnetic moment of the rare ...


Spin Dynamics And Quantum Tunneling In Fe8 Nanomagnet And In Afm Rings By Nmr , Seung-Ho Baek Jan 2004

Spin Dynamics And Quantum Tunneling In Fe8 Nanomagnet And In Afm Rings By Nmr , Seung-Ho Baek

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, our main interest has been to investigate the spin dynamics and quantum tunneling in single molecule magnets (SMMs). For this we have selected two different classes of SMMs: a ferromagnetic total high spin S = 10 cluster Fe8 and antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring-type clusters. For Fe8, our efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the quantum tunneling of magnetization in the very low temperature region. The most remarkable experimental finding in Fe8 is that the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) at low temperatures takes place via strong collision mechanism, and thus it allows to measure directly the ...


Discrete Nonlinear Wave Propagation In Kerr Nonlinear Media, Joachim Meier Jan 2004

Discrete Nonlinear Wave Propagation In Kerr Nonlinear Media, Joachim Meier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Discrete optical systems are a subgroup of periodic structures in which the evolution of a continuous electromagnetic field can be described by a discrete model. In this model, the total field is the sum of localized, discrete modes. Weakly coupled arrays of single mode channel waveguides have been known to fall into this class of systems since the late 1960's. Nonlinear discrete optics has received a considerable amount of interest in the last few years, triggered by the experimental realization of discrete solitons in a Kerr nonlinear AlGaAs waveguide array by H. Eisenberg and coworkers in 1998. In this ...


Chemical Structure - Nonlinear Optical Property Relationships For A Series Of Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorene Molecules, Joel Mccajah Hales Jan 2004

Chemical Structure - Nonlinear Optical Property Relationships For A Series Of Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorene Molecules, Joel Mccajah Hales

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports on the investigation of two-photon absorption (2PA) in a series of fluorenyl molecules. Several current and emerging technologies exploit this optical nonlinearity including two-photon fluorescence imaging, three-dimensional microfabrication, site-specific photodynamic cancer therapy and biological caging studies. The two key features of this nonlinearity which make it an ideal candidate for the above applications are its quadratic dependence on the incident irradiance and the improved penetration into absorbing media that it affords. As a consequence of the burgeoning field which exploits 2PA, it is a goal to find materials that exhibit strong two-photon absorbing capabilities. Organic materials are ...


Monolithic Integration Of Dual Optical Elements On High Power Semicond, Laurent Vaissie Jan 2004

Monolithic Integration Of Dual Optical Elements On High Power Semicond, Laurent Vaissie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the monolithic integration of dual optical elements on high power semiconductor lasers for emission around 980nm wavelength. In the proposed configuration, light is coupled out of the AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide by a low reflectivity grating coupler towards the substrate where a second monolithic optical element is integrated to improve the device performance or functionality. A fabrication process based on electron beam lithography and plasma etching was developed to control the grating coupler duty cycle and shape. The near-field intensity profile outcoupled by the grating is modeled using a combination of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) analysis of the ...


Selective Mode Excitation In Specialty Waveguides Using Micro Optical, Waleed Mohammed Jan 2004

Selective Mode Excitation In Specialty Waveguides Using Micro Optical, Waleed Mohammed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Although optical fibers and specialty waveguides are the base of majority of today's telecom and light delivery applications, fabrication deformation, nonlinearity and attenuation limit the bandwidth of the data being transmitted or the amount of power carried by these systems. One-way to overcome these limitations without changing the fibers design or fabrication is to engineer the input light in order to excite a certain mode or a group of modes with unique optical properties. Diffractive and micro optics are highly effective for selectively coupling light to specific modes. Using micro optics, mode selective coupling can be achieved through several ...


Multiple Scattering Of Light In Inhomogeneous Media And Applications, Claudia Mujat Jan 2004

Multiple Scattering Of Light In Inhomogeneous Media And Applications, Claudia Mujat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Light scattering-based techniques are being developed for non-invasive diagnostics of inhomogeneous media in various fields, such as medicine, biology, and material characterization. However, as most media of interest are highly scattering and have a complex structure, it is difficult to obtain a full analytical solution of the scattering problem without introducing approximations and assumptions about the properties of the system under consideration. Moreover, most of the previous studies deal with idealized scattering situations, rarely encountered in practice. This dissertation provides new analytical, numerical, and experimental solutions to describe subtle effects introduced by the properties of the light sources, and by ...


Towards Direct Writing Of 3-D Photonic Circuits Using Ultrafast Lasers, Arnaud Zoubir Jan 2004

Towards Direct Writing Of 3-D Photonic Circuits Using Ultrafast Lasers, Arnaud Zoubir

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The advent of ultrafast lasers has enabled micromachining schemes that cannot be achieved by other current techniques. Laser direct writing has emerged as one of the possible routes for fabrication of optical waveguides in transparent materials. In this thesis, the advantages and limitations of this technique are explored. Two extended-cavity ultrafast lasers were built and characterized as the laser sources for this study, with improved performance over existing systems. Waveguides are fabricated in oxide glass, chalcogenide glass, and polymers, these being the three major classes of materials for the telecommunication industry. Standard waveguide metrology is performed on the fabricated waveguides ...


Thermal Management, Beam Control,And Packaging Designs For High Power, Te-Yuan Chung Jan 2004

Thermal Management, Beam Control,And Packaging Designs For High Power, Te-Yuan Chung

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Several novel techniques for controlling, managing and utilizing high power diode lasers are described. Low pressure water spray cooling for a high heat flux system is developed and proven to be an ideal cooling method for high power diode laser arrays. In order to enable better thermal and optical performance of diode laser arrays, a new and simple optical element, the beam control prism, is invented. It provides the ability to accomplish beam shaping and beam tilting at the same time. Several low thermal resistance diode packaging designs using beam control prisms are proposed, studied and produced. Two pump cavity ...


Evaluation Of The Photo-Induced Structural Mechanisms In Chalcogenide, Cedric Lopez Jan 2004

Evaluation Of The Photo-Induced Structural Mechanisms In Chalcogenide, Cedric Lopez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chalcogenide glasses and their use in a wide range of optical, electronic and memory applications, has created a need for a more thorough understanding of material property variation as a function of composition and in geometries representative of actual devices. This study evaluates compositional dependencies and photo-induced structural mechanisms in As-S-Se chalcogenide glasses. An effective fabrication method for the reproducible processing of bulk chalcogenide materials has been demonstrated and an array of tools developed, for the systematic characterization of the resulting material's physical and optical properties. The influence of compositional variation on the physical properties of 13 glasses within ...


Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser, Bojan Resan Jan 2004

Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser, Bojan Resan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A novel dispersion-managed breathing-mode semiconductor mode-locked ring laser is developed. The "breathing-mode" designation derives from the fact that intracavity pulses are alternately stretched and compressed as they circulate around the ring resonator. The pulses are stretched before entering the semiconductor gain medium to minimize the detrimental strong integrating self-phase modulation and to enable efficient pulse amplification. Subsequently compressed pulses facilitate bleaching the semiconductor saturable absorber. The intracavity pulse compression ratio is higher than 50. Down chirping when compared to up chirping allows broader mode-locked spectra and shorter pulse generation owing to temporal and spectral semiconductor gain dynamics. Pulses as short ...


Quadratic Spatial Soliton Interactions, Ladislav Jankovic Jan 2004

Quadratic Spatial Soliton Interactions, Ladislav Jankovic

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multi-soliton generation and soliton self-reflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals. These particular crystals were desirable for these experiments because of their large nonlinear coefficients and, more importantly, because the experiments could be performed under non-critical-phase-matching (NCPM) conditions. The single soliton generation measurements, performed on KNBO3 by launching the ...


Stable Spatial Solitons In Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, Erdem Ultanir Jan 2004

Stable Spatial Solitons In Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, Erdem Ultanir

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A spatial soliton is a shape invariant self guided beam of light or a self induced waveguide. Spatial solitons appear as a result of the balance of diffraction and nonlinear focusing in a system. They have been observed in many different conservative media in the last couple of years. Solitons are ubiquitous, because of the probability of using their interactions in optical data processing, communications etc. Up to now due to the power required to generate the solitons, and the response times of the soliton supporting media, these special waves of nature could not penetrate the applications arena. Semiconductors, with ...


Polarimetric Characterization Of Random Electromagnetic Beams And Applications, Mircea Mujat Jan 2004

Polarimetric Characterization Of Random Electromagnetic Beams And Applications, Mircea Mujat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polarimetry is one of the principal means of investigating the interaction of light with matter. Theoretical models and experimental techniques are presented in this dissertation for polarimetric characterization of random electromagnetic beams and of signatures of random media in different scattering regimes and configurations. The degree of polarization rather than the full description of the state of polarization is of interest in multiple scattering and free space propagation where the statistical nature and not the deterministic component of light bears the relevant information. A new interferometric technique for determining the degree of polarization by measuring the intensity fluctuations in a ...