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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Irrigation Water Diagram Jan 9999

Irrigation Water Diagram

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson Mar 2021

Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The South Asia Consortium for Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies (Saci- WATERs) a water policy research institute based in Hyderabad, India, launched the South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Programme on climate change in 2017. The SaciWATERs is hosting the programme in collaboration with four partner engineering institutes from four South Asian countries, and with funding support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. This academic-oriented programme is aimed at facilitating the creation of a group of interdisciplinary women leaders in South Asia that share a common understanding of the crosscutting scientific and societal issues of water resource management. The four-year ...


Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Eleanor Allen is a global water expert dedicated to helping millions of people access the safe and sustainable water and sanitation services needed to save lives, stay healthy, earn more money, and thrive. Eleanor is fiercely passionate about improving the state of the world with respect to water and sanitation. She has dedicated her career to this goal, first as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Dominican Republic, then as a consulting engineer (at CH2M/Jacobs and Arcadis), and now as the CEO of Water For People. Eleanor has lived and worked all over the world. As a professional civil ...


Facing Rural Water Insecurities: Adapting Gendered Indigenous Approaches In Ondo State, Nigeria, Paul Awoniyi Mar 2021

Facing Rural Water Insecurities: Adapting Gendered Indigenous Approaches In Ondo State, Nigeria, Paul Awoniyi

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The participation of women in water management is critical for households and for safeguarding the health and hygiene of rural women and men, especially in Africa and around the world. This paper argues that the knowledge around gender- based water management among rural dwellers is still underrepresented and provides the rationale for this study. Qualitative methods were used to examine the approaches in rural water management and their impact on women and their livelihoods through interviews, narratives, and the respondents’ everyday experiences. Significant findings from this study revealed that the indigenous participation of women in water management at individual households ...


Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das Mar 2021

Contributions Of The Women Groups Of West Bengal, India For Solving Rural Water Challenges, Mina Das

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Poor rural communities suffer from many socio-economic issues; however, the availability of clean and safe water is the fundamental challenge amongst all other hindrances confronted by these communities. This article focuses on the non-profit organization, Nishtha (meaning dedication) and their intervention in women empowerment for better water accessibility in rural communities of West Bengal, India. The paper will further highlight the so-called “rural ignorant women’s endeavour” in innovative thought and strategy to protect their own families and the community. The article also discusses Nishtha’s intervention during water crises and disasters using a participatory approach involving women.


How And Why Mars Lost Its Water, Sana Akhter, Andre Beikircher Feb 2021

How And Why Mars Lost Its Water, Sana Akhter, Andre Beikircher

2021 Honors Council of the Illinois Region

The topic of this paper is to investigate how and why Mars lost its water. It is important to study the loss of water on Mars because it can give us a better understanding of how Mars once looked, if life were possible, and how it could have changed so drastically to what it is now. The paper aims to address which factors led to Mars losing its water and how long ago this happened. Using our data, we will predict how quickly Mars’ core cooled, when its magnetic field weakened, and when the water was lost. We learned that ...


Water Pollution And Environmental Concerns In Anesthesiology, Marc Kostrubiak, Christine Vatovec, Lesley-Ann Dupigny-Giroux, Donna Rizzo, William Paganelli, Mitchell Tsai Jan 2021

Water Pollution And Environmental Concerns In Anesthesiology, Marc Kostrubiak, Christine Vatovec, Lesley-Ann Dupigny-Giroux, Donna Rizzo, William Paganelli, Mitchell Tsai

Larner College of Medicine Fourth Year Advanced Integration Teaching/Scholarly Projects

Medications administered by anesthesia health care providers and subsequently excreted into the water supply system have the potential to affect ecological systems. Presently, there is a lack of literature examining which medications or metabolites enter the waste stream. Further, assessments of their potential environmental impact are often unknown or simply not considered as an externality of medical practice. Recent work examining the practice of anesthesiology has explored the solid waste stream, and the global warming potential of anesthetic gases, however the potential aquatic impacts remain unexplored. To address the potential for waterborne pollution and environmental toxicity, we extracted the total ...


Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward Jan 2021

Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Analyzing the strength of synthetic quartz is essential to understanding the strength of natural milky quartz, which likely controls the strength of Earth’s continental crust. Synthetic quartz is sometimes used for deformation experiments because it has a homogenous water distribution unlike natural milky quartz. The purpose of this study is to determine if annealing synthetic quartz at T = 600°C will convert the water in synthetic quartz to free water, like milky quartz, but with little water loss. Following two annealing experiments at Texas A&M University, I performed four annealing experiments to measure the water content of five ...


The Waterfall Crisis, Guiliana G. Grisaffi Nov 2020

The Waterfall Crisis, Guiliana G. Grisaffi

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

While the Earth’s surface is 71% covered in water, that does not mean that one day all our water could be gone. The current global water crisis is not just a water crisis-it is a waterfall crisis. One wicked, terrible problem that leads to many other wicked problems, a waterfall crisis. Millions of women and young girls are taken out of work and school and instead forced to collect and gather fresh water for their families. Children are suffering from irreversible health consequences from toxic, contaminated water, an example of a health consequence is a lower IQ from lead ...


Protein Conformational Entropy Is Not Slaved To Water, Bryan S Marques, Matthew A Stetz, Christine Jorge, Kathleen G Valentine, A Joshua Wand, Nathaniel V Nucci Oct 2020

Protein Conformational Entropy Is Not Slaved To Water, Bryan S Marques, Matthew A Stetz, Christine Jorge, Kathleen G Valentine, A Joshua Wand, Nathaniel V Nucci

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Conformational entropy can be an important element of the thermodynamics of protein functions such as the binding of ligands. The observed role for conformational entropy in modulating molecular recognition by proteins is in opposition to an often-invoked theory for the interaction of protein molecules with solvent water. The "solvent slaving" model predicts that protein motion is strongly coupled to various aspects of water such as bulk solvent viscosity and local hydration shell dynamics. Changes in conformational entropy are manifested in alterations of fast internal side chain motion that is detectable by NMR relaxation. We show here that the fast-internal side ...


Mxenes As Flow Electrodes For Capacitive Deionization Of Wastewater, Naqsh E. Mansoor Aug 2020

Mxenes As Flow Electrodes For Capacitive Deionization Of Wastewater, Naqsh E. Mansoor

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The energy-water nexus poses an integrated research challenge, while opening up an opportunity space for the development of energy efficient technologies for water remediation. Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is an upcoming reclamation technology that uses a small applied voltage applied across electrodes to electrophoretically remove dissolved ionic impurities from wastewater streams. Similar to a supercapacitor, the ions are stored in the electric double layer of the electrodes. Reversing the polarity of applied voltage enables recovery of the removed ionic impurities, allowing for recycling and reuse. Simultaneous materials recovery and water reclamation makes CDI energy efficient and resource conservative, with potential to ...


Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner Jul 2020

Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater crayfish have on IAV in water at three dose levels and monitored for the presence of IAV in crayfish tissues (gill and green gland) and haemolymph at multiple time points. At relatively high, medium 432 and low (approximately 10 , 10 ...


An Ethnography Of Wash Infrastructures And Governance In Sulphur Springs, Florida, Mathews Jackon Wakhungu Jul 2020

An Ethnography Of Wash Infrastructures And Governance In Sulphur Springs, Florida, Mathews Jackon Wakhungu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the forces that shape the perceptions and practices in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WaSH) services in the community of Sulphur Springs, Tampa, Florida. It also explores how these forces, perceptions, and practices produce adverse experiences and inequalities in water, sewer, drainage, and laundry services. This ethnographic study combines participant observation, ethnographic interviewing, freelisting, oral history, and GIS to uncover the context, experiences, and perceptions about WaSH in Sulphur Springs. The study finds that the present conditions and perceptions about WaSH are embedded into the historical contexts—especially racial segregation, the construction of the interstate, and multiple economic ...


Relationship Between University Student Characteristics And Water Conservation Behaviors, Matthew A. Wise Jul 2020

Relationship Between University Student Characteristics And Water Conservation Behaviors, Matthew A. Wise

Theses and Dissertations

Water over-consumption is a critical issue due to it being a mismanaged, and virtually finite, natural resource. In order to convey this information to the public and promote change, it is important to understand the public’s current attitude towards the topic in order to develop more targeted teaching approaches. The purpose of this study was to determine college-age students’ perceptions about water resource usage, their personal levels of active engagement in water conservation, and if any differences existed between agriculture students and non-agriculture students. This study utilized an online quantitative survey, guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, which ...


Protonic Capacitor: Elucidating The Biological Significance Of Mitochondrial Cristae Formation, James Weifu Lee Jun 2020

Protonic Capacitor: Elucidating The Biological Significance Of Mitochondrial Cristae Formation, James Weifu Lee

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

For decades, it was not entirely clear why mitochondria develop cristae? The work employing the transmembrane-electrostatic proton localization theory reported here has now provided a clear answer to this fundamental question. Surprisingly, the transmembrane-electrostatically localized proton concentration at a curved mitochondrial crista tip can be significantly higher than that at the relatively flat membrane plane regions where the proton-pumping respiratory supercomplexes are situated. The biological significance for mitochondrial cristae has now, for the first time, been elucidated at a protonic bioenergetics level: 1) The formation of cristae creates more mitochondrial inner membrane surface area and thus more protonic capacitance for ...


Assessing The Potential For Greater Solar Development In West Texas, Usa, Dale D. Devitt, M. H. Young, J. P. Pierre May 2020

Assessing The Potential For Greater Solar Development In West Texas, Usa, Dale D. Devitt, M. H. Young, J. P. Pierre

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

As population and economies continue to grow on a global scale, so too does the demand for energy. To improve reliability and independence of energy supplies, the U.S. and many other countries are seeking internally-sourced renewable energy; solar is one such renewable-energy source that meets these criteria. However, all energy sources exert some environmental impacts. In the case of solar, direct impacts stem mostly from alteration of land needed to host infrastructure. Understanding the environmental upside and downside potential of solar energy systems allows a more comprehensive, side-by-side comparison with different energy sources. In this article, we focus on ...


Water On Mars—A Literature Review, Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Mohammad Aghababei, Moses Karakouzian, Mehrdad Karami May 2020

Water On Mars—A Literature Review, Mohammad Nazari-Sharabian, Mohammad Aghababei, Moses Karakouzian, Mehrdad Karami

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

To assess Mars’ potential for both harboring life and providing useable resources for future human exploration, it is of paramount importance to comprehend the water situation on the planet. Therefore, studies have been conducted to determine any evidence of past or present water existence on Mars. While the presence of abundant water on Mars very early in its history is widely accepted, on its modern form, only a fraction of this water can be found, as either ice or locked into the structure of Mars’ plentiful water-rich materials. Water on the planet is evaluated through various evidence such as rocks ...


Promoting The Sustainable Utilization Of Groundwater Resources In Ethiopia Using The Integrated Groundwater Footprint Index, Xinyu Lin May 2020

Promoting The Sustainable Utilization Of Groundwater Resources In Ethiopia Using The Integrated Groundwater Footprint Index, Xinyu Lin

Honors Scholar Theses

The country of Ethiopia is highly vulnerable to human-caused climate change and is already suffering from the effects. The predominately rural population relies heavily on small-scale agriculture, with 78% of households having at least one member engaged in the field, yet staple crops are highly susceptible to droughts and other weather shocks. Total and agricultural GDP growth in the country have been strongly linked to inter-annual rainfall variability, of which Ethiopia has among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. A decrease in rainfall since the 1970s has been one of the primary causes of low crop yields, and stresses the immediate ...


Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson May 2020

Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The design work performed in this project was conducted over two summers (2018, 2019) of internship experience with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) across the state of Montana. The first summer’s design work was based out of Glendive, MT, in Dawson County, approximately 50 kilometers from the North Dakota border. The second summer was in Missoula, MT, in Missoula County, near the Idaho border. The two areas differ significantly in topography, weather, and water availability with the main separating geographic influence being the Rocky Mountains.

This paper focuses on the design process and requirements for two farms located ...


Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer May 2020

Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer

Senior Honors Projects

KEVIN DYER (Marine Biology)

Year-long Analysis of the Water Quality of White Horn Brook

Sponsor: Thomas Boving (Geological Sciences)

Water is the foundation for all life on earth and is the most vital resource on this planet. Despite this, oceans and waterways all over the world are being polluted and exploited in ways detrimental to their fundamental hydrologic functions. For instance, excess nitrate levels can lead to eutrophication which gives rise to harmful algae blooms. Low pH can cause the breakdown of CaCO3 exoskeletons of organisms, such mollusks. High temperature variations are major stressors to living things and can cause ...


Modeling The Alkaline Hydrolysis Of Diaryl Sulfate Diesters: A Mechanistic Study, Klaudia Szeler, Nicholas H. Williams, Alvan C. Hengge, Shina C. Kamerlin Apr 2020

Modeling The Alkaline Hydrolysis Of Diaryl Sulfate Diesters: A Mechanistic Study, Klaudia Szeler, Nicholas H. Williams, Alvan C. Hengge, Shina C. Kamerlin

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Phosphate and sulfate esters have important roles in regulating cellular processes. However, while there has been substantial experimental and computational investigation of the mechanisms and the transition states involved in phosphate ester hydrolysis, there is far less work on sulfate ester hydrolysis. Here, we report a detailed computational study of the alkaline hydrolysis of diaryl sulfate diesters, using different DFT functionals as well as mixed implicit/explicit solvation with varying numbers of explicit water molecules. We consider the impact of the computational model on computed linear free-energy relationships (LFER) and the nature of the transition states (TS) involved. We obtain ...


Drinking Water Governance For Whom? An Institutional Analysis Of Rural Drinking Water Systems In New Mexico, Tucker Colvin Apr 2020

Drinking Water Governance For Whom? An Institutional Analysis Of Rural Drinking Water Systems In New Mexico, Tucker Colvin

Geography ETDs

Rural community drinking water systems in New Mexico are facing many challenges, including a lack of personnel, deteriorating infrastructure, lack of funds, overly burdensome and confusing regulation, environmental concerns, and concerns over water rights. Governing agencies are creating vulnerability by making managers prioritize some issues and neglect others. Water systems designated a Mutual Domestic Water Consumers Associations are especially problematic because they are small and managed by volunteers but have as much regulatory burden as larger municipalities. I use the theory of institutional work to explain how an institution that was originally designed to help low-income and rural communities is ...


Menstrual Health And Hygiene Management And Wash In Urban Slums: Gaps In The Evidence And Recommendations, Sarah J. Goddard Mph, Mia, Marni Sommer Drph, Msn, Rn Mar 2020

Menstrual Health And Hygiene Management And Wash In Urban Slums: Gaps In The Evidence And Recommendations, Sarah J. Goddard Mph, Mia, Marni Sommer Drph, Msn, Rn

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The rapid urbanization and development of megacities across many low- and middle-income countries creates new challenges in global health; this is particularly true for women and girls who are disproportionately affected by poor urban planning, inadequate sanitation infrastructure, and limited access to water. Urban slums serve to reinforce many gendered inequalities, as reflected in poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes and various other health and wellbeing indicators. Women and adolescent girls in urban slums are particularly vulnerable in relation to their experiences of menstruation, given the limited access they may have to safe, private spaces with water for changing, washing ...


Amigos Por Agua, Pamela J. Lazos Mar 2020

Amigos Por Agua, Pamela J. Lazos

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The role of non-profit organizations in outfitting the developing world with clean water has become more extensive as the world’s population grows, especially in places such as Nicaragua, the second poorest country in the western hemisphere. Nicaraguans suffer high rates of kidney disease, respiratory illnesses and parasites as a result of water borne diseases. NGOs such as Amigos for Christ are stepping in to fill the void in Chinandega where the local government lacks the financial wherewithal to provide a basic WASH infrastructure to its inhabitants. It is the goal of Amigos for Christ to bring water to every ...


Uncertainties Associated With The Use Of Erosional Cave Scallop Lengths To Calculate Stream Discharges, Gregory S. Springer, Andrew Hall Jan 2020

Uncertainties Associated With The Use Of Erosional Cave Scallop Lengths To Calculate Stream Discharges, Gregory S. Springer, Andrew Hall

International Journal of Speleology

Scallops are extremely valuable indicators of past water flows in caves because they often record events that cannot be safely witnessed nor measured. Qualitatively, the inverse relationship between their lengths and formative water velocities is useful for determining how flow changes along a cave passage, but they are most valuable because they can be used to directly estimate actual water velocities and discharges. We explore the effects of sample size, measurement choices, and other methods commonly applied to the use of cave scallops in estimating cave stream velocities and discharges. We measured 100 scallops on a cave wall and find ...


Reverse Osmosis; Addressing Freshwater Shortage With Sustainable Desalination, Jessica Savage Jan 2020

Reverse Osmosis; Addressing Freshwater Shortage With Sustainable Desalination, Jessica Savage

Sustainability Conference

Water security is an imperative part of high-functioning societies. Currently, large populations of the globe live in water-impoverished or water-stressed areas. With climate change and growing global populations, projections show more people being impacted by issues of water shortage.

One solution to water security is the implementation of desalination, specifically with reverse osmosis systems. This presentation walks through the history, capabilities, future work, and explanations on how reverse osmosis systems work. With continued research on improving desalination, communities in both developed and developing nations around the world can work towards total water security.


Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford Jan 2020

Elucidating The Properties And Mechanism For Cellulose Dissolution In Tetrabutylphosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids Using High Concentrations Of Water, Brad Crawford

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties related to cellulose dissolution by tetrabutylphosphonium chloride (TBPCl) and tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (TBPH)-water mixtures have been calculated via molecular dynamics simulations. For both ionic liquid (IL)-water solutions, water veins begin to form between the TBPs interlocking arms at 80 mol % water, opening a pathway for the diffusion of the anions, cations, and water. The water veins allow for a diffusion regime shift in the concentration region from 80 to 92.5 mol % water, providing a higher probability of solvent interaction with the dissolving cellulose strand. The hydrogen bonding was compared between small and ...


Sociohydrologic Systems Thinking: An Analysis Of Undergraduate Students’ Operationalization And Modeling Of Coupled Human-Water Systems, Diane Lally, Cory T. Forbes Jan 2020

Sociohydrologic Systems Thinking: An Analysis Of Undergraduate Students’ Operationalization And Modeling Of Coupled Human-Water Systems, Diane Lally, Cory T. Forbes

Papers in Natural Resources

One of the keys to science and environmental literacy is systems thinking. Learning how to think about the interactions between systems, the far-reaching effects of a system, and the dynamic nature of systems are all critical outcomes of science learning. However, students need support to develop systems thinking skills in undergraduate geoscience classrooms. While systems thinking-focused instruction has the potential to benefit student learning, gaps exist in our understanding of students’ use of systems thinking to operationalize and model SHS, as well as their metacognitive evaluation of systems thinking. To address this need, we have designed, implemented, refined, and studied ...


Why Massachusetts’ Drought Management Task Force Should Be In Statute: Drought Management Across The United States, Thomas G. Coughlin, Gabby Queenan Jan 2020

Why Massachusetts’ Drought Management Task Force Should Be In Statute: Drought Management Across The United States, Thomas G. Coughlin, Gabby Queenan

Student Showcase

This report explores structures and statutory authorities of Drought Management Task Forces across the United States, and particularly how different states have approached the issue of managing their respective Task Forces. There is growing interest in drought planning in the United States and worldwide.

As Massachusetts considers how to best respond to a new climate norm of short-term extreme droughts, one aspect of drought planning that is undergoing additional review is the role of the Massachusetts Drought Management Task Force, the state entity responsible for analyzing and reporting on drought conditions to the Secretary of Massachusetts Energy and Environmental Affairs ...


Living Rivers, Cosmopolitan Activism, And Environmental Justice In The Bengal Delta, Daniel Adel Jan 2020

Living Rivers, Cosmopolitan Activism, And Environmental Justice In The Bengal Delta, Daniel Adel

HSU theses and projects

This thesis explores the social movements and civil society activism to protect the rivers that flow through Bangladesh—the cradle and terminal delta floodplain of the transboundary Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna river systems—, as well as ways to build regional cooperation and watershed democracy in South Asia. The research drew on four overarching fields of study: environmental justice, southern environmentalism, ecological nationalism, and environmental governance. These four bodies of scholarship helped address the overarching question: how are civil society organizations analyzing and responding to the water diversions and degradation of Bangladesh’s transboundary rivers? Semi-structured interviews were conducted with civil ...