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## Full-Text Articles in Physics

Investigation Of Electronic Holography Using Spice Computer Simulation Experiments, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Investigation Of Electronic Holography Using Spice Computer Simulation Experiments, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Using SPICE experiments, it has been possible to verify most of the important aspects of electronic holography. The generation and properties of dynamic echoes under different types of nonlinearities have been extensively tested, and some new information has been garnered in the process. The case of pulse and generalized memory echoes has also been tested, and the results have been fairly satisfactory. Most of all, the simplicity with which the intriguing concept of memory echoes has translated into the circuit implementation on SPICE, and the closeness of the results to predicted behavior have been somewhat of a pleasant surprise. Since ...

Feedback Correction Of Angular Error In Grating Readout, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Sundaram Ramachandran

#### Feedback Correction Of Angular Error In Grating Readout, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Sundaram Ramachandran

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Angular and wavelength READ beam errors in holographic interconnection systems are often a recurrent problem. Several strategies have been proposed to minimize or eliminate such READOUT misalignments. Some years ago, Chatterjee and co-workers proposed a method involving READ beam wavelength tuning to correct output angular errors. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using an acousto-optic (A-O) Bragg cell with optoelectronic feedback to dynamically correct the scattered beam for deviations in the incidence direction of the READ beam of a hologram. The concept here is based on an acoustic frequency feedback strategy used recently by Balakshy and Kazaryan for ...

Improved Performance Of Analog And Digital Acousto-Optic Modulation With Feedback Under Profiled Beam Propagation For Secure Communication Using Chaos, Fares S. Almehmadi, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Improved Performance Of Analog And Digital Acousto-Optic Modulation With Feedback Under Profiled Beam Propagation For Secure Communication Using Chaos, Fares S. Almehmadi, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Using intensity feedback, the closed-loop behavior of an acousto-optic hybrid device under profiled beam propagation has been recently shown to exhibit wider chaotic bands potentially leading to an increase in both the dynamic range and sensitivity to key parameters that characterize the encryption. In this work, a detailed examination is carried out vis-à-vis the robustness of the encryption/decryption process relative to parameter mismatch for both analog and pulse code modulation signals, and bit error rate (BER) curves are used to examine the impact of additive white noise. The simulations with profiled input beams are shown to produce a stronger ...

Diffractive Propagation And Recovery Of Modulated (Including Chaotic) Electromagnetic Waves Through Uniform Atmosphere And Modified Von Karman Phase Turbulence, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

#### Diffractive Propagation And Recovery Of Modulated (Including Chaotic) Electromagnetic Waves Through Uniform Atmosphere And Modified Von Karman Phase Turbulence, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

In a parallel approach to recently-used transfer function formalism, a study involving diffraction of modulated electromagnetic (EM) waves through uniform and phase-turbulent atmospheres is reported in this paper. Specifically, the input wave is treated as a modulated optical carrier, represented by use of a sinusoidal phasor with a slowly timevarying envelope. Using phasors and (spatial) Fourier transforms, the complex phasor wave is transmitted across a uniform or turbulent medium using the Kirchhoff-Fresnel integral and the random phase screen. Some preliminary results are presented comparing non-chaotic and chaotic information transmission through turbulence, outlining possible improvement in performance utilizing the robust features ...

Examination Of Energy And Group Velocities In Positive And Negative Index Chiral Materials With And Without Dispersion, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee

#### Examination Of Energy And Group Velocities In Positive And Negative Index Chiral Materials With And Without Dispersion, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Concepts of energy and group velocities, Poynting and propagation vectors are examined for both positive and negative index materials. Known definitions for these entities are explored in terms of the interplay of chirality and dispersion.

Analysis Of Beam Propagation In 90-Degree Holographic Recording And Readout Using Transfer Functions And Numerical 2-D-Laplace Inversion, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee, George Nehmetallah

#### Analysis Of Beam Propagation In 90-Degree Holographic Recording And Readout Using Transfer Functions And Numerical 2-D-Laplace Inversion, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee, George Nehmetallah

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Recently, 2-D-Laplace analysis of recording and readout of edge-holograms was reported. Numerical Laplace inversion was examined for simple test cases. Inversion algorithms are applied to examine beam shaping and distortion in photovoltaic and photorefractive materials.

Electronic Simulation Of The Temporal Characteristics Of Photon Memory Echoes And Some Related Applications, Yuwen Kuo, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Electronic Simulation Of The Temporal Characteristics Of Photon Memory Echoes And Some Related Applications, Yuwen Kuo, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

The characteristics of nonlinear photon memory echoes are investigated by means of SPICE simulations using equivalent resonator ensembles. By developing implicit nonlinear circuit models in the memory echo domain, the triple product formalism of electronic holography, involving correlation and convolution, is tested for the storage and recall of arbitrary signals and/or data bit streams in both time-inverted and nontime-inverted modes. Furthermore, a few specific optical data processing applications are also simulated in which the mixed binary multiplication of two or more binary bit streams is achieved.

Higher order products, optical pattern recognition, and other possible applications are also discussed ...

Design Of Acousto-Optic Chaos Based Secure Free-Space Optical Communication Links, Anjan K. Ghosh, Pramode K. Verma, Samuel Cheng, Robert C. Huck, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi

#### Design Of Acousto-Optic Chaos Based Secure Free-Space Optical Communication Links, Anjan K. Ghosh, Pramode K. Verma, Samuel Cheng, Robert C. Huck, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

We discuss the design of an acousto-optic cell based free space optical communication link where the data beam is made secure through chaos encryption. Using external signal modulation of the diffracted light from a hybrid acousto-optic cell chaos (or directly via incorporation in the sound-cell driver's bias voltage) encryption of data is possible. We have shown numerically that decryption of the encoded data is possible by using an identical acousto-optic system in the receiver.

Emergence Of Negative Index In A Lossy Chiral Metamaterial Under First-Order Material Dispersion, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Tarig A. Algadey

#### Emergence Of Negative Index In A Lossy Chiral Metamaterial Under First-Order Material Dispersion, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Tarig A. Algadey

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

For a lossless dispersive chiral material, negative index (NIM) occurred only by use of parametric analysis (and not via practical models) to first-order. These findings are re-visited for the lossy problem and the results are compared.

Examination Of The Nonlinear Dynamics Of A Chaotic Acousto-Optic Bragg Modulator With Feedback Under Signal Encryption And Decryption, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### Examination Of The Nonlinear Dynamics Of A Chaotic Acousto-Optic Bragg Modulator With Feedback Under Signal Encryption And Decryption, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

An acousto-optic Bragg cell with first-order feedback, which exhibits chaotic behavior past the threshold for bistability, was recently examined for possible chaotic encryption and recovery of simple messages (such as low-amplitude periodic signals) applied via the bias input of the sound cell driver. We carry out a thorough examination of the nonlinear dynamics of the Bragg cell under intensity feedback for (i) dc variations of the feedback gain (β˜) and the phase shift parameter (α^ 0) and (ii) ac variations of α^ 0; total under signal encryption, investigating both from two different perspectives: (i) examining chaos in view of the ...

Examination Of Focused Beam Propagation Through A Finite Non-Reciprocal Planar Chiral Slab Using Complex Fresnel Coefficients And Dual Transforms, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Sumit Nema, Partha P. Banerjee

#### Examination Of Focused Beam Propagation Through A Finite Non-Reciprocal Planar Chiral Slab Using Complex Fresnel Coefficients And Dual Transforms, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Sumit Nema, Partha P. Banerjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Recently, uniform plane wave propagation across a nonchiral-chiral interface was examined via the development of appropriate Fresnel coefficients. In this extension, propagation of focused uniform and profiled beams through a finite, planar nonreciprocal chiral slab is investigated using complex Fresnel coefficients via angular plane wave decomposition and dual transforms.

Experimental Investigations Of Wavelength And Angular Errors In Holographic Gratings With Non-Bragg-Matched Read Beams, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Vivek Ray

#### Experimental Investigations Of Wavelength And Angular Errors In Holographic Gratings With Non-Bragg-Matched Read Beams, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Vivek Ray

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Perfect Bragg matching is generally desirable for accurate optical interconnections with holographic gratings. In reality, however, gratings may be illuminated by READ beams with non-Bragg-matched angles, or wavelengths, or both. In such cases, the scattered beams are generally misdirected, and may suffer loss of efficiency and possibly more serious errors such as crosstalk noise or missed connections. A conventional wave-vector triad method of analyzing the scattered beam errors leads readily to near-Bragg estimates of the output angular misalignment. However, the READ wave-vector triads appear to indicate a possible wavelength shift in the output beam even with a Bragg-matched READ wavelength ...

Examination Of Beam Propagation In Misaligned Holographic Gratings And Comparison With The Acousto-Optic Transfer Function Model For Profiled Beams, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, David D. Reagan

#### Examination Of Beam Propagation In Misaligned Holographic Gratings And Comparison With The Acousto-Optic Transfer Function Model For Profiled Beams, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, David D. Reagan

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

A transfer function formalism developed earlier for the propagation of profiled optical beams through acousto-optic Bragg cells is revisited and applied to a thick holographic grating. The results based on the holographic coupled wave model and the acousto-optic multiple scattering model are shown to be compatible, and equivalent parameters such as the Q and grating strength are defined for the two systems. Results for a Gaussian spatial profile are numerically computed and compared. For the holographic grating, a profiled beam may be interpreted as an angular misalignment or Bragg-angle mismatch problem. The case of Bragg-wavelength mismatch is also investigated for ...

Consideration Of Dispersion And Group Velocity Dispersion In The Determination Of Velocities Of Electromagnetic Propagation, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee

#### Consideration Of Dispersion And Group Velocity Dispersion In The Determination Of Velocities Of Electromagnetic Propagation, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Partha P. Banerjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Electromagnetic (EM) propagation velocities play an important role in the determination of power and energy flow in materials and interfaces. It is well known that group and phase velocities need to be in opposition in order to achieve negative refractive index. Recently, we have shown that considerable differences may exist in phase, group and signal/energy velocities for normal and anomalous dispersion, especially near dielectric resonances. This paper examines the phase and group velocities in the presence of normal and anomalous dispersion, and group velocity dispersion (GVD), which requires introduction of the second order coefficient in the permittivity and permeability ...

A Critical Study Of Nonlinear Echo Phenomena, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

#### A Critical Study Of Nonlinear Echo Phenomena, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

The present thesis attempts to give a concise and critical account of the evolution of the echo phenomena over the last thirty years. Starting with spin and photon echoes, which were among the earliest to be observed and studied, the thesis explores the experimental findings and the models proposed in connection with the more contemporary echo experiments, viz. those involving electroacoustic or polarization echoes in single and polycrystalline piezoelectric materials and in powders. Although the investigations regarding the various mechanisms of short and long term echo formation are by no means complete, a coherent picture is beginning to emerge as ...

A Transfer Function Based Frequency Model For Propagation Of A Chaos Wave Through Modified Von Karman Turbulence Under Various Chaos And Turbulence Conditions, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

#### A Transfer Function Based Frequency Model For Propagation Of A Chaos Wave Through Modified Von Karman Turbulence Under Various Chaos And Turbulence Conditions, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Fathi H.A. Mohamed

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

Complex phasor fields for electromagnetic wave propagation through von Karman turbulence and acousto-optic RF chaos are derived en route to the effective transfer function between chaos and narrow turbulence. Results are tested for several turbulence and chaos conditions.

Chaotic Bandgaps In Hybrid Acousto-Optic Feedback And Their Implications, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi

#### Chaotic Bandgaps In Hybrid Acousto-Optic Feedback And Their Implications, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Mohammed A. Al-Saedi

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

The nonlinear dynamics of a hybrid acousto-optic device was examined from the perspective of the Lyapunov exponent (LE) and bifurcation maps. The plots for LE versus system parameters and bifurcation maps have recently been examined against known simulation results including chaotic encryption experiments [1]. It is verified that the "loop gain" (feedback gain (β) times incident light amplitude (Iin) needs to be greater than one as a necessary , but not sufficient condition for the onset of chaos. It is found that for certain combinations of β, Iin, net bias voltage (αtοt), and the initial value of the first-order scattered light ...

Volume Holographic Recording And Readout For 90-Deg Geometry, Partha P. Banerjee, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Nickolai Kukhtarev, Tatiana Kukhtareva

#### Volume Holographic Recording And Readout For 90-Deg Geometry, Partha P. Banerjee, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee, Nickolai Kukhtarev, Tatiana Kukhtareva

*Monish R. Chatterjee*

When a prerecorded cross-beam hologram is reconstructed (so-called edge-lit readout) with a uniform plane wave and a point source, the resulting exact solutions reveal Bessel-function-type diffracted beam profiles, which are fundamentally modified under weak propagational diffraction. The case of a profiled beam readout with propagational diffraction may be analyzed using a transfer function approach based on 2-D Laplace transforms. In a second series of investigations, dynamic readout from a cross-beam volume hologram recorded with two orthogonal uniform plane waves is considered for various dependences of the refractive index modulation with intensity. Typically, refractive index profiles that are proportional to the ...