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Articles 1 - 30 of 613

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Irrigation Water Diagram Jan 9999

Irrigation Water Diagram

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Fluted Films, Nathan B. Speirs, Mohammad M. Mansoor, Jesse Belden, Randy C. Hurd, Zhao Pan, Tadd T. Truscott Oct 2018

Fluted Films, Nathan B. Speirs, Mohammad M. Mansoor, Jesse Belden, Randy C. Hurd, Zhao Pan, Tadd T. Truscott

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

This paper is associated with a poster winner of a 2017 APS/DFD Milton van Dyke Award for work presented at the DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion. The original poster is available from the Gallery of Fluid Motion, https://doi.org/10.1103/APS.DFD.2017.GFM.P0030


Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman Aug 2018

Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Understanding the acid–base behavior of carboxylic acids on aqueous interfaces is a fundamental issue in nature. Surface processes involving carboxylic acids such as acetic and pyruvic acids play roles in (1) the transport of nutrients through cell membranes, (2) the cycling of metabolites relevant to the origin of life, and (3) the photooxidative processing of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in aerosols and atmospheric waters. Here, we report that 50% of gaseous acetic acid and pyruvic acid molecules transfer a proton to the surface of water at pH 2.8 and 1.8 units lower than their respective acidity constants ...


Benchmarking Index 2018: Carbon, Energy, And Water, Eric Ricaurte Aug 2018

Benchmarking Index 2018: Carbon, Energy, And Water, Eric Ricaurte

Center for Hospitality Research Publications

The fifth annual Cornell Hotel Sustainability Benchmarking study includes data from substantially more hotels than in all previous years. While the bulk of the data come from hotels in the United States, the study also recorded a greater international participation, with fifty-one nations and thirteen international brands represented. More than 10,400 hotels contributed information regarding their energy and water use, as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Complete as of 2016, the data show that the participating hotels generally have continued to reduce their energy and water usage, although the energy intensity recorded by luxury hotels continues to be relatively ...


Comparative Microbial Community Dynamics In A Karst Aquifer System And Proximal Surface Stream In Northwest Arkansas, Josue Rodriguez Aug 2018

Comparative Microbial Community Dynamics In A Karst Aquifer System And Proximal Surface Stream In Northwest Arkansas, Josue Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

Northwest Arkansas has well-developed karst systems, with numerous sinking streams and springs. Karst conduits make it easy for contaminants to enter groundwater systems, degrading the water quality and destroying fragile karst ecosystems. With the increase of urbanization, potential threats in the form of fecal contamination may prove to be more of a problem. The purpose of this research is to compare the difference between microbial communities within two different settings, a karst aquifer and a surface stream. The microbial communities within Blowing Spring Cave and Little Sugar Creek were detected and identified in water and sediment samples. Samples were also ...


Effects Of Retreating Glaciers On Seasonal Water Availability, Makani Stormont Jun 2018

Effects Of Retreating Glaciers On Seasonal Water Availability, Makani Stormont

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Changes In The Willamette Valley: The Creation Of A Preliminary Gis Of Oregon's River Water Quality, Aaron Orr Jun 2018

Changes In The Willamette Valley: The Creation Of A Preliminary Gis Of Oregon's River Water Quality, Aaron Orr

Honors Senior Theses/Projects

The current system for rating river quality by the Department of Environmental Quality is the Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI), which condenses key issues down to a number for simple review and analysis. This breakdown provides an easily identifiable and comparable rating for any observed river. However, in oversimplifying the health of streams, this index score falls short in the task of capturing hydrologic systems as dynamic systems in terms of river health. With GIS, all of the components that go into the OWQI can be displayed, both validating the index scores each river is given and providing a map ...


Adaptive Fluid Simulation Using A Linear Octree Structure, Sean A. Flynn May 2018

Adaptive Fluid Simulation Using A Linear Octree Structure, Sean A. Flynn

All Theses and Dissertations

An Eulerian approach to fluid flow provides an efficient, stable paradigm for realistic fluid simulation. However, its traditional reliance on a fixed-resolution grid is not ideal for simulations that simultaneously exhibit both large and small-scale fluid phenomena. Octree-based fluid simulation approaches have provided the needed adaptivity, but the inherent weakness of a pointer-based tree structure has limited their effectiveness. We present a linear octree structure that provides a significant runtime speedup using these octree-based simulation algorithms. As memory prices continue to decline, we leverage additional memory when compared to traditional octree structures to provide this improvement. In addition to reducing ...


Application Of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes For The Advanced Oxidation Of Guar Gum, Andrew W. Davenport Mar 2018

Application Of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes For The Advanced Oxidation Of Guar Gum, Andrew W. Davenport

Theses and Dissertations

Guar Gum (GG) is one of the problematic water pollutants connected to hydraulic fracturing. There is a pressing need to investigate appropriate unit operations that can be employed to protect the aquatic environment. This study investigated the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the advanced oxidation process (AOP) of GG. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal provided mixed results, depending on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in solution, and was between (0-95%) for H2O2-to-GG ratios between 7.0 and 176.3 g H2O2/g GG. COD removal was greatest at ...


Water Scarcity: Sudan, Catherine Priebe Jan 2018

Water Scarcity: Sudan, Catherine Priebe

Global Issues in Public Health

Water scarcity is an environmental global problem that will only become more pressing as time goes on. It is a public health issue that affects every continent, although certain areas of the world are facing more serious water scarcity than others such as Sudan. Populations that are more vulnerable to the effects of water scarcity are the poor, women, children, and those living in areas of political unrest. For example, South Sudan’s urban water systems have been damaged during recent warfare. Water scarcity is also an issue that disproportionately affects women who are forced from a young age to ...


Recently Discovered Benzo(A)Pyrene Induced Health Effects And Their Threat To The Inland Empire, Quinn Navarro Jan 2018

Recently Discovered Benzo(A)Pyrene Induced Health Effects And Their Threat To The Inland Empire, Quinn Navarro

Armacost Library Undergraduate Research Award (ALURA)

This study investigated recent discoveries of Benzo(a)Pyrene (BaP) in order to determine the current threat BaP poses to residents of Southern California. Literature reviews comprise the research done on BaP-induced health effects. Primary articles reviewed include “Adverse Effect of Sub-Chronic Exposure to Benzo(a)Pyrene and Protective Effect of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Learning and Memory Ability in Male

Sprague-Dawley Rat” by Xiao Liang (2014), and “Bioaccumulation and oxidative damage in juvenile scallop Chlamys farreri exposed to benzo[a]Pyrene, benzo[b]Fluoranthene and chrysene” by Meng Xiu (2014). These studies conclude that BaP potentially impairs memory and learning ...


Watered Down: The Challenges Of Managing Water Resources In Montana, Beau E. Baker Jan 2018

Watered Down: The Challenges Of Managing Water Resources In Montana, Beau E. Baker

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Like much of the American West, Montana sits in the cross hairs of climate change. State drought resiliency projects and cooperative watershed management are on the rise in the face of decreased snowpack, early runoff, precipitation variability and lower seasonal stream flows. Population growth, land use practices, recreation and tourism all contribute to pressures on state water supplies.

Montana is faced with the arrival of invasive species that threaten the ecological health of its lakes, rivers and streams. State budget constraints and depressed agency capacity are hurting our ability to fend off these threats. There’s a lack of public ...


The Development Of A Simplified Alkalinity Titration Analyzer, Reba Van Beusekom Jan 2018

The Development Of A Simplified Alkalinity Titration Analyzer, Reba Van Beusekom

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Alkalinity is the acid neutralizing capacity for water, meaning alkalinity measures how sensitive an aquatic system is to acidic inputs. Currently, there are various measuring systems for alkalinity available including chemical test kits, potentiometric techniques, and colorimetric methods. Commercially available products lack the ease of use combined with precision and accuracy desired for on-line process and environmental monitoring. The goal of this project is to develop a simplified alkalinity titration analyzer, called the easyTMT, to measure alkalinity with precision and accuracy comparable to the best conventional methods. The system, under development, uses the Tracer Monitored Titration (TMT) technique. TMT ...


Searching For A Robust Operation Of Lake Mead, Elliot Alexander Jan 2018

Searching For A Robust Operation Of Lake Mead, Elliot Alexander

Civil Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The Colorado River spans seven US states and Mexico and is an important cultural, economic, and natural resource for 35 - 40 million people. Its complex operating policy is based on the “Law of the River,” which has evolved since the Colorado River Compact in 1922. Operational guidelines were negotiated in 2007 to address shortage reductions and coordinated operations of Lakes Powell and Mead. These interim guidelines – in effect until 2026 - were ultimately agreed on after manually exploring hundreds of alternatives. The Colorado River Basin’s projected water delivery reliability has continued to degrade since 2007, primarily due to a persistent ...


Fy 2018 Umass Amherst Water & Steam Data By Building, Ezra Small Jan 2018

Fy 2018 Umass Amherst Water & Steam Data By Building, Ezra Small

Campus Data

Each year, UMass Amherst Utilities publishes this spreadsheet which has the monthly and annual building water and steam consumption of each metered building on campus.


Understanding The Nature Of Nanoscale Wetting Through All-Atom Simulations, Oliver Evans Jan 2018

Understanding The Nature Of Nanoscale Wetting Through All-Atom Simulations, Oliver Evans

Honors Research Projects

The spreading behavior of spherical and cylindrical water droplets between 30Å and 100Å in radius on a sapphire surface is investigated using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for durations on the order of tens of nanoseconds. A monolayer film develops rapidly and wets the surface, while the bulk of the droplet spreads on top of the monolayer, maintaining the shape of a spherical cap. Unlike previous simulations in the literature, the bulk radius is found to increase to a maximum value and receed as the monolayer continues to expand. Simple time and droplet size dependence is observed for monolayer radius and ...


Strategies To Maintain Adequate Hotel Water Supplies, Deborah R. Popely Jan 2018

Strategies To Maintain Adequate Hotel Water Supplies, Deborah R. Popely

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Hotel guests can use 2 to 3 times more water than community residents. Hotels are water-intensive businesses, and water scarcity presents a pressing problem for managers who rely on an uninterrupted supply of water to meet guests' needs and maintain profitability. Using the resource-based view (RBV) as a conceptual framework, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore strategies that hotel managers used to successfully maintain adequate water supplies in the Spanish Canary Islands, an historically arid site and a tourism destination. Data were collected from semistructured interviews and hotel water usage reports. Yin's 5-step approach ...


Exploring The Water Uptake And Release Of Mars-Relevant Salt And Surface Analogs Through Raman Microscopy, Katherine M. Primm Jan 2018

Exploring The Water Uptake And Release Of Mars-Relevant Salt And Surface Analogs Through Raman Microscopy, Katherine M. Primm

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Pure liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars because of low pressures and temperatures. The possibility of liquid water seemed more achievable since 2008 when the Phoenix lander detected ~0.5-1% perchlorate (ClO4-) in the Martian soil. Perchlorate and chloride (Cl-) salts are of interest because they readily absorb water vapor and transition into aqueous solutions, a process called deliquescence. This thesis explores the interaction of several Martian surface analogs with water. To study the phase transitions of the Mars-relevant surface analogs, we use a Raman microscope and an environmental cell. Different combinations of salts and ...


Urban Lawn Microclimates Affect Reference Evapotranspiration, Kenton W. Peterson, Dale J. Bremer, Jack D. Fry Jan 2018

Urban Lawn Microclimates Affect Reference Evapotranspiration, Kenton W. Peterson, Dale J. Bremer, Jack D. Fry

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) obtained from weather stations in open locations is often used to estimate irrigation requirements of turfgrass in local or regional urban lawns. However, the environments of urban lawns are often altered by surrounding buildings, trees, etc., to form various microclimates that may alter evapotranspiration (ET). Our research, which placed weather stations in urban lawns and nearby open swards of turfgrass, revealed ETo was 41% lower in residential lawn microclimates than in nearby open turfgrass swards. Less ET within urban lawns than in nearby open swards suggests using standard historical weather data to estimate irrigation ...


Water Dynamics And The Effect Of Static And Alternating Electric Fields, Mohammadmahdi Shafiei Alavijeh Jan 2018

Water Dynamics And The Effect Of Static And Alternating Electric Fields, Mohammadmahdi Shafiei Alavijeh

Theses and Dissertations

Having a net dipole moment, water molecules tend to align with an external electric field. The re-orientation of water molecules to align with the field direction can result in structural and dynamic changes in liquid water. Studying these changes can help us to understand the role of an E-field in many biological systems, chemical reactions, and many technological advancements.

In short, the application of static electric fields causes molecules to stay aligned with the field, so, fewer hydrogen bonds break, and molecules have slower dynamics. This type of field can be used when the mobility of water molecules needs to ...


The Response Of Streamflow And Evapotranspiration To Changes In Snowmelt Across The Western United States, Theodore Basile Barnhart Jan 2018

The Response Of Streamflow And Evapotranspiration To Changes In Snowmelt Across The Western United States, Theodore Basile Barnhart

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Mountain regions disproportionately produce streamflow for downstream ecosystems and communities. In the western United States this snowmelt derived water is valued in the trillions of dollars. Given the high value of snowmelt-derived water, understanding how streamflow production and vegetation water use from mountain regions may change is of critical importance. Snowmelt rate, timing, and amount are forecast to change under future climate, potentially altering streamflow and evapotranspiration patterns. This dissertation investigates the relationship between snowmelt rate, timing, and amount and runoff or streamflow at the plot and regional scales across the western United States. Additionally, the effects of future land ...


Plant Community Response To Disturbances In Nebraska Sandhills Upland Prairie, Josiah D. Dallmann Jan 2018

Plant Community Response To Disturbances In Nebraska Sandhills Upland Prairie, Josiah D. Dallmann

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Historically, disturbances shaped prairie ecosystems both directly through events like fire and soil moving by animals, as well as indirectly through dynamic rainfall patterns and periodic flux in seed availabilities. We hypothesized that the implementation of several distinct disturbance events in Nebraska Sandhills upland prairie would have measurable effects on plant community composition. We implemented mid-spring fire, soil disturbance in the form of disking, seed addition of native forbs on disked plots, as well as early summer supplemental watering (to mimic minor rainfall events during abnormally dry periods) during 2016 and 2017. Plant community response during the first and second ...


Knowing Water: Science And The Politics Of Knowledge Production Along The Saw Kill, Carlo Diego Raimondo Jan 2018

Knowing Water: Science And The Politics Of Knowledge Production Along The Saw Kill, Carlo Diego Raimondo

Senior Projects Spring 2018

Beginning with globally oriented ideological constructions of water as resource, this project explores the materiality of water and how it comes to understood within our current geological era. Specifically exploring the politics of scientific knowledge production, I follow the methodological processes of the Bard Water Lab as they monitor water quality of a local stream, exploring how different apparatuses of observation are utilized in order to make a stream a legible and knowable object.


Notes From The Field: An Assessment Of Wash Programs In West Bengal, India, Mark Lotto Dec 2017

Notes From The Field: An Assessment Of Wash Programs In West Bengal, India, Mark Lotto

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

No abstract provided.


Empowering Women In The Wash Sector: A Woman's Burden, Yari Greeney, Becky Chanis, Gemma Bulos, Rachel Cardone Dec 2017

Empowering Women In The Wash Sector: A Woman's Burden, Yari Greeney, Becky Chanis, Gemma Bulos, Rachel Cardone

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

No abstract provided.


Arsenic Poisoning In Rural Bangladesh-An Intersectional Analysis Of Impact In Women, Louise Andersson, Dr. Martina Angela Caretta Dec 2017

Arsenic Poisoning In Rural Bangladesh-An Intersectional Analysis Of Impact In Women, Louise Andersson, Dr. Martina Angela Caretta

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Based on a qualitative case study in six arsenic acute villages in southwest Bangladesh, this paper presents the intersectional impact of the arsenic poisoning crisis in rural Bangladesh. Findings indicate that the arsenic poisoning crisis is aggravating existing gender inequalities as well as gender roles and responsibilities. The gender inequalities related to arsenicosis are manifested in the access to health care and in the degree of social stigma: women are the biggest victims, unmarried women in particular. The study shows that multiple axis of oppression as class, disability and age are crucial in determining the magnitude of the arsenic poisoning ...


Hotel Sustainability Benchmarking Index 2017: Energy, Water, And Carbon, Eric Ricaurte Dec 2017

Hotel Sustainability Benchmarking Index 2017: Energy, Water, And Carbon, Eric Ricaurte

Center for Hospitality Research Publications

This report presents the results of the fourth annual Cornell Hotel Sustainability Benchmarking (CHSB) study, an update to last year’s CHSB2016 study, which was undertaken as a collaborative effort of the Cornell University Center for Hospitality Research, hotel participants, Greenview, and an industry advisory group. This report with historical trends and its accompanying index are intended to advance the knowledge base and data sets for benchmarking activities relating to energy, water, and greenhouse gas emissions for the industry’s benefit. The data sets remain freely available for download from the Cornell Center for Hospitality Research. This fourth study builds ...


Aquifers Of Nebraska Ii: The Niobrara Aquifer, Dana Divine, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Sue Olafsen Lackey Dec 2017

Aquifers Of Nebraska Ii: The Niobrara Aquifer, Dana Divine, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Sue Olafsen Lackey

Conservation and Survey Division

The marine shale, chalk, marl, and chalky limestone of the Niobrara Formation directly underlie Quaternary sediments in 23 counties from south-central to northeastern Nebraska. Nevertheless, the formation serves as an aquifer only in and around Cedar, Madison, and Nuckolls counties. Niobrara aquifer wells mostly supply irrigation, domestic, and livestock needs. Two hundred of the approximately 230 active registered wells in Nebraska that are screened entirely in the Niobrara aquifer are in Cedar County and environs. About another 200 wells in this area are screened in both the Niobrara aquifer and overlying Quaternary sediments. Wells screened entirely in the Niobrara aquifer ...


A Thirsty Third World: How Land Grabs Are Leaving Ethiopia In The Dust, Emily Ingebretsen Oct 2017

A Thirsty Third World: How Land Grabs Are Leaving Ethiopia In The Dust, Emily Ingebretsen

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

No abstract provided.


Dalit Women And Water, Janice Lazarus Oct 2017

Dalit Women And Water, Janice Lazarus

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The term Dalit means, “crushed” or “broken” and has come to represent those groups which have been traditionally considered to be outside the women in a hamlet in Mahabubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh (now Telangana), India, this paper highlights Dalit women’s experiences related to water use, collection and access that are often shaped by their caste and gender positions. The study is qualitative in nature and employs a phenomenological approach with interviews as the data-collection method. Water is scarce in this community and fetching water often takes place at privately owned wells where discrimination based on caste and gender ...