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Articles 1 - 30 of 854

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Low-Temperature Pyrolysis Of Municipal Solid Waste Components And Refuse-Derived Fuel—Process Efficiency And Fuel Properties Of Carbonized Solid Fuel, Kacper Swiechowski, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Paweł Stepien, Szymon Kugler, Piotr Manczarski, Andrzej Białowiec Jun 2020

Low-Temperature Pyrolysis Of Municipal Solid Waste Components And Refuse-Derived Fuel—Process Efficiency And Fuel Properties Of Carbonized Solid Fuel, Kacper Swiechowski, Ewa Syguła, Jacek A. Koziel, Paweł Stepien, Szymon Kugler, Piotr Manczarski, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

New technologies to valorize refuse-derived fuels (RDFs) will be required in the near future due to emerging trends of (1) the cement industry’s demands for high-quality alternative fuels and (2) the decreasing calorific value of the fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) and currently used in cement/incineration plants. Low-temperature pyrolysis can increase the calorific value of processed material, leading to the production of value-added carbonized solid fuel (CSF). This dataset summarizes the key properties of MSW-derived CSF. Pyrolysis experiments were completed using eight types of organic waste and their two RDF mixtures. Organic waste represented common morphological ...


Sustainability And Optimization Of Rangeland Uses: Issues Of Perspective And Scale, T. L. Thurow May 2020

Sustainability And Optimization Of Rangeland Uses: Issues Of Perspective And Scale, T. L. Thurow

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam May 2020

Zenneck Waves In Decision Agriculture: An Empirical Verification And Application In Em-Based Underground Wireless Power Transfer, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In this article, the results of experiments for the observation of Zenneck surface waves in sub GHz frequency range using dipole antennas are presented. Experiments are conducted over three different soils for communications distances of up to 1 m. This empirical analysis confirms the existence of Zenneck waves over the soil surface. Through the power delay profile (PDP) analysis, it has been shown that other subsurface components exhibit rapid decay as compared to the Zenneck waves. A potential application of the Zenneck waves for energy transmission in the area of decision agriculture is explored. Accordingly, a novel wireless through-the-soil power ...


With Community And Environment In Mind: Bike Share System In Salem, Ma, Sheida Serafat May 2020

With Community And Environment In Mind: Bike Share System In Salem, Ma, Sheida Serafat

Research Day

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of new forms of mobility in the urban space. Salem, a small tourist town in the northeastern United States, follows this trend. Sharing bicycles, scooters and other services offer not only new options for travelers, but also new sources of data that can help municipalities make better investments in transportation and policy options. Since 2007, a bicycle sharing system has been at the forefront of the micro-mobility revolution in the city. This service is a positive resource for residents, passengers, students and visitors who want to explore the city faster than walking ...


Utilization Of Recycled Filament For 3d Printing For Consumer Goods, Alexa Peterson May 2020

Utilization Of Recycled Filament For 3d Printing For Consumer Goods, Alexa Peterson

Apparel Merchandising and Product Development Undergraduate Honors Theses

The 3D printing market has been used in a wide variety of manufacturing industries including textile and apparel. Many consumers can now own a personal 3D printer at home for recreational printing. There are even websites dedicated to 3D printing patterns made by consumers. However, the materials used in the 3D printing process pose a problem for the environment due to their plastic-based nature. 3D printing is a layered process with each layer being printed depending on the layer below it for strength and stability. During the 3D printing process, great amounts of waste are produced as a result of ...


Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer May 2020

Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer

Senior Honors Projects

KEVIN DYER (Marine Biology)

Year-long Analysis of the Water Quality of White Horn Brook

Sponsor: Thomas Boving (Geological Sciences)

Water is the foundation for all life on earth and is the most vital resource on this planet. Despite this, oceans and waterways all over the world are being polluted and exploited in ways detrimental to their fundamental hydrologic functions. For instance, excess nitrate levels can lead to eutrophication which gives rise to harmful algae blooms. Low pH can cause the breakdown of CaCO3 exoskeletons of organisms, such mollusks. High temperature variations are major stressors to living things and can cause ...


Design Of A Shallow-Aero Ebb And Flow Hydroponics System And Associated Educational Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Julie Halveland May 2020

Design Of A Shallow-Aero Ebb And Flow Hydroponics System And Associated Educational Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Julie Halveland

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Tri Cycle Farms, whose main mission is to reduce food insecurity in their community, is a non- profit urban farm in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The “Tri” in their name refers to the three parts of their foundation: giving a third of their yield to volunteers, giving a third to local food pantries, and selling a third to sustain the farm and demonstrate the economy of local food production. They want to expand on the third part and have a vision of building a hydroponic greenhouse with the intention that it will create more crops to sell and give, as well as ...


Cultivating The Next Generation Of Pasture Scientists In Australia, Sarita Jane Bennett Apr 2020

Cultivating The Next Generation Of Pasture Scientists In Australia, Sarita Jane Bennett

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Current students coming through agricultural faculties in Australian universities have grown up in an era of low wool and meat prices, the introduction and acceptance of no-till farming as the norm and a general decrease in mixed farming landscapes in favour of continuous cropping. Since the collapse of the wool reserve price scheme in 1991, wool prices declined and income on wool producing farms followed suit. R & D during this period has also declined from 5-4% agricultural GDP in 1986 to only 3% in 2005 and has favoured research related to cropping rather than that related to pastures and livestock ...


Farmers Teaching Farmers: What Motivates Volunteer Farm Trainers?, Evelyne Kiptot, Steven Franzel Apr 2020

Farmers Teaching Farmers: What Motivates Volunteer Farm Trainers?, Evelyne Kiptot, Steven Franzel

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

This paper assesses the motivation behind the decisions of smallholder farmers to volunteer as farmer trainers despite the fact that they are not paid for their services. Volunteer farmer trainers (VFTs) are trained in livestock feeds and feeding methods by extension officers. They in turn train other farmers within their community without pay but receive training and seeds for setting up demonstration plots. Data collection was through a combination of focus group discussions and individual interviews with 99 VFTs from seven East Africa Dairy Development (EADD) sites in central and Rift Valley regions of Kenya. Findings of the study showed ...


Earth Day At 50: Sustainable Exhibition Planning During A Time Of Pandemic, Michael A. Di Giovine, Natalie Fenner, Tyler C. Haney, Foster W. Krupp, Ben Popp, Melina Schauermann Apr 2020

Earth Day At 50: Sustainable Exhibition Planning During A Time Of Pandemic, Michael A. Di Giovine, Natalie Fenner, Tyler C. Haney, Foster W. Krupp, Ben Popp, Melina Schauermann

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


West Chester University Fair Trade Campaign, Kathleen Tobelmann Apr 2020

West Chester University Fair Trade Campaign, Kathleen Tobelmann

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


Grass-Based Health, Peter Ballerstedt Apr 2020

Grass-Based Health, Peter Ballerstedt

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

A true discussion of sustainability must focus on improving the condition of humanity. Too often, however, such a discussion is a "dialogue of values that defies consensual definition" (Ratner 2004), with participants implicitly accepting as true numerous foundational beliefs that are factually incorrect or unproven. Dietary policies recommending carbohydrate-based diets are one example. Falsehoods persist despite decades of contradictory re-search results and clinical findings, contaminating a variety of diverse disciplines and discussions. A rational, objective discussion of sustainability in grassland agriculture must confront the issue of public health policy, consider our physical health, the fiscal health of our communities, and ...


Solve Climate By 2030, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Paul Morgan Apr 2020

Solve Climate By 2030, Jessica L. Schedlbauer, Paul Morgan

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Guinea Grass, Congo Signal And Stylosanthes Hamata On Soil Physico-Chemical Properties And Beneficial Micro Fauna In Mango And Sapota Plantations, B. G. Shivakumar, Narendra S. Kulkarni Apr 2020

Impact Of Guinea Grass, Congo Signal And Stylosanthes Hamata On Soil Physico-Chemical Properties And Beneficial Micro Fauna In Mango And Sapota Plantations, B. G. Shivakumar, Narendra S. Kulkarni

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Farming systems are considered to be most important upcoming enterprises to reduce soil erosion and land degradation besides provide timber, fruits, nutritious fodder for live stock population in the poor soil areas (Roy et.al., 2000). Horticulture based farming systems have been recommended as alternate land use systems for sustainable agriculture in semi arid ecosystem for efficient soil plant management and soil fertility management. Studies on micro flora and micro fauna under farming system are required to increase the farming system productivity. Higher species diversity of soil arthropods was observed in grassland system closely followed by the silvipasture systems when ...


Environmental Activism, Ellen Dexter, Lydia Dexter Apr 2020

Environmental Activism, Ellen Dexter, Lydia Dexter

Honors Expanded Learning Clubs

An after school book club that follows Greta Thunberg's book of speeches No One is Too Small to Make a Difference , as well as uses hands-on activities to teach the importance of environmental activism.


Pack It Up, Pass It On: Ditch The Dumpster Wcu, Amy L. Maxcy Apr 2020

Pack It Up, Pass It On: Ditch The Dumpster Wcu, Amy L. Maxcy

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


Stars In Our Eyes: Documenting Wcu Sustainability Efforts, Bradley Flamm Mar 2020

Stars In Our Eyes: Documenting Wcu Sustainability Efforts, Bradley Flamm

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


Capturing The City’S Heritage On-The-Go: Design Requirements For Mobile Crowdsourced Cultural Heritage, Bas Hannewijk, Federica Lucia Vinella, Vassilis-Javed Khan, Ioanna Lykourentzou, Konstantinos Papangelis, Judith Masthoff Mar 2020

Capturing The City’S Heritage On-The-Go: Design Requirements For Mobile Crowdsourced Cultural Heritage, Bas Hannewijk, Federica Lucia Vinella, Vassilis-Javed Khan, Ioanna Lykourentzou, Konstantinos Papangelis, Judith Masthoff

Articles

Intangible Cultural Heritage is at a continuous risk of extinction. Where historical artefacts engine the machinery of intercontinental mass-tourism, socio-technical changes are reshaping the anthropomorphic landscapes everywhere on the globe, at an unprecedented rate. There is an increasing urge to tap into the hidden semantics and the anecdotes surrounding people, memories and places. The vast cultural knowledge made of testimony, oral history and traditions constitutes a rich cultural ontology tying together human beings, times, and situations. Altogether, these complex, multidimensional features make the task of data-mapping of intangible cultural heritage a problem of sustainability and preservation. This paper addresses a ...


Preparing Youth For Climate Action: Philadelphia Teachers Facilitating Student-Led Social Change In Elementary And Middle School Classrooms, Kathleen Riley, Elizabeth Soslau Mar 2020

Preparing Youth For Climate Action: Philadelphia Teachers Facilitating Student-Led Social Change In Elementary And Middle School Classrooms, Kathleen Riley, Elizabeth Soslau

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


Should Native Pastures Be Fertilised?, Jo I. Powells, Doug J. Alcock, Luke C. Pope, Denys Garden Mar 2020

Should Native Pastures Be Fertilised?, Jo I. Powells, Doug J. Alcock, Luke C. Pope, Denys Garden

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Considerable research has been conducted in recent years demonstrating the ongoing benefits of phosphorus (P) fertiliser in achieving and maintaining higher levels of production from native pastures (Graham 2006; Garden et al. 2003; Lodge et al. 2003; Michalk et al. 2003). However Garden et al. (2003), Hill et al. (2004) and Dorrough et al. (2008) all question the sustainability of this practice by highlighting changes in species composition of these pastures with regard to increasing the introduced annual grass and broadleaf weed components at the expense of the native grasses and forbs but in most cases, these trends have been ...


Using Forages To Conserve Water In Semi-Arid Irrigated Cropping Systems, Rick Kellison, V. G. Allen, C. P. Brown, D. L. Doerfert, P. N. Johnson, S. J. Maas, C. P. West Mar 2020

Using Forages To Conserve Water In Semi-Arid Irrigated Cropping Systems, Rick Kellison, V. G. Allen, C. P. Brown, D. L. Doerfert, P. N. Johnson, S. J. Maas, C. P. West

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Texas High Plains are part of the largest, contiguously irrigated cropland in the USA, and draws water from the Ogallala aquifer. High crop prices, increased demand for maize for ethanol production, and severe drought have increased water depletion rates. Research has shown that integrating forages and grazing cattle into the cotton-dominant cropping system can reduce overall water use (Allen et al. 2012) while still offering farmers positive net returns (Johnson et al. 2013). Integrating forages with row crops also reduces needs for nitrogen (N) fertilizer, rebuilds soil organic matter (Acosta-Martinez et al. 2010), and reduces fossil energy use and ...


The North Wyke Farm Platform: Methodologies Used In The Remote Sensing Of The Quantity And Quality Of Drainage Water, Bruce A. Griffith, Jane M. B. Hawkins, Robert J. Orr, Martin S. A. Blackwell, Phil J. Murray Mar 2020

The North Wyke Farm Platform: Methodologies Used In The Remote Sensing Of The Quantity And Quality Of Drainage Water, Bruce A. Griffith, Jane M. B. Hawkins, Robert J. Orr, Martin S. A. Blackwell, Phil J. Murray

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The North Wyke Farm Platform(NWFP) for agri-environmental research in temperate grassland was established in the UK in 2010 (Orr et al. 2011). Here we describe the instrumentation and methodologies used to monitor the quantity and quality of drainage water at a total of 15 H-flumes draining 5 sub-catchments within three farmlets. Each of 15 flume laboratories is supplied with 3 kW of mains power and connected to both fibre optic and UHF (Ultra High Frequency) radio networks for data exchange. The radio data network also provides telemetry for rain gauges and soil temperature/moisture probes located away from the ...


Optimizing The Environmental And Economic Sustainability Of Remote Community Infrastructure, Jamie E. Filer, Justin D. Delorit, Andrew J. Hoisington, Steven J. Schuldt Mar 2020

Optimizing The Environmental And Economic Sustainability Of Remote Community Infrastructure, Jamie E. Filer, Justin D. Delorit, Andrew J. Hoisington, Steven J. Schuldt

Faculty Publications

Remote communities such as rural villages, post-disaster housing camps, and military forward operating bases are often located in remote and hostile areas with limited or no access to established infrastructure grids. Operating these communities with conventional assets requires constant resupply, which yields a significant logistical burden, creates negative environmental impacts, and increases costs. For example, a 2000-member isolated village in northern Canada relying on diesel generators required 8.6 million USD of fuel per year and emitted 8500 tons of carbon dioxide. Remote community planners can mitigate these negative impacts by selecting sustainable technologies that minimize resource consumption and emissions ...


Envisioning Higher Education For Sustainability After The Sh*T Hits The Fan, Paul Morgan, Rebecca Drake Feb 2020

Envisioning Higher Education For Sustainability After The Sh*T Hits The Fan, Paul Morgan, Rebecca Drake

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

No abstract provided.


Botanical Composition And Nutritive Value Of Grazing Lands From Organic And Conventional Agrosilvopastoral Production Systems Of Tropical Southeastern Mexico, Claudia Delgadillo Puga, José Bernardo Sánchez Muñoz, José Nahed-Toral, Miguel Ángel Orantes Zebadua, José Luis Cruz Lopez, Mario Cuchillo Hilario Feb 2020

Botanical Composition And Nutritive Value Of Grazing Lands From Organic And Conventional Agrosilvopastoral Production Systems Of Tropical Southeastern Mexico, Claudia Delgadillo Puga, José Bernardo Sánchez Muñoz, José Nahed-Toral, Miguel Ángel Orantes Zebadua, José Luis Cruz Lopez, Mario Cuchillo Hilario

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the current situation of agriculture, organic livestock farming has been not only adapted to ameliorate undesirable impacts on environment but also it is challenged to hold or improve agricultural yields obtain-ed by conventional agriculture. In the Mesoamerican biological corridor, a region recognized with an abundant diversity, almost all animal husbandry is based on extensive grazing and traditional agrosilvopastoral systems (Nahed-Toral et al. 2009; Nahed et al. 2010). Furthermore, the conversion of natural jungle areas to new farmland through deforestation is a prevalent problem for biological conservation. Therefore, precise knowledge for suitable agriculture and livestock product-ion are needed to stop ...


Integrating Beef And Cotton Production Reduces Irrigation Needs In The Texas Southern High Plains, C. Philip Brown, V. G. Allen, Rick Kellison, P. Green, C. J. Zilverberg, P. Johnson, V. Acosta-Martinez, C. P. West Feb 2020

Integrating Beef And Cotton Production Reduces Irrigation Needs In The Texas Southern High Plains, C. Philip Brown, V. G. Allen, Rick Kellison, P. Green, C. J. Zilverberg, P. Johnson, V. Acosta-Martinez, C. P. West

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The Texas High Plains is a semiarid agricultural region located in the central south plains of the United States. This area exemplifies semiarid regions where water is becoming scarce. Crop production depends heavily on irrigation primarily from the Ogallala aquifer at non-sustainable rates of use. Irrigated monoculture cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the dominant crop but grazing livestock in this once vast grassland is re-emerging as the aquifer declines. Environmental benefits of integrated crop and livestock systems have been suggested. We compared a cotton monoculture with an integrated cotton-forage-beef stocker steer system over 10 yr to determine effects on irrigation ...


Integrated Crop Livestock Systems--A Key To Sustainable Intensification In Africa, A. J. Duncan, S. A. Tarawali, P. Thorne, D. Valbuena, Katrien Descheemaeker, Sabine Homann-Keetui Feb 2020

Integrated Crop Livestock Systems--A Key To Sustainable Intensification In Africa, A. J. Duncan, S. A. Tarawali, P. Thorne, D. Valbuena, Katrien Descheemaeker, Sabine Homann-Keetui

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Mixed crop-livestock systems provide livelihoods for a billion people and produce half the world’s cereal and around a third of its beef and milk. Market orientation and strong and growing demand for food provide powerful incentives for sustainable intensification of both crop and livestock enterprises in smallholders’ mixed systems in Africa. Better exploitation of the mutually reinforcing nature of crop and livestock systems can contribute to a positive, inclusive growth trajectory that is both ecologically and economically sustainable. In mixed systems, livestock intensification is often neglected relative to crops, yet livestock can make a positive contribution to raising productivity ...


Cooperative Extension And Sustainability Outreach: Programmatic Successes, Administrative Support, And Areas For Improvement, Roslynn Brain Mccann, Mark Apel, Clark Dove, Ramona Madhosingh-Hector, Jennison Kipp Searcy, David Kay Feb 2020

Cooperative Extension And Sustainability Outreach: Programmatic Successes, Administrative Support, And Areas For Improvement, Roslynn Brain Mccann, Mark Apel, Clark Dove, Ramona Madhosingh-Hector, Jennison Kipp Searcy, David Kay

Extension Research

According to the 2018 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, without urgent global changes, climate catastrophe caused by warming of greater than 1.5°C will occur by 2030, endangering the planet's capacity to sustain human populations and livelihoods. The National Network for Sustainable Living Education administered a national survey in January 2017 to assess how well-positioned Extension is to address sustainability in the communities the organization serves. Educators from 40 states responded, and 1,395 usable surveys were received. Survey results will help Extension employees discover opportunities for innovation and relevancy in their programming.


Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta Jan 2020

Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta

Microbiology Educational Materials

This curriculum describes a one-unit course designed to fulfill the University of Massachusetts requirement for Integrative Experience as part of the Gen Ed curriculum for undergraduates.


Electricity Without Fuel, Nikolai A. Zarkevich Jan 2020

Electricity Without Fuel, Nikolai A. Zarkevich

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Most power plants produce electricity by converting a mechanical motion into alternating current (AC). Photovoltaic solar panels convert an electromagnetic flux of light into direct current (DC). In general, electric energy can be harvested from a flux in the environment or from a change of the environment itself. One can produce electricity from mechanical, chemical, thermal, electromagnetic (light), or another physical flux, or from a change of temperature, chemical composition, or a physical field: gravitational, magnetic, electric, mechanical stress and strain, etc. Flux examples are mechanical motions of air and water, surface waves and tides, heat fluxes due to a ...