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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt May 2021

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt

Biology Theses

The Caribbean terrestrial soldier crab, Coenobita clypeatus(Fabricius 1787), coexist and utilize the shells of numerous species of land and marine gastropods. Soldier crabs rely on gastropod shells for protection as the crabs have a soft abdomen, leaving them vulnerable for predation and desiccation, threatening their survival. This creates a strong pressure to obtain well-fitting shells that provide adequate protection against water loss. Cerion of Röding (1798) shells are one of the most commonly used shells among living colonies of C. clypeatuson San Salvador Island. This study is interested in the frequency of shell use by C. clypeatus crabs ...


Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal Mar 2021

Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal

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Updated March 2021


The Geologic Times, Vol. 8, Sara Mana Feb 2021

The Geologic Times, Vol. 8, Sara Mana

Earth Science Association

The eight issue of the Earth Science Association's newsletter, The Geologic Times.

Contents:

Silurian Seaways and Early Shallow Marine Life by Shadya El-Ashkar

Mineral of the Month: Malachite! by Kristen Anastopoulos

What is new in the ESA community?!

Working in the Environmental Consulting Industry as a Geologist by Sara Barrientos

Geology Word Search


Analyzing The Multipath Of Gps Time Series To Study Snow Properties, Ashlesha Khatiwada Jan 2021

Analyzing The Multipath Of Gps Time Series To Study Snow Properties, Ashlesha Khatiwada

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Thousands of Global Positioning System (GNSS) receivers worldwide record signals sent by satellites to infer how each receiver (and the ground they are attached to) moves over time. The motion of GNSS receivers is used for many purposes, including studying tectonic deformation and changes in Earth's shape caused by surface loading. In this project, reflected wave arrivals contained within the multipath signal of GNSS time series are extracted and analyzed to advance understanding of snow properties in mountainous regions of Montana/Idaho, USA. Analyzing reflected signals in GNSS series has the potential to reveal properties of local snowpack, such ...


Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward Jan 2021

Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Analyzing the strength of synthetic quartz is essential to understanding the strength of natural milky quartz, which likely controls the strength of Earth’s continental crust. Synthetic quartz is sometimes used for deformation experiments because it has a homogenous water distribution unlike natural milky quartz. The purpose of this study is to determine if annealing synthetic quartz at T = 600°C will convert the water in synthetic quartz to free water, like milky quartz, but with little water loss. Following two annealing experiments at Texas A&M University, I performed four annealing experiments to measure the water content of five ...


Application Of 3d Seismic Signal And Geomechanical Attributes For Subsurface Fracture Characterization: A Case Study In Clearfield County, Central Pennsylvania, Iman F. Zulkapeli Jan 2021

Application Of 3d Seismic Signal And Geomechanical Attributes For Subsurface Fracture Characterization: A Case Study In Clearfield County, Central Pennsylvania, Iman F. Zulkapeli

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Hydrocarbon exploration in unconventional reservoirs is highly risky due to the nature of the reservoirs and the variability in fractures and reservoir geomechanical properties in the subsurface. The reservoir needs to be fully characterized to avoid any complication such as frac hit, wellbore failure, blowout, or even a dry hole. The Clearfield reservoir produces an exceptionally low amount of gas, compared to the neighboring region in the proximity, which has been poorly understood. This raises the question as to what causes the reservoir to have low productivity.

This study focuses on the natural fracture characterization using high-quality 3D seismic signal ...


Surface Alteration In The Ölkelduháls, Nesjavellir, And Geysir Hydrothermal Systems, Iceland: Implications For Mars, Jordan Ludyan Dec 2020

Surface Alteration In The Ölkelduháls, Nesjavellir, And Geysir Hydrothermal Systems, Iceland: Implications For Mars, Jordan Ludyan

Theses and Dissertations

Silica- and sulfate-rich deposits observed by Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit near Home Plate, Gusev crater, Mars, indicate alteration of Mars basalt by a diverse array of hydrothermal fluids and processes. Constraining the precise fluid conditions present at the time of deposition for these deposits on Mars relies on investigations of terrestrial hydrothermal systems that produce similar mineral assemblages. Alteration products and fluids collected from the Ölkelduháls, Nesjavellir, and Geysir hydrothermal areas in southern Iceland cover a wide range of end-member and intermediate fluid and alteration environments, and provide a means to compare the secondary minerals produced from different hydrothermal ...


Mineralogy, Dexter Perkins Oct 2020

Mineralogy, Dexter Perkins

Open Educational Resources

This is a beta version of an open access textbook on Mineralogy, current as of October 2020. For the most recently updated live version please see: https://opengeology.org/Mineralogy/


Teaching With Digital 3d Models Of Minerals And Rocks, Graham Dm Andrews, Gabrielle Labishak, Sarah Brown, Shelby L. Isom, Holly Danielle Pettus, Trevor Byers Oct 2020

Teaching With Digital 3d Models Of Minerals And Rocks, Graham Dm Andrews, Gabrielle Labishak, Sarah Brown, Shelby L. Isom, Holly Danielle Pettus, Trevor Byers

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

The disruption to geoscience curricula due to the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the difficulty of making mineral and rock samples accessible to students online rather than through traditional lab classes. In spring 2020, our community had to adapt rapidly to remote instruction; this transition amplified existing disparities in access to geoscience education but can be a catalyst to increase accessibility and flexibility in instruction permanently. Fortunately, a rich collection of 3D mineral and rock samples is being generated by a community of digital modelers (e.g., Perkins et al., 2019).


Geology, Soils And Climate Of The Margaret River Wine Region, Peter J. Tille, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter S. Gardiner Aug 2020

Geology, Soils And Climate Of The Margaret River Wine Region, Peter J. Tille, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter S. Gardiner

All other publications

This report is an extract from the broader description and analysis of the geology, soils and climate of all the wine regions of Western Australia currently being developed by DPIRD. It expands on the brief descriptions in the second edition of 'Viticulture' (Coombe & Dry 2004) concerning the soils and landscapes of Western Australia’s main wine growing regions. We have tailored this report extract to the specific needs of the Margaret River wine region. It contains local soil names and soil-landscape zones and systems maps.

The wine industry recognises the importance of giving customers an understanding of the vines’ environment ...


Visualizing Effects Of Changing Base Level On Tributary Resources In Lake Powell Reservoir, Madeline Friend Aug 2020

Visualizing Effects Of Changing Base Level On Tributary Resources In Lake Powell Reservoir, Madeline Friend

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Lake Powell reservoir is the second-largest reservoir in the United States. As climate change reduces watershed runoff in the Colorado River Basin, questions arise about the management and even existence of Lake Powell. If lake levels continue to drop, what will the emerging canyon look like and what value will we assign it? Lake Powell traps all incoming fine sediment from the Colorado River, the San Juan River, and many smaller tributaries. What is the fate of this sediment under falling reservoir levels and how will it influence other resources? To support a robust public discourse, we provide an immersive ...


Hydrogeophysical Characterization And Imaging In The Mangrove Lakes Region Of Everglades National Park And Big Pine Key, Florida, Usa, Michael Eyob Kiflai Jul 2020

Hydrogeophysical Characterization And Imaging In The Mangrove Lakes Region Of Everglades National Park And Big Pine Key, Florida, Usa, Michael Eyob Kiflai

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Coastal groundwater aquifers are susceptible to saltwater intrusion from natural and anthropogenic sources. Everglades National Park (ENP) has been adversely impacted by past human activities that altered freshwater flow through the system. In Big Pine Key (BPK), the flat and low-lying topography less than 2m makes the freshwater lens vulnerable to tidal and storm surge events. This study investigated different inversion scenarios and used Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Electromagnetic (EM) survey to characterize the spatial and temporal change of the groundwater chemistry and image the aquifers. In Big Pine Key, Hurricane Irma made landfall as a category 4 storm ...


Uas-Based Tracking Of The Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Edgar U. Zorn, Thomas R. Walter, Jeffrey B. Johnson, René Mania May 2020

Uas-Based Tracking Of The Santiaguito Lava Dome, Guatemala, Edgar U. Zorn, Thomas R. Walter, Jeffrey B. Johnson, René Mania

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Imaging growing lava domes has remained a great challenge in volcanology due to their inaccessibility and the severe hazard of collapse or explosion. Changes in surface movement, temperature, or lava viscosity are considered crucial data for hazard assessments at active lava domes and thus valuable study targets. Here, we present results from a series of repeated survey flights with both optical and thermal cameras at the Caliente lava dome, part of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria volcano, Guatemala, using an Unoccupied Aircraft System (UAS) to create topography data and orthophotos of the lava dome. This enabled us to track ...


Crystal Queer: Fracturing The Binaries Of Matter, Creation, And Landscape, Sarah Knight May 2020

Crystal Queer: Fracturing The Binaries Of Matter, Creation, And Landscape, Sarah Knight

Graduate School of Art Theses

In this thesis, I compile a series of fragments consisting an analysis of my artwork in the gendered contexts of landscape, self-identity, mythology, and philosophy. I develop my concept of a “queer mark” in my art that serves as a form of queering, a disruption of visual and conceptual cohesion. I form a picture of how our contemporary selves are influenced by our gendered understanding of the landscape through the analysis of philosophical, artistic, and mythological concepts of creation. I see my sculptures as an atlas to an alternative means of understanding identity, a queering of these historical and exclusionary ...


Band Extension And Possible Ridge Compression On Europa, Sarah Chinski May 2020

Band Extension And Possible Ridge Compression On Europa, Sarah Chinski

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Jupiter's icy moon Europa has captivated and perplexed the scientific community since the discovery of its global liquid water ocean. Over the course of several missions to the Jovian system, high-resolution observations of Europa have determined that there are spreading zones where new crust is created, similar to the mid-ocean spreading tectonic process we observe on Earth. These features, known as bands, have symmetric hills and valleys, indicating brief events of activity where material from the interior is exuded through a central crack, and solidifies on both sides, creating two positive topography. Recently, Europan scientists have been questioning how ...


Investigation Of The Volcanics Rocks On Marblehead Neck Through Petrographic, Geochemical, And Field Analyses, Rebecca Wright, Lindley Hanson, Erkan Toraman May 2020

Investigation Of The Volcanics Rocks On Marblehead Neck Through Petrographic, Geochemical, And Field Analyses, Rebecca Wright, Lindley Hanson, Erkan Toraman

Research Day

Marblehead Neck is a rocky island within the Dedham-Milford zone in northeastern Massachusetts and is separated by the younger Late Silurian Salem Gabbro-Diorite on the adjacent mainland of Marblehead by a fault of unknown motion. Although shown on the 1983 bedrock map of MA, to be underlain by the Late Proterozoic Dedham Granodiorite and Lynn Volcanics, attempts to date and definitively correlate these rocks have been unsuccessful. This study focuses on confirming the identity of the volcanics and correlating to local lithologies(Middlesex Fells Complex, Lynn-Mattapan Volcanic Complex, Newbury Volcanics, and extrusives of the Cape Ann Granite) through field mapping ...


Nasa L'Space Mission Concept Academy, Anaily Lorenzo May 2020

Nasa L'Space Mission Concept Academy, Anaily Lorenzo

Research Day

NASA L'Space Mission Concept Academy is a virtual academy in which we had to complete a 12-week team mission concept. Our mission objective was to design a small mission concept that characterized the polar water ice on Earth's moon. Our mission had to fit within the mission concept constraints (mass, volume, and budget). Our spacecraft design and scientific payload had to reflect what can be afforded within these constraints. To complete this mission concept, our team relied heavily on math, engineering, geology, and chemistry.


Detailed Records Of Ird Input From Central North Atlantic Sediment Core Vm28-89 During The Last Glacial Cycle (Marine Isotope Stages 4-2), Adam Surette May 2020

Detailed Records Of Ird Input From Central North Atlantic Sediment Core Vm28-89 During The Last Glacial Cycle (Marine Isotope Stages 4-2), Adam Surette

Research Day

High resolution records from North Atlantic deep-sea sediment have been instrumental in documenting millennial-scale climate variations during the last glacial cycle (Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4 to 1) including variations of Ice-Rafted Detritus (IRD) concentrations related to massive iceberg discharges from glacial continental ice sheets. We have sampled core VM28-89, located within the Ruddiman IRD Belt in the central North Atlantic at 1 cm intervals and produced detailed records of %IRD ((number of lithic grains >150μm / (number of lithic grains >150μm + number of Planktic foraminifers >150μm)) x 100); lithic grains, >150μm per gram of sediment (lithics/gram); planktic foraminifers, >150μm ...


Impact Of Compactive Effort On Soil Strength Of Glacial Lake Columbia Soils, Alexander M. Navarra, Dwight Hendrickson, Jaremy Shaw May 2020

Impact Of Compactive Effort On Soil Strength Of Glacial Lake Columbia Soils, Alexander M. Navarra, Dwight Hendrickson, Jaremy Shaw

2020 Symposium Posters

Glacial Lake Columbia (GLC) existed from 15,550 (+/- 450) to 13,050 (+/- 650) years ago (Atwater, 1986) as a result of the Okanagan Lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet damming the Columbia River near present-day Grand Coulee Dam. The lake deposited a fine-grained basal layer that had interbeds of coarse Missoula Flood deposits and later lake deposits above. Because these GLC deposits are present around most of the Spokane area, they are important to civil engineering and development. We sampled the basal layer of GLC soils from the Peone Prairie, WA. We performed prerequisite testing before the main experiment, with ...


Experiments To Synthesize Soft-Sedimentary Deformation And Clastic Dikes, Chelsi K. Howard May 2020

Experiments To Synthesize Soft-Sedimentary Deformation And Clastic Dikes, Chelsi K. Howard

2020 Symposium Posters

Clastic dikes are intrusions of sediments into layers of other sedimentary strata that are found in various places across eastern Washington. Three notable sites include Burlingame Canyon in Touchet, WA, Tucannon Valley near Starbuck, WA and Campion Park in Spokane, WA. Clastic dikes are thought to be formed by either overburden stress or from seismic activity. In eastern WA, the dikes were formed by large overburden pressure and seismic-like forces caused by cataclysmic floods that washed over eastern WA (known as the Missoula floods). We recreated this environment by layering saturated sand below and on top of kaolinite clay, and ...


Pumice Compositions And Mineral Chemistry From Lascar Volcano, Chile, Madelaine M. Stearn May 2020

Pumice Compositions And Mineral Chemistry From Lascar Volcano, Chile, Madelaine M. Stearn

MSU Graduate Theses

Lascar volcano is one the most active volcano in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andean Cordillera, with 36 Holocene eruptions including a VEI 4 eruption in April 1993. Activity has not been consistent throughout time, and therefore, the processes behind it are poorly understood. Lascar volcano has cyclic behavior and has had four stages of activity, each of which had a unique eruptive style and product composition. Stage I (<43 >ka) had primarily mafic andesite lavas erupted effusively from a stratocone. Stage II initiated with dome building events ESE of the original vent and culminated in the 26.45 ka ...


Testing A Drone-Based Magnetic Field Surveying System, Erik Jacobson, Irina Filina Apr 2020

Testing A Drone-Based Magnetic Field Surveying System, Erik Jacobson, Irina Filina

UCARE Research Products

Aeromagnetic surveys are conducted by geoscientists to study subsurface geologic structures, such as faults. This type of survey uses a magnetometer mounted upon an airborne vehicle to collect magnetic field data. Magnetic anomalies are caused by variations in subsurface geology, namely in magnetic properties of subsurface rocks. Jacobson and Filina (2019) reported on the development of a new low cost drone, based magnetic field surveying system by the UNL Geophysics Team. This drone-based magnetic system is capable of collecting high resolution data at low speeds and low altitudes. The current study focuses on testing this system by conducting two flights ...


The Geologic Times, Vol. 7, Sara Mana Apr 2020

The Geologic Times, Vol. 7, Sara Mana

Earth Science Association

The seventh issue of the Earth Science Association's newsletter, The Geologic Times.

Contents:

Atmospheric Scientists Show Resilience in the Face of Lockdowns by Jane Palmer (originally published on EOS, doi.org/10.1029/2020EO142531)

How COVID-19 Has Impacted My Life by Casey Fern

Life during a Pandemic by Sara Mana

Giant Trilobites of Tarhoucht, Morocco by Tom Rich


Field Relations, Geochemistry, And Geochronology Of The Rocks At Perkins Point, Castine, Maine, Robert Knowles, Douglas Reusch Apr 2020

Field Relations, Geochemistry, And Geochronology Of The Rocks At Perkins Point, Castine, Maine, Robert Knowles, Douglas Reusch

Individual Projects

Northwest of Castine, Maine is the coastline known as Perkins Point, which is home to about 500 meters of bedrock exposure. Previous mapping projects of Penobscot Bay indicate a discrepancy in rock type for this area, and therefore the origin of the rocks is unclear. Preliminary observations suggest that these rocks are mostly volcanic. The goal of this project is to determine the field relations, geochronology, and geochemistry to conclude the true nature of these rocks and ultimately create a geological map.


Quantifying Water Content In Olivine From North Carolina Dunites Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thomas Byars Apr 2020

Quantifying Water Content In Olivine From North Carolina Dunites Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thomas Byars

Student Scholars Day Posters

The focus of this study is to quantify the water content in grains of the mineral olivine collected from the Buck Creek Ultramafic Suite–a fragment of ancient ocean crust emplaced into the Appalachian Mountains in North Carolina. Previous work on these samples includes Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis. EBSD data can constrain temperature and stress conditions of olivine deformation under different levels of hydration. The water in olivine was analyzed using a Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Science. The olivine grains are doubly polished in preparation for FTIR analysis. The machine scans ...


Geology Of Nacogdoches, Texas: Texas Academy Of Science March 1, 2020, R. Larell Nielson, Mike Read, Mindy Faulkner, Hannah C. Chambers, Jessica O'Neal Feb 2020

Geology Of Nacogdoches, Texas: Texas Academy Of Science March 1, 2020, R. Larell Nielson, Mike Read, Mindy Faulkner, Hannah C. Chambers, Jessica O'Neal

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Geologic Times, Vol. 6, Sara Mana Feb 2020

The Geologic Times, Vol. 6, Sara Mana

Earth Science Association

The sixth issue of the Earth Science Association's newsletter, The Geologic Times.

Contents:

What Makes Mercury So Dark? by Kathleen E. Vander Kaaden

What Are You Going To Do After Graduation? by Hannah Newcombe

Seismic Refraction Applications At SSU by Kyle McCaffery

Comic by Adam Surette

What Is New In The ESA Community?!


Supra-Salt Syndepositional Folding Within The Jurassic Morrison Formation, Big Gypsum Valley, Colorado, Alondra Soltero Jan 2020

Supra-Salt Syndepositional Folding Within The Jurassic Morrison Formation, Big Gypsum Valley, Colorado, Alondra Soltero

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The Paradox Basin, along the Utah and Colorado border, exposes salt diapirs that form elongate "salt walls". Most exposures of sediments that were deposited during salt movement are hundreds of meters from the contacts. However, in the southeastern part of the Gypsum Valley diapir, a set of tight folds within the Jurassic Morrison Formation are preserved along the diapir margins where they overlie salt. These are best exposed at the southeastern end of Big Gypsum Valley. Previous interpretations suggested that the Morrison Formation folding and faulting occurred during dissolution of the diapir. However, field mapping reported here reveals that the ...


Identifying The Effects Of Alum Treatment On Water And Sediment Chemistry Of Two Lakes In Pierce County, Washington, Colin Glaze Jan 2020

Identifying The Effects Of Alum Treatment On Water And Sediment Chemistry Of Two Lakes In Pierce County, Washington, Colin Glaze

Summer Research

Many freshwater and marine ecosystems are affected by hazardous algal blooms (HABs) each year, and the number is rising. In most cases, the main cause of HABs is nutrient loading from anthropogenic sources, and often, the overloaded nutrient is phosphorus. To combat these HABs, alum treatment is commonly used. Alum treatment is the use of aluminum sulfate, which binds to phosphorus, effectively lowering the levels of free phosphorus and thus reducing algal growth. However, alum can also have adverse effects on water and sediment chemistry. Within Pierce County, Wapato and Waughop lakes present a unique opportunity to study the effects ...


The Hydrostatics And Hydrodynamics Of Prominent Heteromorph Ammonoid Morphotypes And The Functional Morphology Of Ammonitic Septa, David Joseph Peterman Jan 2020

The Hydrostatics And Hydrodynamics Of Prominent Heteromorph Ammonoid Morphotypes And The Functional Morphology Of Ammonitic Septa, David Joseph Peterman

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Ammonoid cephalopods have chambered shells that regulated buoyancy. The morphology of their shells strongly influenced the physical properties acting on these animals during life. Heteromorph ammonoids, which undergo changes in coiling throughout ontogeny, are the focus of this dissertation. The biomechanics of these cephalopods are investigated in a framework involving functional morphology, paleoecology, and possible modes of life. Constructional constraints were investigated for the marginally-corrugated septal walls within the chambered ammonoid shell. These constraints governed the positive relationship between septal complexity and terminal size. Furthermore, increased septal complexity facilitated liquid retention via surface tension. More complex septa would have increased ...