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Full-Text Articles in Physics

A Hybrid Achromatic Metalens, Fatih Balli, Mansoor A. Sultan, Sarah K. Lami, J. Todd Hastings Aug 2020

A Hybrid Achromatic Metalens, Fatih Balli, Mansoor A. Sultan, Sarah K. Lami, J. Todd Hastings

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Metalenses, ultra-thin optical elements that focus light using subwavelength structures, have been the subject of a number of recent investigations. Compared to their refractive counterparts, metalenses offer reduced size and weight, and new functionality such as polarization control. However, metalenses that correct chromatic aberration also suffer from markedly reduced focusing efficiency. Here we introduce a Hybrid Achromatic Metalens (HAML) that overcomes this trade-off and offers improved focusing efficiency over a broad wavelength range from 1000-1800 nm. HAMLs can be designed by combining recursive ray-tracing and simulated phase libraries rather than computationally intensive global search algorithms. Moreover, HAMLs can be fabricated ...


Electromagnetic Interference Reduction Of High-Speed Digital And Analog Circuits Using Engineered Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures, Brandon Ramos Aug 2020

Electromagnetic Interference Reduction Of High-Speed Digital And Analog Circuits Using Engineered Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures, Brandon Ramos

Undergraduate Research Journal

In this paper, we will discuss the concerns of a microstrip two patch antenna system. Coupling of the two-port system can be miniaturized using Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures (EBG) or Defected Ground Structures (DGS) centered between the two patch antennas half a wavelength in size. Different miniaturization methods were used in the design of the antenna system to change the properties of the signal. Changing via locations that are not found on EBG strips themselves, rather found on interleaved ledges between EBG strips allowed for further change in shifting the signals frequency.


Free Charge Carrier Properties In Two-Dimensional Materials And Monoclinic Oxides Studied By Optical Hall Effect, Sean Knight Aug 2020

Free Charge Carrier Properties In Two-Dimensional Materials And Monoclinic Oxides Studied By Optical Hall Effect, Sean Knight

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

In this dissertation, optical Hall effect (OHE) measurements are used to determine the free charge carrier properties of important two-dimensional materials and monoclinic oxides. Two-dimensional material systems have proven useful in high-frequency electronic devices due to their unique properties, such as high mobility, which arise from their two-dimensional nature. Monoclinic oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics, for example low-crystal symmetry which could lead to anisotropic carrier properties. Here, single-crystal monoclinic gallium oxide, an AlInN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structure, and epitaxial graphene are studied as examples. To characterize these material systems, the OHE measurement technique is employed. The OHE is a ...


Developing Arduino Coding Curriculum, Tyler Brown, Riley Bucheitte, Timothy Kidd Jul 2020

Developing Arduino Coding Curriculum, Tyler Brown, Riley Bucheitte, Timothy Kidd

Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP)

No abstract provided.


Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina May 2020

Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina

Honors Theses

Collie Box is a medical device that measures the gait parameters of the person walk- ing in front of it. This device uses the Ultrasonic Doppler system to extract the heel-contact and toe-off times of a person walking within the range of 2-10 meters. These times are used to determine the leg’s swing phase and double stance times. The ultrasonic transducer of 10mm diameter is driven at 40kHz. At the time of the heel-contact and toe-off, foot velocity is zero while the torso part of the human body is still in motion. The wide directivity of 10mm diameter ultrasonic ...


Numerical Modeling Of Magnetic Fields For Mirror Neutron Search Experiment, Adam Johnston May 2020

Numerical Modeling Of Magnetic Fields For Mirror Neutron Search Experiment, Adam Johnston

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

This paper will outline the configuration of 3D magnetic field model simulated from electric current sources using MATLAB. The model is using 3D arrays allowing for quick and accurate numerical approximations of Bio-Savart integrals, of error < , modeling the behavior of a magnetic field due to current carrying wires. We will discuss the development of a 3D magnetic field configuration produced by the current carrying wires around a large 2.5 m diameter vacuum beam tube in the proposed mirror neutron search experiment at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The simulations demonstrate that the magnetic field with uniformity better than ± 2.5 mG that will allow for optimal results in experiment within the controlled range of net magnetic field magnitudes |B| 500 mG and in the large vacuum tube along 20-m neutron flight path can be achieved for an approximately 6 cm radius section at the center of the tube.


Integrated Photonic Device, Brittney Kuhn May 2020

Integrated Photonic Device, Brittney Kuhn

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

In computer mediated communication networks, information is typically encoded optically to transmit signals over long distances. At a network node, the optical signal is transformed into the electrical domain, processed electronically, and transformed back to an optical state to reach its destination. Transitioning between optical and electrical encoding of the signal is a potential security weak point, especially for quantum communication links. If information can remain in one state as it travels through the network, then security breaches can be detected and dealt with more easily. Furthermore, keeping the information in one state can reduce power consumption in the network ...


Development And Upgrade Of A Laser Cooling And Trapping System Of Ultracold Potassium Atoms, Bennett Atwater May 2020

Development And Upgrade Of A Laser Cooling And Trapping System Of Ultracold Potassium Atoms, Bennett Atwater

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis describes work to improve the apparatus that cools and loads potassium atoms onto the atom chip. This work consists of two main thrusts: a laser trap translator to help cool and load atoms onto the atom chip and a temperature stabilization system for the lasers that are used to laser cool potassium atoms. The current iteration of the beam translator has the ability to vertically translate a beam ±4.5 mm relative to its incident height. The translator has been shown to not alter the spatial profile of the beam through interference or obstruction. The translator’s rotation ...


An Investigation Of Diode Failure, Nicholas James Adams May 2020

An Investigation Of Diode Failure, Nicholas James Adams

Physics

Solar electricity can be used to cheaply cook food and charge electronic devices. We investigate the viability of using diodes as heating elements for insulated solar electric cooking (ISEC). In addition, information on designing and constructing ISEC compatible phone chargers and rechargeable LED lighting systems is included.


Design Of Submicron Structured Guided-Mode-Resonance Near-Infrared Polarizer, Marzia Zaman May 2020

Design Of Submicron Structured Guided-Mode-Resonance Near-Infrared Polarizer, Marzia Zaman

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to design a larger submicron linear polarizer in the near-infrared wavelength range with a wide bandwidth which can be fabricated using the conventional thin-film microfabrication technology to reduce cost. For this purpose, a gold (Au) wire-grid transmission-type transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizer and a silicon (Si) wire-grid reflection-type TM polarizer, were designed using the guided-mode-resonance filter. The Au wire-grid TM polarizer of 700nm grating width and 1200nm grating period has 95% transmittance at 2400nm, more than 1000nm resonance peak bandwidth, and an extinction ratio (ER) of around 300 with a moderated level of sidebands. The 700nm ...


Single-Pulse, Kerr-Effect Mueller Matrix Lidar Polarimeter, Keyser, Christian K., Richard K. Martin, Helena Lopez-Aviles, Khanh Nguyen, Arielle M. Adams, Demetrios Christodoulides Apr 2020

Single-Pulse, Kerr-Effect Mueller Matrix Lidar Polarimeter, Keyser, Christian K., Richard K. Martin, Helena Lopez-Aviles, Khanh Nguyen, Arielle M. Adams, Demetrios Christodoulides

Faculty Publications

We present a novel light detection and ranging (LiDAR) polarimeter that enables measurement of 12 of 16 sample Mueller matrix elements in a single, 10 ns pulse. The new polarization state generator (PSG) leverages Kerr phase modulation in a birefringent optical fiber, creating a probe pulse characterized by temporally varying polarization. Theoretical expressions for the Polarization State Generator (PSG) Stokes vector are derived for birefringent walk-off and no walk-off and incorporated into a time-dependent polarimeter signal model employing multiple polarization state analyzers (PSA). Polarimeter modeling compares the Kerr effect and electro-optic phase modulator–based PSG using a single Polarization State ...


One-Dimensional Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Using Astronomical Data For Spatially Separable Objects, Marc R. Brown Mar 2020

One-Dimensional Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Using Astronomical Data For Spatially Separable Objects, Marc R. Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Blind deconvolution is used to complete missions to detect adversary assets in space and to defend the nation's assets. A new algorithm was developed to perform blind deconvolution for objects that are spatially separable using multiple frames of data. This new one-dimensional approach uses the expectation-maximization algorithm to blindly deconvolve spatially separable objects. This object separation reduces the size of the object matrix from an NxN matrix to two singular vectors of length N. With limited knowledge of the object and point spread function the one-dimensional algorithm successfully deconvolved the objects in both simulated and laboratory data.


Syllabus Ee330 Electromagnetics, Nicholas Madamopoulos Mar 2020

Syllabus Ee330 Electromagnetics, Nicholas Madamopoulos

Open Educational Resources

Concepts covered in the undergraduate electrical engineering class of electromagnetics


Synthesizing General Electromagnetic Partially Coherent Sources From Random, Correlated Complex Screens, Milo W. Hyde Iv Mar 2020

Synthesizing General Electromagnetic Partially Coherent Sources From Random, Correlated Complex Screens, Milo W. Hyde Iv

Faculty Publications

We present a method to generate any genuine electromagnetic partially coherent source (PCS) from correlated, stochastic complex screens. The method described here can be directly implemented on existing spatial-light-modulator-based vector beam generators and can be used in any application which utilizes electromagnetic PCSs. Our method is based on the genuine cross-spectral density matrix criterion. Applying that criterion, we show that stochastic vector field realizations (corresponding to a desired electromagnetic PCS) can be generated by passing correlated Gaussian random numbers through “filters” with space-variant transfer functions. We include step-by-step instructions on how to generate the electromagnetic PCS field realizations. As an ...


Measurement Of The 160Gd(P,N)160Tb Excitation Function From 4 18 Mev, Using A Stacked Foil Technique, Ryan K. Chapman Mar 2020

Measurement Of The 160Gd(P,N)160Tb Excitation Function From 4 18 Mev, Using A Stacked Foil Technique, Ryan K. Chapman

Theses and Dissertations

A stack of thin Gd, Ti, and Cu foils were irradiated with an 18 MeV proton beam at Lawrence-Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron to investigate the 160Gd(p,n)160Tb nuclear reaction for nuclear forensics applications. This experiment will improve knowledge of 160Tb production rates, allowing 160Tb to be efficiently created in a foil stack consisting of other proton induced isotopes for forensics applications. A set of 15 measured cross sections between 4-18 MeV for 160Gd(p,n)160Tb were obtained using a stacked foil technique. The foil stack consisted of one stainless ...


Optimizing Llrf Parameters In The Electron-Ion Collider, William M. Bjorndahl Mar 2020

Optimizing Llrf Parameters In The Electron-Ion Collider, William M. Bjorndahl

Physics

To improve particle interaction in the future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), we investigated different feedback implementations to control the accelerating voltage and examined the power and beam phase for each instance. Using MATLAB, we studied three feedback mechanisms: Direct, One Turn, and Feedforward. Enacting feedforward yielded the best performance. To minimize the klystron power consumption, we analyzed different Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) parameters such as detuning. Combining theory and simulated results, we found the optimal detuning value that minimizes klystron power consumption.


Measuring Localization Confidence For Quantifying Accuracy And Heterogeneity In Single-Molecule Super-Resolution Microscopy, Hesam Mazidi, Tianben Ding, Arye Nehorai, Matthew D. Lew Feb 2020

Measuring Localization Confidence For Quantifying Accuracy And Heterogeneity In Single-Molecule Super-Resolution Microscopy, Hesam Mazidi, Tianben Ding, Arye Nehorai, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

We present a computational method, termed Wasserstein-induced flux (WIF), to robustly quantify the accuracy of individual localizations within a single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) dataset without ground- truth knowledge of the sample. WIF relies on the observation that accurate localizations are stable with respect to an arbitrary computational perturbation. Inspired by optimal transport theory, we measure the stability of individual localizations and develop an efficient optimization algorithm to compute WIF. We demonstrate the advantage of WIF in accurately quantifying imaging artifacts in high-density reconstruction of a tubulin network. WIF represents an advance in quantifying systematic errors with unknown and complex distributions ...


A Computationally-Efficient Bound For The Variance Of Measuring The Orientation Of Single Molecules, Tingting Wu, Tianben Ding, Hesam Mazidi, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew Feb 2020

A Computationally-Efficient Bound For The Variance Of Measuring The Orientation Of Single Molecules, Tingting Wu, Tianben Ding, Hesam Mazidi, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Modulating the polarization of excitation light, resolving the polarization of emitted fluorescence, and point spread function (PSF) engineering have been widely leveraged for measuring the orientation of single molecules. Typically, the performance of these techniques is optimized and quantified using the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), which describes the best possible measurement variance of an unbiased estimator. However, CRB is a local measure and requires exhaustive sampling across the measurement space to fully characterize measurement precision. We develop a global variance upper bound (VUB) for fast quantification and comparison of orientation measurement techniques. Our VUB tightly bounds the diagonal elements of the ...


In-Situ Gold-Ceria Nanoparticles: Superior Optical Fluorescence Quenching Sensor For Dissolved Oxygen, Nader Shehata, Ishac Kandas, Effat Samir Feb 2020

In-Situ Gold-Ceria Nanoparticles: Superior Optical Fluorescence Quenching Sensor For Dissolved Oxygen, Nader Shehata, Ishac Kandas, Effat Samir

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (NPs) have been proved to be an efficient optical fluorescent material through generating visible emission (~530 nm) under violet excitation. This feature allowed ceria NPs to be used as an optical sensor via the fluorescence quenching Technique. In this paper, the impact of in-situ embedded gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) inside ceria nanoparticles was studied. Then, gold–ceria NPs were used for sensing dissolved oxygen (DO) in aqueous media. It was observed that both fluorescence intensity and lifetime were changed due to increased concentration of DO. Added gold was found to enhance the sensitivity of ceria to ...


Developing A Uas-Deployable Methane Sensor Using Low-Cost Modular Open-Source Components, Gavin Demali Jan 2020

Developing A Uas-Deployable Methane Sensor Using Low-Cost Modular Open-Source Components, Gavin Demali

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project aimed to develop a methane sensor for deployment on an unmanned aerial system (UAS), or drone, platform. This design is centered around low cost, commercially available modular hardware components and open source software libraries. Once successfully developed, this system was deployed at the Bath Nature Preserve in Bath Township, Summit County Ohio in order to detect any potential on site fugitive methane emissions in the vicinity of the oil and gas infrastructure present. The deliverables of this project (i.e. the data collected at BNP) will be given to the land managers there to better inform future management ...


Independent And Simultaneous Control Of Electromagnetic Wave Properties In Self-Collimating Photonic Crystals Using Spatial Variance, Jesus Javier Gutierrez Jan 2020

Independent And Simultaneous Control Of Electromagnetic Wave Properties In Self-Collimating Photonic Crystals Using Spatial Variance, Jesus Javier Gutierrez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Photonic crystals are engineered periodic structures that provide great control over electromagnetic waves. One of these mechanisms is self-collimation, in which the electromagnetic wave travels through the photonic crystal along an axis of the lattice without diffracting or spreading. This mechanism of self-collimation is a dispersion phenomenon, which is dependent on the unit cell's physical and geometrical characteristics. An algorithm for generating spatially variant lattices (SVL) was developed that can change geometrical properties in photonic crystals as a function of position, like unit cell orientation, fill fraction, symmetry, and others in a manner that is smooth, continuous, and virtually ...


Electric Field Control Of Fixed Magnetic Skyrmions For Energy Efficient Nanomagnetic Memory, Dhritiman Bhattacharya Jan 2020

Electric Field Control Of Fixed Magnetic Skyrmions For Energy Efficient Nanomagnetic Memory, Dhritiman Bhattacharya

Theses and Dissertations

To meet the ever-growing demand of faster and smaller computers, increasing number of transistors are needed in the same chip area. Unfortunately, Silicon based transistors have almost reached their miniaturization limits mainly due to excessive heat generation. Nanomagnetic devices are one of the most promising alternatives of CMOS. In nanomagnetic devices, electron spin, instead of charge, is the information carrier. Hence, these devices are non-volatile: information can be stored in these devices without needing any external power which could enable computing architectures beyond traditional von-Neumann computing. Additionally, these devices are also expected to be more energy efficient than CMOS devices ...


Resource Efficient Design Of Quantum Circuits For Cryptanalysis And Scientific Computing Applications, Edgard Munoz-Coreas Jan 2020

Resource Efficient Design Of Quantum Circuits For Cryptanalysis And Scientific Computing Applications, Edgard Munoz-Coreas

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Quantum computers offer the potential to extend our abilities to tackle computational problems in fields such as number theory, encryption, search and scientific computation. Up to a superpolynomial speedup has been reported for quantum algorithms in these areas. Motivated by the promise of faster computations, the development of quantum machines has caught the attention of both academics and industry researchers. Quantum machines are now at sizes where implementations of quantum algorithms or their components are now becoming possible. In order to implement quantum algorithms on quantum machines, resource efficient circuits and functional blocks must be designed. In this work, we ...


Gold/Qds-Embedded-Ceria Nanoparticles: Optical Fluorescence Enhancement As A Quenching Sensor, Nader Shehata, Effat Samir, Ishac Kandas Jan 2020

Gold/Qds-Embedded-Ceria Nanoparticles: Optical Fluorescence Enhancement As A Quenching Sensor, Nader Shehata, Effat Samir, Ishac Kandas

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This work focuses on improving the fluorescence intensity of cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles (NPs) through added plasmonic nanostructures. Ceria nanoparticles are fluorescent nanostructures which can emit visible fluorescence emissions under violet excitation. Here, we investigated different added plasmonic nanostructures, such as gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and Cadmium sulfide/selenide quantum dots (CdS/CdSe QDs), to check the enhancement of fluorescence intensity emissions caused by ceria NPs. Different plasmonic resonances of both aforementioned nanostructures have been selected to develop optical coupling with both fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths of ceria. In addition, different additions whether in-situ or post-synthesis have been investigated ...


Special Section Guest Editorial: Machine Learning In Optics, Jonathan Howe, Travis Axtell, Khan Iftekharuddin Jan 2020

Special Section Guest Editorial: Machine Learning In Optics, Jonathan Howe, Travis Axtell, Khan Iftekharuddin

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This guest editorial summarizes the Special Section on Machine Learning in Optics.


Transient Mid-Ir Nonlinear Refraction In Air And Nonlinear Optical Properties Of Organometallic Complexes, Salimeh Tofighi Jan 2020

Transient Mid-Ir Nonlinear Refraction In Air And Nonlinear Optical Properties Of Organometallic Complexes, Salimeh Tofighi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

This dissertation explores two main topics: Transient nonlinear refraction of air in Mid-IR spectral range and nonlinear optical properties of organometallic complexes. For seeing a vibrational and rotational Raman response the molecule should be Raman active. The first requirement for being a Raman active molecule is that the polarizability of molecule must be anisotropic. Linear symmetric molecules do have rotational Raman spectra. Not all the vibrational mode can be excited by a femtosecond pulse. The pulsewidth of our excitation beam should be less than the half of the vibration period. In this dissertation my excitation pulsewidth is not short enough ...


High-Fidelity Mini-Led And Micro-Led Displays, Yuge Huang Jan 2020

High-Fidelity Mini-Led And Micro-Led Displays, Yuge Huang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Mini-LED and micro-LED are emerging disruptive display technologies, because they can work as local dimmable backlight to significantly enhance the dynamic range of conventional LCDs, or as sunlight readable emissive displays. However, there are still unresolved issues impairing their display fidelity: 1) motion blur on high-resolution, large-size and high-luminance devices, 2) limited contrast ratio on mini-LED backlit LCD (mLED-LCD), 3) relatively high power consumption, and 4) compromised ambient contrast ratio. This dissertation tackles with each of these issues for achieving high display fidelity. Motion blur is caused by slow liquid crystal response time and image update delays. Low-duty ratio operation ...


Parallelized X-Ray Tracing With Gpu Ray-Tracing Engine, Joseph Ulseth Jan 2020

Parallelized X-Ray Tracing With Gpu Ray-Tracing Engine, Joseph Ulseth

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

X-ray diffraction tomography (XDT) is used to probe material composition of objects, providing improved contrast between materials compared to conventional transmission based computed tomography (CT). In this work, a small angle approximation to Bragg's Equation of diffraction is coupled with parallelized computing using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to accelerate XDT simulations. The approximation gives rise to a simple yet useful proportionality between momentum transfer, radial distance of diffracted signal with respect to incoming beam's location, and depth of material, so that ray tracing may be parallelized. NVIDIA's OptiX ray-tracing engine, a parallelized pipeline for GPUs, is employed ...


Multi-Parameter Optical Metrology: Quantum And Classical, Walker Larson Jan 2020

Multi-Parameter Optical Metrology: Quantum And Classical, Walker Larson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

The insights offered by quantum mechanics to the field of optical metrology are many-fold, with non-classical states of light themselves used to make sensors that surpass the sensitivity of sensors using classical states of light. Unfortunately, this advantage, referred to often as "super-sensitivity" is notoriously fragile, and even the slightest experimental imperfections may greatly reduce the efficacy of the non-classical sensors, sometimes completely obviating their advantage. In my thesis I have shown that the performance of an otherwise ideal two-photon interferometer, which exploits entanglement between photons to make super-sensitive measurements of phase, is crippled by the slightest introduction of decoherence ...


Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy Jan 2020

Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy

All Undergraduate Projects

Renewable energies, and fuels that are not fossil fuel-based, are one of the prolific topics of debate in modern society. With climate change now becoming a primary focus for scientists and innovators of today, one of the areas for the largest amount of potential and growth is that of the capturing and utilization of Solar Energy. This method involves using a mechanical system to track the progression of the sun as it traverses the sky throughout the day. A dual-axis solar tracker such as the one designed and built for this project, can follow the sun both azimuthally and in ...