# Physics Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 32085

## Full-Text Articles in Physics

Dec 2021

#### Understanding Students’ Global Interdependence In Science Instruction, Walter S. Smith

##### Journal of Global Education and Research

Multiple American educational organizations such as the National Education Association, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, and the Council of Chief State School Officers have advocated for globalizing the K-12 curriculum. The National Science Teaching Association (NSTA) in a position statement on international education and the Next Generation Science Standards have produced goals and standards for internationalizing the science curriculum by addressing topics such as climate change, environment, and disease that cross borders. In contrast to those pronouncements on the curriculum, this article views global science education through an instructional lens that focuses on a students’ global interdependence in science ...

Stay Calm And Focus On The Learning Outcomes: Tools For Taking Biophysical Chemistry Online, Maria Ballester, Brian L. Van Hoozen Jr., Arthur Sikora Aug 2021

#### Stay Calm And Focus On The Learning Outcomes: Tools For Taking Biophysical Chemistry Online, Maria Ballester, Brian L. Van Hoozen Jr., Arthur Sikora

##### Chemistry and Physics Faculty Articles

Course specific learning outcomes are an important tool to define the scope of a course and can be very helpful when designing experiments and assessments. With slight modification, these learning outcomes can serve as a guide when transitioning to the distance learning format especially in courses with a traditional lab. Here we present such an example for the biophysical chemistry course.

On-Chip Nanoscale Plasmonic Optical Modulators, Abdalrahman Mohamed Nader Abdelhamid Jun 2021

#### On-Chip Nanoscale Plasmonic Optical Modulators, Abdalrahman Mohamed Nader Abdelhamid

##### Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis work, techniques for downsizing Optical modulators to nanoscale for the purpose of utilization in on chip communication and sensing applications are explored. Nanoscale optical interconnects can solve the electronics speed limiting transmission lines, in addition to decrease the electronic chips heat dissipation. A major obstacle in the path of achieving this goal is to build optical modulators, which transforms data from the electrical form to the optical form, in a size comparable to the size of the electronics components, while also having low insertion loss, high extinction ratio and bandwidth. Also, lap-on-chip applications used for fast diagnostics ...

#### Development Of A Diamond Defect Quantum Sensing Platform For Probing Novel Quantum Magnetic Phases, Jeffrey Ahlers

##### Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

Nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond are highly effective quantum sensors due to their high spatial resolution and high magnetic field sensitivity. We present the construction of an optically detected magnetic resonance platform in order to facilitate the probing of magnetic phases in two-dimensional heterostructures. This includes the characterization of the required microwave voltage controlled oscillator and amplifier. In the presence of crystal strain, we measure ensemble nitrogen vacancy spin transitions with and without an applied magnetic field, and observe frequency shifts consistent with sample heating.

Inspection Of Electronics Components For Cryogenic Temperature Operation, Navaneeth Poonthottathil, Frank Krennrich, Amanda Weinstein, Jonathan Eisch, Leonard J. Bond, Dan Barnard, Zhan Zhang, Lucas Koester May 2021

#### Inspection Of Electronics Components For Cryogenic Temperature Operation, Navaneeth Poonthottathil, Frank Krennrich, Amanda Weinstein, Jonathan Eisch, Leonard J. Bond, Dan Barnard, Zhan Zhang, Lucas Koester

##### Aerospace Engineering Publications

Electronics operating at cryogenic temperatures play a critical role in future science experiments and space exploration programs. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) uses a cold electronics system for data taking. Specifically, it utilizes custom-designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The main challenge is that these circuits will be immersed in liquid Argon and that they need to function for 20+ years without any access. Ensuring quality is critical, and issues may arise due to thermal stress, packaging, and manufacturing-related defects: if undetected, these could lead to long-term reliability and performance problems. This paper reports an investigation into non-destructive evaluation ...

Fundamental Aspects Of Black Holes, Jacob Fisher Ciafre May 2021

#### Fundamental Aspects Of Black Holes, Jacob Fisher Ciafre

##### All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The literature study here seeks to present the foundations of black hole physics in General Relativity. The report includes a discussion of the Kerr black hole metric, black hole entropy, particle creation, the laws of black hole mechanics, and a bilinear mass formula for the Kerr-Newman black hole solution.

Monitoring Chlorophyll A And Pheophytin At Crabtree Swamp, James Blankenship Apr 2021

#### Monitoring Chlorophyll A And Pheophytin At Crabtree Swamp, James Blankenship

The two chemicals compound we will be looking at include Chlorophyll A and Pheophytin. These two chemicals are common in most waters around the world. While they are helpful for the ecosystem, like most everything, having too much can also be harmful. Having a high concentrate of Chlorophyll A can result in foul smell and green scum on the bottom and surface of water. Likewise, pheophytin can be harmful when it comes to dissolving oxygen in water. This can result in erosion around the water source and can lead to unwanted chemicals in water (4). The results discussed will show ...

E. Coli And Total Coliform, Emilio Wilson Apr 2021

#### E. Coli And Total Coliform, Emilio Wilson

Water is important because we use it for our everyday use, whether it's for drinking, bathing, or for our enjoyment. Pollution causes the environment to have a harmful effect, which is usually caused by microorganisms (bacteria) Some of those Bacteria include E. coli and Total Coliform. They're mainly found in the intestines of humans, in animals, in water, and also found in the soil. Most of these bacteria are harmless but it can provide you with symptoms of diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps. When water comes in contact with feces, humans, or any living organism, the water is ...

Detecting Radium-226 In Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Rashaun Davis Apr 2021

#### Detecting Radium-226 In Submarine Groundwater Discharge, Rashaun Davis

Studies have been done to see if abundance of neutrinos have an effect on the decay rate of radioactive nuclei. Questions regarding the proximity of the sun and the concentration of the flux of neutrinos as a result, have emerged due to there being more counts in the winter when the sun is closer versus there being less counts in the summer when the sun is farther away. Other studies say that the cause of the difference in counts are more local, as in the environmental conditions like temperature and various background radiation that interferes with the counts of the ...

Apr 2021

#### Monitoring Nitrogen Levels At 11th Ave. N Surfside Beach, Sc, Kyle Lavoie

This research was done to monitor Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate which are measured to assess if they were within safe levels according to the Environmental Protection Association(EPA). Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate are important indicators to the amount of each that could end up in a public water supply. To much Nitrate can cause excess algae growth in lakes and is unhealthy in large amounts for humans, mainly children. Samples were tested using Ammonia test strips and Nitrite and Nitrate test strips. 242 samples were collected between May 27th, 2010 and January 26th, 2021 at 11th Ave. N Surfside Beach ...

Absorbance At The Crabtree, Jaquon Williams Apr 2021

#### Absorbance At The Crabtree, Jaquon Williams

Water scarcity is a growing concern across the world in this document we investigate Crabtree swamp, that’s in Conway, SC. Water absorption is the amount of water taken up by flour to achieve the desired consistency and create a quality end-product. Yet, in this case, we're talking about the Crabtree swamp land area. The goal of this research project is to compare and contrast water absorbance in the area.

The purpose of this study is to naturalize the aquatic ecosystem processes in Crabtree Swamp and improve the survivability of resources of regional significance that have been identified. Resources ...

Apr 2021

#### Analyzing Polychromatic Map-Making Techniques From Monochromatic Time-Ordered Data, Brianna Cantrall

##### Arts & Sciences Student Symposium

This research focuses on techniques for extracting polychromatic data from a monochromatic time-ordered data signal. Being able to reproduce polychromatic maps from monochromatic data broadens the way in which one can analyze properties of the universe. This polychromatic map reconstruction in this research focuses on being able to further analyze the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.

Validation Of A Locally Designed Computed Tomography Dose Phantom: A Comparison Study With A Standard Acrylic Phantom In South-South, Nigeria, Anwuli Christiana Tobi, Chukwuka Emmanuel Mokobia, Joyce Ekeme Ikubor, Akintayo Daniel Omojola Apr 2021

#### Validation Of A Locally Designed Computed Tomography Dose Phantom: A Comparison Study With A Standard Acrylic Phantom In South-South, Nigeria, Anwuli Christiana Tobi, Chukwuka Emmanuel Mokobia, Joyce Ekeme Ikubor, Akintayo Daniel Omojola

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the mean volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) for the standard head and body phantoms and locally designed head and body phantoms respectively. Similarly, this study determined and compared the displayed mean CTDIvol and Dose Length Product (DLP) for the above phantoms from the CT monitor. In addition, the percentage deviations of both phantoms were compared with the recommended limits from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the American College of Radiologists (ACR). Materials and

Methods: Dose measurements were made using a standard polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) phantom for head and body ...

Geometrization Of Hawking Radiation Via Ricci Flow, Alexander Cassem Apr 2021

#### Geometrization Of Hawking Radiation Via Ricci Flow, Alexander Cassem

##### Ramaley Research Celebration

In 1982, Richard S. Hamilton formulated Ricci flow along manifolds of three dimensions of positive Ricci curvature as an attempt to resolve Poincaré’s Conjecture. However, it took until 2006 by Grigori Perelman to resolve the conjecture with Ricci flow. Since then, research in pure mathematics on Ricci Flow increased exponentially, and people began to apply it towards physics. For example, Ricci flow has been found to be the Renormalization Group flow of the bosonic string and sigma model. However, Ricci flow’s analogous counterpart being the heat equation, makes it appear to have more applications. For this reason, we ...

Implications Of The Quantum Dna Model For Information Sciences, F. Matthew Mihelic Apr 2021

#### Implications Of The Quantum Dna Model For Information Sciences, F. Matthew Mihelic

##### Faculty Publications

The DNA molecule can be modeled as a quantum logic processor, and this model has been supported by pilot research that experimentally demonstrated non-local communication between cells in separated cell cultures. This modeling and pilot research have important implications for information sciences, providing a potential architecture for quantum computing that operates at room temperature and is scalable to millions of qubits, and including the potential for an entanglement communication system based upon the quantum DNA architecture. Such a system could be used to provide non-local quantum key distribution that could not be blocked by any shielding or water depth, would ...

Magnetic Vector Potential Manipulation Of Majorana Fermions In Dna Quantum Logic, F. Matthew Mihelic Apr 2021

#### Magnetic Vector Potential Manipulation Of Majorana Fermions In Dna Quantum Logic, F. Matthew Mihelic

##### Faculty Publications

In the quantum logic of the DNA molecule, electrons are held and conducted coherently as spinless Cooper pairs and are shielded from electromagnetic energy by a Faraday cage effect of the double lipid bilayer of the nuclear membrane. The magnetic vector potential generated by cellular depolarization can synchronize logical activity in portions of the DNA molecule by affecting spin directions of appropriately oriented spinless electrons via the Aharonov-Bohm effect, but is not blocked by that Faraday cage effect. Within the logically and thermodynamically reversible chiral enantiomeric symmetry of the deoxyribose moieties the decoherent transition of Cooper pair to Dirac pair ...

Determination Of The Traits In Leguminous Crops Under Saline Condition, Tojiddin Kuliev, Karomat Ismailova Apr 2021

#### Determination Of The Traits In Leguminous Crops Under Saline Condition, Tojiddin Kuliev, Karomat Ismailova

##### Karakalpak Scientific Journal

In this study, the variability and determination of genetic traits for winter legume crop varieties the Vostok-55 (Pisum arvense L) and Mirzachul-1 (Vicia villoza Roth L) were investigated under moderate saline soil condition. Results show that the weight of the bean was marked as variable and highly deterministic, and the height of the plants was the most stable. The selection of plants based on these traits is the most effective way of salinity. Both variety the forage pea Vostok-55 and vetch Mirzachul-1 is highly recommended as a sideration and forage crop in saline lands.

#### A Search For New Resonances Decaying Into A Weak Vector Boson And A Higgs Boson In Hadronic Final States With The Atlas Detector At The Large Hadron Collider, Zachary Alden Meadows

##### Doctoral Dissertations

A search for heavy resonances decaying to a $W$ or $Z$ boson and a Higgs boson in the final state is described. The search uses $139\ \mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider from 2015 to 2018. The results are presented in terms of constraints on a simplified model with a heavy vector triplet. Upper limits are set on the production cross-section times branching fraction for resonances decaying into a W/Z boson and a Higgs boson in the mass range between 1.2 ...

Dipole Emission Characteristics Near A Topological Insulator Sphere Coated With A Metallic Nanoshell, Huai-Yi Xie, Railing Chang, P. T. Leung Apr 2021

#### Dipole Emission Characteristics Near A Topological Insulator Sphere Coated With A Metallic Nanoshell, Huai-Yi Xie, Railing Chang, P. T. Leung

##### Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Topological insulators (TI) are quantum states of (2D/3D) matter with an insulating interior but conducting edge/surface states, with these boundary conducting states being protected topologically by time-reversal symmetry. Composite materials of heavy atoms such as Bi2Te3 can be fabricated to show TI properties due to the strong intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of the electrons in these materials. Among the so many intriguing physical properties of these materials, their topological magneto-electric (TME) response is unique and has been studied intensively in the literature, leading to intriguing optical effects such as Faraday and Kerr rotations of incident polarized ...

End-To-End Physics Event Generator, Yasir Alanazi, N. Sato, Tianbo Liu, W. Melnitchouk, Michelle P. Kuchera, Evan Pritchard, Michael Robertson, Ryan Strauss, Luisa Velasco, Yaohang Li Apr 2021

#### End-To-End Physics Event Generator, Yasir Alanazi, N. Sato, Tianbo Liu, W. Melnitchouk, Michelle P. Kuchera, Evan Pritchard, Michael Robertson, Ryan Strauss, Luisa Velasco, Yaohang Li

##### College of Sciences Posters

We apply generative adversarial network (GAN) technology to build an event generator that simulates particle production in electron-proton scattering that is free of theoretical assumptions about underlying particle dynamics. The difficulty of efficiently training a GAN event simulator lies in learning the complicated pat- terns of the distributions of the particles physical properties. We develop a GAN that selects a set of transformed features from particle momenta that can be generated easily by the generator, and uses these to produce a set of augmented features that improve the sensitivity of the discriminator. The new Feature-Augmented and Transformed GAN (FAT-GAN) is ...

Direct Visualization Of 3-Dimensional Force And Energy Map Of A Single Molecular Switch, Abeykoon Mudiyanselage Shashika Darshani Wijerathna, Zaw Myo Win, K. Z. Latt, Yang Li, A. T. Ngo, L. Curtiss, R. Zhang, S. W. Hla, Y. Zhang Apr 2021

#### Direct Visualization Of 3-Dimensional Force And Energy Map Of A Single Molecular Switch, Abeykoon Mudiyanselage Shashika Darshani Wijerathna, Zaw Myo Win, K. Z. Latt, Yang Li, A. T. Ngo, L. Curtiss, R. Zhang, S. W. Hla, Y. Zhang

##### College of Sciences Posters

Mechanical properties of molecules adsorbed on materials surfaces are increasingly vital for the applications of molecular thin films. Here, we conduct a fundamental research to induce conformational change mechanically on a single molecule and quantify the driving force needed for such molecular shape switch via a low temperature (~ 5K) Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) and Qplus Atomic Force Microscope (Q+AFM). Our measurement maps a three-dimensional landscape for mechanical potential and force at single molecule level with high spatial resolution in all three dimensions of a few angstrom (10-10 m).

Molecule TBrPP-Co (a cobalt porphyrin) deposited on an atomically clean ...

The Magnetic Field Penetration Measurement Of Thin Film And Multilayered Superconductors For Srf Cavities, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, Jean Delayen Apr 2021

#### The Magnetic Field Penetration Measurement Of Thin Film And Multilayered Superconductors For Srf Cavities, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, Jean Delayen

##### College of Sciences Posters

Radio Frequency (RF) Cavities are used in particle accelerators and they are typically formed from or coated with superconducting materials. High purity niobium is the material of choice for SRF cavities and niobium cavities operate at their theoretical field limits. SRF researchers have begun a significant R&D effort to develop alternative materials to continue to keep up with the demands of new accelerator facilities. To achieve high performance with high accelerating gradient, cavity material should have an ability to persist in superconducting state under high magnetic field without magnetic flux penetration through the cavity wall. Therefore, the magnetic field ...

Nb3Sn Coating Of Complex Srf Cavity Structures, Jayendrika Tiskumara, Uttar Pudasaini, Grigory Eremeev, Charlie Reece, Jean Delayen Apr 2021

#### Nb3Sn Coating Of Complex Srf Cavity Structures, Jayendrika Tiskumara, Uttar Pudasaini, Grigory Eremeev, Charlie Reece, Jean Delayen

##### College of Sciences Posters

In the modern SRF research, Thin films coated niobium cavities are used for the low cost and increased quality factor. Among the potential thin film materials applied on the niobium, performances demonstrated by the Nb3Sn cavities makes this material attractive for SRF accelerator applications giving higher critical temperature and higher accelerating gradients. While the majority of research efforts are currently focused on the development of elliptical single-cell and multi-cell cavities, the potential of this material is evident to other cavity types, which may have complex geometries. We are working towards the development of Nb3Sn-coated Half-wave resonator and twin ...

Design, Commissioning And Preliminary Results Of A Magnetic Field Scanning System For Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavities, Ishwari Parajuli, Jeffrey Nice, Gianluigi Ciovati, William Clemens, Jean Delayen, Alex Gurevich Apr 2021

#### Design, Commissioning And Preliminary Results Of A Magnetic Field Scanning System For Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavities, Ishwari Parajuli, Jeffrey Nice, Gianluigi Ciovati, William Clemens, Jean Delayen, Alex Gurevich

##### College of Sciences Posters

Superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities are one of the building blocks of modern particle accelerators. Such cavities are typically made of bulk niobium, operate at liquid helium temperature (2 - 4 K) and have some of the highest quality factors found in Nature. One of the leading source of residual losses, which limits the quality factor in SRF cavities, is trapped magnetic flux from either residual ambient magnetic field or thermoelectric currents. The flux trapping mechanism depends on different niobium surface preparations and cool-down conditions. Suitable diagnostic tools are not yet available to study the effects of such conditions on magnetic flux ...

Optomechanical Quantum Entanglement, Kahlil Y. Dixon Mar 2021

#### Optomechanical Quantum Entanglement, Kahlil Y. Dixon

##### LSU Doctoral Dissertations

As classical technology approaches its limits, exploration of quantum technologies is critical. Quantum optics will be the basis of various cutting-edge research and applications in quantum technology. In particular, quantum optics quite efficacious when applied to quantum networks and the quantum internet. Quantum Optomechanics, a subfield of quantum optics, contains some novel methods for entanglement generation. These entanglement production methods exploit the noise re-encoding process, which is most often associated with creating unwanted phase noise in optical circuits. Using the adapted two-photon formalism and experimental results, we simulate (in an experimentally viable parameter space) optomechanical entanglement generation experiments. These simulations ...

Entropic Dynamics Of Networks, Felipe Xavier Costa, Pedro Pessoa Mar 2021

#### Entropic Dynamics Of Networks, Felipe Xavier Costa, Pedro Pessoa

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Here we present the entropic dynamics formalism for networks. That is, a framework for the dynamics of graphs meant to represent a network derived from the principle of maximum entropy and the rate of transition is obtained taking into account the natural information geometry of probability distributions. We apply this framework to the Gibbs distribution of random graphs obtained with constraints on the node connectivity. The information geometry for this graph ensemble is calculated and the dynamical process is obtained as a diffusion equation. We compare the steady state of this dynamics to degree distributions found on real-world networks.

Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia Mar 2021

#### Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia

##### Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Moving animal groups are prime examples of natural complex systems. In most models of such systems each individual updates its heading based on the current positions and headings of its neighbors. However, recently, a number of models where the heading update instead is based on the future anticipated positions/headings of the neighbors have been published. Collectively these studies have established that including anticipation may have drastically different effects in different models. In particular, anticipation inhibits polarization in alignment-based models and in one alignment-free model, but promotes polarization in another alignment-free model. Indicating that our understanding of how anticipation affects ...

Origin Of Magnetism In Γ-Fesi 2 /Si(111) Nanostructures, Liwei D. Geng, Sahil Dhoka, Ilan Goldfarb, Ranjit Pati, Yongmei M. Jin Mar 2021

#### Origin Of Magnetism In Γ-Fesi 2 /Si(111) Nanostructures, Liwei D. Geng, Sahil Dhoka, Ilan Goldfarb, Ranjit Pati, Yongmei M. Jin

##### Michigan Tech Publications

Magnetism has recently been observed in nominally nonmagnetic iron disilicide in the form of epitaxial γ-FeSi2 nanostructures on Si(111) substrate. To explore the origin of the magnetism in γ-FeSi2/Si(111) nanostructures, we performed a systematic first-principles study based on density functional theory. Several possible factors, such as epitaxial strain, free surface, interface, and edge, were examined. The calculations show that among these factors, only the edge can lead to the magnetism in γ-FeSi2/Si(111) nanostructures. It is shown that magnetism exhibits a strong dependency on the local atomic structure of the edge. Furthermore, magnetism can be enhanced ...

Discovery Of A Weak Topological Insulating State And Van Hove Singularity In Triclinic Rhbi2, Kyungchan Lee, Gunnar F. Lange, Lin-Lin Wang, Brinda Kuthanazhi, Thais V. Trevisan, Na Hyun Jo, Benjamin Schrunk, Peter P. Orth, Robert-Jan Slager, Paul C. Canfield, Adam Kaminski Mar 2021

#### Discovery Of A Weak Topological Insulating State And Van Hove Singularity In Triclinic Rhbi2, Kyungchan Lee, Gunnar F. Lange, Lin-Lin Wang, Brinda Kuthanazhi, Thais V. Trevisan, Na Hyun Jo, Benjamin Schrunk, Peter P. Orth, Robert-Jan Slager, Paul C. Canfield, Adam Kaminski

##### Physics and Astronomy Publications

Time reversal symmetric (TRS) invariant topological insulators (TIs) fullfil a paradigmatic role in the field of topological materials, standing at the origin of its development. Apart from TRS protected 'strong' TIs, it was realized early on that more confounding weak topological insulators (WTI) exist. WTIs depend on translational symmetry and exhibit topological surface states only in certain directions making it significantly more difficult to match the experimental success of strong TIs. We here report on the discovery of a WTI state in RhBi2 that belongs to the optimal space group P1, which is the only space group where symmetry indicated ...

Light-Wave Control Of Correlated Materials Using Quantum Magnetism During Time-Periodic Modulation Of Coherent Transport, Panagiotis C. Lingos, Myron D. Kapetanakis, Jigang Wang, Ilias E. Perakis Mar 2021

#### Light-Wave Control Of Correlated Materials Using Quantum Magnetism During Time-Periodic Modulation Of Coherent Transport, Panagiotis C. Lingos, Myron D. Kapetanakis, Jigang Wang, Ilias E. Perakis

##### Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Light–wave quantum electronics utilizes the oscillating carrier wave to control electronic properties with intense laser pulses. Without direct light–spin interactions, however, magnetic properties can only be indirectly affected by the light electric field, mostly at later times. A grand challenge is how to establish a universal principle for quantum control of charge and spin fluctuations, which can allow for faster-than-THz clock rates. Using quantum kinetic equations for the density matrix describing non–equilibrium states of Hubbard quasiparticles, here we show that time–periodic modulation of electronic hopping during few cycles of carrier–wave oscillations can dynamically steer an ...