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Articles 1 - 30 of 671

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Irrigation Water Diagram Jan 9999

Irrigation Water Diagram

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer May 2020

Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer

Senior Honors Projects

KEVIN DYER (Marine Biology)

Year-long Analysis of the Water Quality of White Horn Brook

Sponsor: Thomas Boving (Geological Sciences)

Water is the foundation for all life on earth and is the most vital resource on this planet. Despite this, oceans and waterways all over the world are being polluted and exploited in ways detrimental to their fundamental hydrologic functions. For instance, excess nitrate levels can lead to eutrophication which gives rise to harmful algae blooms. Low pH can cause the breakdown of CaCO3 exoskeletons of organisms, such mollusks. High temperature variations are major stressors to living things and can cause ...


Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson May 2020

Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The design work performed in this project was conducted over two summers (2018, 2019) of internship experience with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) across the state of Montana. The first summer’s design work was based out of Glendive, MT, in Dawson County, approximately 50 kilometers from the North Dakota border. The second summer was in Missoula, MT, in Missoula County, near the Idaho border. The two areas differ significantly in topography, weather, and water availability with the main separating geographic influence being the Rocky Mountains.

This paper focuses on the design process and requirements for two farms located ...


Menstrual Health And Hygiene Management And Wash In Urban Slums: Gaps In The Evidence And Recommendations, Sarah J. Goddard Mph, Mia, Marni Sommer Drph, Msn, Rn Mar 2020

Menstrual Health And Hygiene Management And Wash In Urban Slums: Gaps In The Evidence And Recommendations, Sarah J. Goddard Mph, Mia, Marni Sommer Drph, Msn, Rn

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The rapid urbanization and development of megacities across many low- and middle-income countries creates new challenges in global health; this is particularly true for women and girls who are disproportionately affected by poor urban planning, inadequate sanitation infrastructure, and limited access to water. Urban slums serve to reinforce many gendered inequalities, as reflected in poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes and various other health and wellbeing indicators. Women and adolescent girls in urban slums are particularly vulnerable in relation to their experiences of menstruation, given the limited access they may have to safe, private spaces with water for changing, washing ...


Amigos Por Agua, Pamela J. Lazos Mar 2020

Amigos Por Agua, Pamela J. Lazos

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The role of non-profit organizations in outfitting the developing world with clean water has become more extensive as the world’s population grows, especially in places such as Nicaragua, the second poorest country in the western hemisphere. Nicaraguans suffer high rates of kidney disease, respiratory illnesses and parasites as a result of water borne diseases. NGOs such as Amigos for Christ are stepping in to fill the void in Chinandega where the local government lacks the financial wherewithal to provide a basic WASH infrastructure to its inhabitants. It is the goal of Amigos for Christ to bring water to every ...


Uncertainties Associated With The Use Of Erosional Cave Scallop Lengths To Calculate Stream Discharges, Gregory S. Springer, Andrew Hall Jan 2020

Uncertainties Associated With The Use Of Erosional Cave Scallop Lengths To Calculate Stream Discharges, Gregory S. Springer, Andrew Hall

International Journal of Speleology

Scallops are extremely valuable indicators of past water flows in caves because they often record events that cannot be safely witnessed nor measured. Qualitatively, the inverse relationship between their lengths and formative water velocities is useful for determining how flow changes along a cave passage, but they are most valuable because they can be used to directly estimate actual water velocities and discharges. We explore the effects of sample size, measurement choices, and other methods commonly applied to the use of cave scallops in estimating cave stream velocities and discharges. We measured 100 scallops on a cave wall and find ...


Reverse Osmosis; Addressing Freshwater Shortage With Sustainable Desalination, Jessica Savage Jan 2020

Reverse Osmosis; Addressing Freshwater Shortage With Sustainable Desalination, Jessica Savage

Sustainability Conference

Water security is an imperative part of high-functioning societies. Currently, large populations of the globe live in water-impoverished or water-stressed areas. With climate change and growing global populations, projections show more people being impacted by issues of water shortage.

One solution to water security is the implementation of desalination, specifically with reverse osmosis systems. This presentation walks through the history, capabilities, future work, and explanations on how reverse osmosis systems work. With continued research on improving desalination, communities in both developed and developing nations around the world can work towards total water security.


Sociohydrologic Systems Thinking: An Analysis Of Undergraduate Students’ Operationalization And Modeling Of Coupled Human-Water Systems, Diane Lally, Cory T. Forbes Jan 2020

Sociohydrologic Systems Thinking: An Analysis Of Undergraduate Students’ Operationalization And Modeling Of Coupled Human-Water Systems, Diane Lally, Cory T. Forbes

Papers in Natural Resources

One of the keys to science and environmental literacy is systems thinking. Learning how to think about the interactions between systems, the far-reaching effects of a system, and the dynamic nature of systems are all critical outcomes of science learning. However, students need support to develop systems thinking skills in undergraduate geoscience classrooms. While systems thinking-focused instruction has the potential to benefit student learning, gaps exist in our understanding of students’ use of systems thinking to operationalize and model SHS, as well as their metacognitive evaluation of systems thinking. To address this need, we have designed, implemented, refined, and studied ...


Filtration Apparatus Design For Oil-Water Separation Using Membranes And Sponges, Alec Jerger Jan 2020

Filtration Apparatus Design For Oil-Water Separation Using Membranes And Sponges, Alec Jerger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

It can be difficult to separate water and oil emulsions through traditional filtration. Therefore, investigations of filtering using thermo-responsive (TR) polymers, in this case poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME), was conducted. It’s hypothesized that below its lower critical solution temperature (LCST), PVME has an affinity for water while oil substances do not. Above the LCST the opposite will be true. To verify this hypothesis, iterations of filtration designs were created to provide optimum control over the parameters to measure flow. The final optimized experimental apparatus was a Chromaflex glass column which was air tight and controlled all parameters besides ...


Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford Jan 2020

Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties related to cellulose dissolution by tetrabutylphosphonium chloride (TBPCl) and tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (TBPH)-water mixtures have been calculated via molecular dynamics simulations. For both ionic liquid (IL)-water solutions, water veins begin to form between the TBPs interlocking arms at 80 mol % water, opening a pathway for the diffusion of the anions, cations, and water. The water veins allow for a diffusion regime shift in the concentration region from 80 to 92.5 mol % water, providing a higher probability of solvent interaction with the dissolving cellulose strand. The hydrogen bonding was compared between small and ...


Manipulation Of The Spatial Grazing Behaviour Of Livestock In Extensive Grassland Systems, Derek W. Bailey, Mitch B. Stephenson, Milton G. Thomas, Juan F. Medrano, Gonzalo Rincon Dec 2019

Manipulation Of The Spatial Grazing Behaviour Of Livestock In Extensive Grassland Systems, Derek W. Bailey, Mitch B. Stephenson, Milton G. Thomas, Juan F. Medrano, Gonzalo Rincon

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Spatial behaviour of livestock is a critical factor in grassland management. Recent and ongoing research suggests that new approaches can be used to manipulate where cattle graze. The combination of strategic supplement placement and low-stress herding can be used to target cattle grazing and potentially may be useful for managing fine fuels. A phenotype to genotype association study of cattle spatial behavior suggests that use of rugged terrain and areas far from water is inherited. Although more research is needed, selection for animals specifically adapted for mountainous terrain or extensive paddocks may be an alternative for managing grasslands in the ...


Biochar As A Means Of Water Purification In Haiti, Caolan Keenan Dec 2019

Biochar As A Means Of Water Purification In Haiti, Caolan Keenan

Honors Projects

Our research set out to determine if biochar, a compound made by burning organic plant matter in a low oxygen environment, would be a suitable means of removing E. coli populations from contaminated water collected from the Grand River in Allendale, MI using simple materials to construct a filter that could be constructed and used in Haiti. Previous research has shown biochar to be effective at trapping bacteria and other contaminants in the porous surface and by binding other non organic contaminants. We constructed multiple iterations of these filters using gravel, sand, and biochar and ran three live tests with ...


Determining Water Requirements In Turfgrass Systems, Tyler Quinn Carr Dec 2019

Determining Water Requirements In Turfgrass Systems, Tyler Quinn Carr

Theses and Dissertations

Turfgrass lawns are commonly utilized for home and commercial applications because of the aesthetic, environmental, and recreational benefits grasses provide, but many people perceive turfgrass as solely an aesthetic benefit that requires significant water inputs. It is important to identify and use turfgrass cultivars that have known drought tolerance, and also fine-tune and throughout development. A series of field experiments were conducted to determine the water requirements of turfgrass lawn systems with the following objectives: 1) investigate differences in chronic drought resistance and irrigation recommendations among cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) 2 ...


Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar Oct 2019

Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Societies around the world are at a critical juncture. As the planetary population grows, there are increasing demands for expanding available food, more nutritious and healthy foods, and contemporaneously the need for greater efficiencies and decreased impacts upon the environment.

The sustainability of food production systems is a complex issue that requires a global and multidisciplinary approach, combining not only agronomy, ecology, nutrition, epidemiology, processing, energy use, but also marketing and sociology. It is within this context that this special issue aims to illustrate, through review articles, case studies, as well as modeling and simulation studies, some means of understanding ...


Kentucky's Environmental Future, Fall/Winter 2004, Issue 9 Sep 2019

Kentucky's Environmental Future, Fall/Winter 2004, Issue 9

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Adsorption Driven Regolith-Atmospheric Water Vapor Transfer On Mars: An Analysis Of Phoenix Tecp Data, Holly Nicole Farris Aug 2019

Adsorption Driven Regolith-Atmospheric Water Vapor Transfer On Mars: An Analysis Of Phoenix Tecp Data, Holly Nicole Farris

Theses and Dissertations

NASA’s Phoenix mission allowed for investigations of Martian diurnal water vapor cycles through the collection of temperature, relative humidity, and electric conductivity data by the Thermal and Electric Conductivity Probe (TECP) instrument. Using this data and previous experimental data, we propose a regolith-driven adsorption-desorption regime at the Phoenix landing site, where parameters intrinsic to the regolith are controlling localized relative humidity at the surface. To constrain these parameters, we model adsorption as a function of temperature and relative humidity across various Mars-relevant materials, defined by two layer-based adsorption theories: Langmuir (monolayer) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller or BET (multilayer). Langmuir serves as ...


Apartment Residents' Understanding Of And Satisfaction With Water Savings Devices, David Farmer Aug 2019

Apartment Residents' Understanding Of And Satisfaction With Water Savings Devices, David Farmer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As the human population increases, the way we use and manage our supply of drinking water becomes even more important. The purpose of this study was to determine residents’ satisfaction level of and performance rating of new water savings devices installed in their apartments. Specifically the investigation focused on ratings of shower heads, kitchen faucet aerators, bath faucet aerators, and fill valve and flapper systems.

This quantitative survey included residents at 4 apartment complexes in Tennessee using a paper questionnaire (N = 626). The participants were grouped by age, ethnicity, gender, and whether or not they had experienced both nonrestrictive devices ...


Law Library Blog (June 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law Jun 2019

Law Library Blog (June 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Waters Of 6 Rivers In Upstate New York With A Focus On Physical Hydrology And Controls On Water Quality, Connor Horan Jun 2019

Characterizing The Waters Of 6 Rivers In Upstate New York With A Focus On Physical Hydrology And Controls On Water Quality, Connor Horan

Honors Theses

Rivers are key passageways connecting inland waters to the world’s oceans. They are responsible for the mobilization and transport of nutrients, sediments, and weathered materials. Rivers have been influential in the development of human civilization and are hubs for people and businesses to populate. As our population puts a heavier burden on these waterways, there is a need to better understand the controls on their water quality.

The overarching goal of this research is to improve our understanding of the hydrology and water resources of the Upper Hudson and Mohawk watersheds. This is critical to our understanding of the ...


Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2019

Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rapid development of food factories in both developed and developing countries, owing to continued growth in the world population, plays a critical role in the food supply chain, including environmental issues such as pollution, emissions, energy and water consumption, and thus food system sustainability. The objective of this study was to briefly review various environmental aspects of food processing operations, including aquatic, atmospheric, and solid waste generation, and also to discuss several strategies that many companies are using to reduce these negative impacts as well as to improve water and energy efficiency. To obtain higher energy efficiencies in food processing ...


Water Systematics Of Samoan Peridotite Xenoliths, Aaron Wolfgang Ashley Apr 2019

Water Systematics Of Samoan Peridotite Xenoliths, Aaron Wolfgang Ashley

Theses and Dissertations

Water influences geodynamic processes such as melting, deformation and rheology. Yet its distribution in the oceanic upper mantle is primarily known indirectly from melt inclusions and glasses of erupted mantle melts (i.e. MORB and OIB). To constrain the mechanisms influencing the distribution of water in the mantle, we analyzed 15 peridotite xenoliths from Savaiʻi and 2 dunite xenoliths from Taʻū (Samoa) for water concentrations (by polarized FTIR) and major/trace elements. Savaiʻi peridotites are among the most melt depleted oceanic xenoliths recovered (degrees of melt depletion ≥15%). They show strong evidence of transient metasomatism by both carbonatite and silicate ...


Molecular Rotation In 3 Dimensions At An Air/Water Interface Using Femtosecond Time Resolved Sum Frequency Generation, Yi Rao, Yuqin Qian, Gang-Hua Deng, Ashlie Kinross, Nicholas J. Turro, Kenneth B. Eisenthal Mar 2019

Molecular Rotation In 3 Dimensions At An Air/Water Interface Using Femtosecond Time Resolved Sum Frequency Generation, Yi Rao, Yuqin Qian, Gang-Hua Deng, Ashlie Kinross, Nicholas J. Turro, Kenneth B. Eisenthal

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

This paper presents the first study of the rotations of rigid molecules in 3 dimensions at the air/water interface, using the femtosecond time resolved sum frequency generation (SFG) technique. For the purpose of this research, the aromatic dye molecule C153 was chosen as an example of a molecule having two functional groups that are SFG active, one being the hydrophilic −−C==O group and the other the hydrophobic −−CF3 group. From polarized SFG measurements, the orientations of the two chromophores with respect to the surface normal were obtained. On combining these results with the known relative orientation of ...


Water And Women’S Participation The Case Of One Million Rural Cisterns Program In Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Islene Pinheiro Façanha Mar 2019

Water And Women’S Participation The Case Of One Million Rural Cisterns Program In Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Islene Pinheiro Façanha

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The participation of women is crucial in the domain of water management, given the vital role women play in the collection and maintenance of communal water supplies, and in regulating and controlling its use. Unfortunately, they are seldom considered in the development of water policies, and rarely are they members of bodies regulating water management. Current evidence suggests that the participation of women in rural water supply projects leads to improved outcomes for both women and the wider community. Using interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and field observation, this paper explores the participation of women in the One Million Rural Cisterns ...


Informing Water Use Decision-Making For Waterfowl And Agricultural Production On A Ranch Along The North Platte River, Nebraska, Douglas R. Hallum P.G. Feb 2019

Informing Water Use Decision-Making For Waterfowl And Agricultural Production On A Ranch Along The North Platte River, Nebraska, Douglas R. Hallum P.G.

Conservation and Survey Division

In 2014, operators of a ranch along the North Platte River approached Conservation and Survey Division seeking expertise to interpret data collected on their ranch. The interpretations inform ranch decisions to accomplish operators’ goals. This publication documents the work by: 1) characterizing the ranch, 2) summarizing data collected, 3) characterizing hydrogeology of the site and the adjacent reach, and 4) conceptualizing groundwater/surface water interaction.

The ranch is a recreation property and a migratory waterfowl refuge with a few general goals: 1) develop and maintain high-quality wet meadow habitat, 2) maximize the extent and duration of surface water on the ...


Soil And Water Conservation: An Annotated Bibliography, Colby J. Moorberg Jan 2019

Soil And Water Conservation: An Annotated Bibliography, Colby J. Moorberg

NPP eBooks

Soil and Water Conservation: An Annotated Bibliography highlights freely-available online resources covering various aspects of soil and water conservation, and is designed to be a resource for conservation students and practitioners. The thirteen chapters in the annotated bibliography are grouped into four sections, including History and Fundamentals, Conservation Practices, Conservation Implementation, and Careers. Types of cited resources include extension bulletins, USDA NRCS conservation practice standards, and other government reports and resources. Cited resources are generally concise, easily read, and meant for general audiences. Annotations and images are used to provide context for each resource. Many contributors made Soil and Water ...


Climate And Water One-Pager For Resilience, San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative Jan 2019

Climate And Water One-Pager For Resilience, San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative

San Diego Regional Climate Collaborative

Climate change is impacting the way water is managed in the San Diego Region. Precipitation, temperature, and sea level are three primary climate indicators that will affect regional water resources over the next few decades.


Urban Water Demand In Arid-Regions: Modeling And Forecasting Climatic And Economic Effects, Tallen Ashley Capt Jan 2019

Urban Water Demand In Arid-Regions: Modeling And Forecasting Climatic And Economic Effects, Tallen Ashley Capt

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Water demand is an ever-growing concern for many municipalities around the world and understanding the driving forces of demand is critical to ensure sustainability. The goal of this research was to develop mechanistic models of urban water demand that could be used as decision support tools for regional water managers. This Dissertation research focused on modeling water consumption in El Paso, Texas at the daily and annual time scale for use in a long-term forecast. The Dissertation is divided into three major chapters: the first two chapters describe independent models on (1) meteorological and (2) economic effects, respectively. The third ...


Spatial Patterns Of Particulate Organic Carbon Concentrations And Isotopic Signatures Across A Salinity Gradient In A River Dominated Estuary, Lauren E. Alvaro, John C. Lehrter, Mai Fung Jan 2019

Spatial Patterns Of Particulate Organic Carbon Concentrations And Isotopic Signatures Across A Salinity Gradient In A River Dominated Estuary, Lauren E. Alvaro, John C. Lehrter, Mai Fung

Gulf and Caribbean Research

No abstract provided.


Spatiotemporal Refinement Of Water Classification Via Random Forest Classifiers And Gap-Fill Imputation In Landsat Imagery, Charles Labuzzetta Jan 2019

Spatiotemporal Refinement Of Water Classification Via Random Forest Classifiers And Gap-Fill Imputation In Landsat Imagery, Charles Labuzzetta

Creative Components

Global water classification data layers such as the European Joint Research Centre's Monthly Water History dataset allow for accurate and large scale analysis of trends in the extent of open water on Earth. Yet, on the local scale, there is opportunity to increase the accuracy and temporal density of such datasets. In this study, we have shown that a machine learning based technique can improve the sensitivity of water classification over small to medium sized water bodies. Our pipeline allows for complete land cover classification at every acquisition date for a region of interest after spatiotemporal imputation fills in ...


Designed Conducting Polymer Composites That Facilitate Long-Lived, Light-Driven Oxygen And Hydrogen Evolution From Water In A Photoelectrochemical Concentration Cell (Pecc), Mohammed Alsultan, Khalid Zainulabdeen, Pawel W. Wagner, Gerhard F. Swiegers, Holly Warren Jan 2019

Designed Conducting Polymer Composites That Facilitate Long-Lived, Light-Driven Oxygen And Hydrogen Evolution From Water In A Photoelectrochemical Concentration Cell (Pecc), Mohammed Alsultan, Khalid Zainulabdeen, Pawel W. Wagner, Gerhard F. Swiegers, Holly Warren

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Light-driven water-splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water is typically carried out in an electrochemical cell with an external voltage greater than 1.23 V applied between the electrodes. In this work, we examined the use of a concentration/chemical bias as a means of facilitating water-splitting under light illumination without the need for such an externally applied voltage. Such a concentration bias was created by employing a pH differential in the liquid electrolytes within the O2-generating anode half-cell and the H2-generating cathode half-cell. A novel, stretchable, highly ion-conductive polyacrylamide CsCl hydrogel was developed to connect the two half-cells ...