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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison May 2021

Long-Term Changes In Soil Surface Properties As Affected By Management Practices In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System, Machaela Morrison

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Long-term agricultural sustainability and productivity are controlled by the integrative effects of different management practices on the soil. Many Arkansas producers use the double-crop system to grow soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Studying combinations of different, non-traditional, alternative agricultural techniques may help producers better understand the long-term implications of various management practice options on sustainability and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of agricultural management practices, including residue level, tillage, irrigation, and burning, and soil depth on the change in various soil properties from 2010 to 2020 in a long-term ...


A Study Of The Social, Cultural, And Environmental Influences On Appalachian Agriculture, Morganne May Apr 2021

A Study Of The Social, Cultural, And Environmental Influences On Appalachian Agriculture, Morganne May

Senior Theses

Appalachia, despite its rich history and abundant biological and cultural diversity, is commonly associated with a generalized notion of ignorance, resistance to progress, and "backwardness." This study aims to shed light on the socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental influences which have shaped the present food systems of Appalachia through a review of relevant literature. This history provides the necessary context to strategize a region-specific, socioeconomically and environmentally sustainable food system moving forward.


Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, And The Social Sciences Department Mar 2021

Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, And The Social Sciences Department

Illustration Course Work & Materials

"These essays were were written and illustrated by students at the Rhode Island school of Design in February, 2021. Their perspectives are entirely personal and reflect their efforts within a 5.5-week fused studio/seminar course that was centered on the Sixth Mass Extinction and how biodiversity is changing because of humans. Discovering that science communication is more than delivering just the facts, students were invited to research a topic of personal interest that is relevant to human impacts on biodiversity. Through analysis of data and other scientific information, each sought to synthesize their research and opinions on their topic ...


Summary And Overview Of The Odour Regulations Worldwide, Anna Bokowa, Carlos Diaz, Jacek A. Koziel, Michael Mcginley, Jennifer Barclay, Günther Schauberger, Jean-Michel Guillot, Robert Sneath, Laura Capelli, Vania Zorich, Cyntia Izquierdo, Ilse Bilsen, Anne-Claude Romain, Maria Del Carmen Cabeza, Dezhao Liu, Ralf Both, Hugo Van Belois, Takaya Higuchi, Landon Wahe Feb 2021

Summary And Overview Of The Odour Regulations Worldwide, Anna Bokowa, Carlos Diaz, Jacek A. Koziel, Michael Mcginley, Jennifer Barclay, Günther Schauberger, Jean-Michel Guillot, Robert Sneath, Laura Capelli, Vania Zorich, Cyntia Izquierdo, Ilse Bilsen, Anne-Claude Romain, Maria Del Carmen Cabeza, Dezhao Liu, Ralf Both, Hugo Van Belois, Takaya Higuchi, Landon Wahe

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

When it comes to air pollution complaints, odours are often the most significant contributor. Sources of odour emissions range from natural to anthropogenic. Mitigation of odour can be challenging, multifaceted, site-specific, and is often confounded by its complexity—defined by existing (or non-existing) environmental laws, public ordinances, and socio-economic considerations. The objective of this paper is to review and summarise odour legislation in selected European countries (France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium), North America (the USA and Canada), and South America (Chile and Colombia), as well as Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Asia (Japan ...


Enhancing Wku Sustainable Food Systems Through Education And Local Agriculture Development, Chloe Cooper Jan 2021

Enhancing Wku Sustainable Food Systems Through Education And Local Agriculture Development, Chloe Cooper

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In an effort to increase the amount of locally sourced food utilized by dining services at WKU, the Office of Sustainability, WKU Restaurant Group, and the WKU Agriculture & Research Education Center have partnered to establish garden spaces on campus properties. This project developed a detailed plan for implementation of this effort. In addition, this project established a plan to educate students and the local community alike on the benefits of sustainable farming and locally-sourced food, while also creating profiles on local farmers from whom the university could buy crops in order to further supplement items for dining services. Using these ...


Strategies For Reducing Greenhouse Gases From Liquid Dairy Manure, Vera Sokolov Jan 2021

Strategies For Reducing Greenhouse Gases From Liquid Dairy Manure, Vera Sokolov

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Livestock production, including the storage, handling, and spreading of manure, are among the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. Liquid dairy manure storages are hot spots of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3). Both CH4 and N2O are greenhouse gases (GHG) which contribute to global warming, while NH3 is an indirect source of N2O and a risk to human health. Reducing emissions from manure storages is important not only for protection of environment and humans, but also for conserving the nutrients in manure making ...


A Survey On Subsurface Signal Propagation, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam Dec 2020

A Survey On Subsurface Signal Propagation, Usman Raza, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Wireless Underground Communication (WUC) is an emerging field that is being developed continuously. It provides secure mechanism of deploying nodes underground which shields them from any outside temperament or harsh weather conditions. This paper works towards introducing WUC and give a detail overview of WUC. It discusses system architecture of WUC along with the anatomy of the underground sensor motes deployed in WUC systems. It also compares Over-the-Air and Underground and highlights the major differences between the both type of channels. Since, UG communication is an evolving field, this paper also presents the evolution of the field along with the ...


Literature Review: Global Neonicotinoid Insecticide Occurrence In Aquatic Environments, Josephus F. Borsuah, Tiffany L. Messer, Daniel D. Snow, Steve D. Comfort, Aaron R. Mittelstet Dec 2020

Literature Review: Global Neonicotinoid Insecticide Occurrence In Aquatic Environments, Josephus F. Borsuah, Tiffany L. Messer, Daniel D. Snow, Steve D. Comfort, Aaron R. Mittelstet

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Neonicotinoids have been the most commonly used insecticides since the early 1990s. Despite their efficacy in improving crop protection and management, these agrochemicals have gained recent attention for their negative impacts on non-target species such as honeybees and aquatic invertebrates. In recent years, neonicotinoids have been detected in rivers and streams across the world. Determining and predicting the exposure potential of neonicotinoids in surface water requires a thorough understanding of their fate and transport mechanisms. Therefore, our objective was to provide a comprehensive review of neonicotinoids with a focus on their fate and transport mechanisms to and within surface waters ...


Impacts Of Irrigated Agriculture On The Near Surface And Planetary Boundary Layer Atmosphere: Results From The Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (Grainex), Emilee Lachenmeier Dec 2020

Impacts Of Irrigated Agriculture On The Near Surface And Planetary Boundary Layer Atmosphere: Results From The Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (Grainex), Emilee Lachenmeier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Modification of natural prairie grasslands into irrigated and rainfed agriculture in the Great Plains produced significant impacts on regional weather and climate including temperatures, precipitation, energy fluxes, and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) atmosphere. The Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (GRAINEX) during the 2018 growing season collected data over irrigated and non-irrigated crop fields to further understand these impacts. The data were collected during two intensive observation periods (IOPs) in early June (IOP 1: 30 May – 13 June of 2018) and late July (IOP 2: 16 July – 30 July of 2018). The data analyzed include latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat ...


River Restoration And Economic Development Through Grassland Management: A Case Study Of The James River, South Dakota, U.S.A., Jeremy P. Duehr, Richard G. Wiebe Nov 2020

River Restoration And Economic Development Through Grassland Management: A Case Study Of The James River, South Dakota, U.S.A., Jeremy P. Duehr, Richard G. Wiebe

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Geoinformatics Application To Investigate Agricultural Potential In The Cholistan Desert, Farooq Ahmad Oct 2020

Geoinformatics Application To Investigate Agricultural Potential In The Cholistan Desert, Farooq Ahmad

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Trend Of Thornthwaite's Aridity Index (Ai) At Atakpame (Togo), Komlan Koudahe Aug 2020

Trend Of Thornthwaite's Aridity Index (Ai) At Atakpame (Togo), Komlan Koudahe

English Language Institute

Drought can severely affect agricultural production potential, destroying the local economy and creating famine. Data were collected (1990 to 2014) from the Meteorological Department of Togo. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) varied with two peaks obtained on March 28 (5.84mm) and on November 17 (4.87mm). There was water deficit in all years except 2005 and 2007. Also, there was non-significant increasing trend of aridity index (AI). Specific actions should target efficient water management in Atakpame.


Nitrate Dynamics And Source Within Nested Watersheds Of An Agricultural Stream, Nebraska, Usa, Galen Richards Aug 2020

Nitrate Dynamics And Source Within Nested Watersheds Of An Agricultural Stream, Nebraska, Usa, Galen Richards

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Nitrate concentrations have been increasing throughout the globe, primarily due to heightened agricultural activity. Nitrate concentrations in Bazile Creek, located in Northeastern Nebraska, have been steadily rising since the early 2000s. Groundwater nitrate concentrations within the Bazile Creek watershed are high (> 10 mg/L nitrate-N), and there is strong connectivity between groundwater and surface water systems. This study aimed to better understand temporal nitrate concentration variability within the watershed through sampling tributaries and the main channel during baseflow conditions. Nitrate source was also investigated though the use of dual δ15N and δ18O nitrate isotopes, with samples ...


A 30-Year Agroclimatic Analysis Of The Snake River Valley American Viticultural Area - Descriptive And Predictive Methods, Charles L. Becker Aug 2020

A 30-Year Agroclimatic Analysis Of The Snake River Valley American Viticultural Area - Descriptive And Predictive Methods, Charles L. Becker

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Climate change poses serious threats to global agriculture, however some localities and crops may benefit from increasing temperatures. Grape production in southern Idaho may be a beneficial example as vineyard acreage has increased over 300% since the designation of the Snake River American Viticultural Area (SRVAVA) in 2007. We perform a statistical characterization of agroclimate within the SRVAVA that centers around four primary objectives: utilization of a novel, 30-year high resolution climate dataset to provide insight and agrometrics unavailable at coarser resolutions, climatic implications of the unique topography within the SRVAVA, identification of statistical trends, and correlation of SRVAVA climate ...


Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Bat Activity In A Southeast Nebraska Agricultural Landscape, Christopher Fill Jul 2020

Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Bat Activity In A Southeast Nebraska Agricultural Landscape, Christopher Fill

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Intensive agriculture is associated with biodiversity loss and species decline. Yet wild species, such as bats, may provide critical ecosystem services to agriculture, even in transformed landscapes. In the United States, bats have been estimated to save the agricultural industry billions of dollars per year. However, white-nose syndrome and habitat loss have led to the decline of many bat species in North America, including the federally threatened northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis.

To better evaluate the effectiveness of these pest-controlling services, and to increase understanding of bat foraging behavior in these extreme landscapes, I deployed 11 grids of 24 detectors ...


Seasonal Variations In Export Of Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Bacteria In Runoff From An Agricultural Watershed In Iowa, Timothy P. Neher, Lanying Ma, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe, Michelle L. Soupir Jun 2020

Seasonal Variations In Export Of Antibiotic Resistance Genes And Bacteria In Runoff From An Agricultural Watershed In Iowa, Timothy P. Neher, Lanying Ma, Thomas B. Moorman, Adina Howe, Michelle L. Soupir

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Seasonal variations of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) indicators in runoff water can help improve our understanding of AMR sources and transport within an agricultural watershed. This study aimed to monitor multiple areas throughout the Black Hawk Lake (BHL) watershed (5324 ha) in central Iowa during 2017 and 2018 that consists of both swine and cattle feeding operations as well as known areas with manure application. The measured indicators included plate counts for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Enterococcus, antibiotic resistant fecal indicator bacteria (ARBs) tylosin resistant Enterococcus, tetracycline resistant Enterococcus, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): ermB, ermF (macrolide), tetA, tetM ...


Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson May 2020

Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The design work performed in this project was conducted over two summers (2018, 2019) of internship experience with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) across the state of Montana. The first summer’s design work was based out of Glendive, MT, in Dawson County, approximately 50 kilometers from the North Dakota border. The second summer was in Missoula, MT, in Missoula County, near the Idaho border. The two areas differ significantly in topography, weather, and water availability with the main separating geographic influence being the Rocky Mountains.

This paper focuses on the design process and requirements for two farms located ...


What’S Going To Happen To My Pancakes? The Impacts Of Climate Change Upon Blueberries And Sugar Maple, Ashley Kayser May 2020

What’S Going To Happen To My Pancakes? The Impacts Of Climate Change Upon Blueberries And Sugar Maple, Ashley Kayser

Honors College

The United Nations believes that the foremost challenge of the future will be climate change. Because of human use of fossil fuels, greenhouse gases have been released into the atmosphere at unsustainable rates, which have resulted in an altered climate that will impact weather patterns around the globe. There have already been measurable shifts in precipitation and temperature in many regions; in the state of Maine the general trend has been toward higher temperatures and increased precipitation. This is resulting in impacts to agriculture throughout the state. Blueberries and sugar maple are two culturally and economically valuable crops which will ...


Strengths And Weaknesses Of National Agricultural Research Systems: Attracting The Next Generation Of Grasslands Researchers, James E. Pratley, Casper W. Roxburgh Apr 2020

Strengths And Weaknesses Of National Agricultural Research Systems: Attracting The Next Generation Of Grasslands Researchers, James E. Pratley, Casper W. Roxburgh

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the 1960s and 1970s the world faced up to the poverty and hunger facing a significant proportion of the global population, which at the time was around 4 billion people. The efforts of Norman Borlaug and the Green Revolution resulted in food production increasing as the technologies and knowledge known at the time were directed to that task. The success of the Green Revolution was such that governments and the world communities turned attention to other issues and agricultural development slid down the list of priorities. The world population is now over 7 billion and projected to be over ...


Comprehensive And Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories For Nebraska And The Midwest As Baselines For Climate Change Mitigation, Eric R. Holley Apr 2020

Comprehensive And Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories For Nebraska And The Midwest As Baselines For Climate Change Mitigation, Eric R. Holley

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Climate change is the paramount challenge of today for a sustainable future. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is necessary to reduce the associated risks and impacts on society. Using the EPA’s SIT and literature review, comprehensive GHG-emissions inventories were developed for the state of Nebraska over 25 years (1990-2015) and agricultural GHG emissions inventories were developed for the Midwest U.S for one year (2016). Nebraska’s net emissions increased from 56.2 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMtCO2e) in 1990 to 87.4 MMtCO2e in 2016. Agriculture was found to be ...


Ecological And Economic Benefits And Risks Of Using Botanical Insecticides In Tanzanian Farms, Lilia Garcia Apr 2020

Ecological And Economic Benefits And Risks Of Using Botanical Insecticides In Tanzanian Farms, Lilia Garcia

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Insect damage is a major concern for smallholder farmers in developing countries like Tanzania. Synthetic insecticides can tame infestations, however they can be expensive, inaccessible, and their misuse can threaten farmer health and ecological conditions. Botanical insecticides are cheap alternatives to treat infestations while preserving beneficial insects such as pollinators, predators, and parasitoids. This study assesses how both synthetic and botanical insecticides affect beneficial insects, crop yield and profit/costs. This study finds botanical insecticides slightly less harmful towards non-target insects. Botanical insecticides seldomly improve crop yields but usually result in a higher profit/lower cost. Due to high variation ...


The North Wyke Farm Platform: Methodologies Used In The Remote Sensing Of The Quantity And Quality Of Drainage Water, Bruce A. Griffith, Jane M. B. Hawkins, Robert J. Orr, Martin S. A. Blackwell, Phil J. Murray Mar 2020

The North Wyke Farm Platform: Methodologies Used In The Remote Sensing Of The Quantity And Quality Of Drainage Water, Bruce A. Griffith, Jane M. B. Hawkins, Robert J. Orr, Martin S. A. Blackwell, Phil J. Murray

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The North Wyke Farm Platform(NWFP) for agri-environmental research in temperate grassland was established in the UK in 2010 (Orr et al. 2011). Here we describe the instrumentation and methodologies used to monitor the quantity and quality of drainage water at a total of 15 H-flumes draining 5 sub-catchments within three farmlets. Each of 15 flume laboratories is supplied with 3 kW of mains power and connected to both fibre optic and UHF (Ultra High Frequency) radio networks for data exchange. The radio data network also provides telemetry for rain gauges and soil temperature/moisture probes located away from the ...


Sowing Uncertainty: What We Do And Don’T Know About The Planting Of Pesticide-Treated Seed, Claudia Hitaj, David J. Smith, Aimee Code, Seth Wechsler, Paul D. Esker, Margaret R. Douglas Mar 2020

Sowing Uncertainty: What We Do And Don’T Know About The Planting Of Pesticide-Treated Seed, Claudia Hitaj, David J. Smith, Aimee Code, Seth Wechsler, Paul D. Esker, Margaret R. Douglas

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Farmers, regulators, and researchers rely on pesticide use data to assess the effects of pesticides on crop yield, farm economics, off-target organisms, and human health. The publicly available pesticide use data in the United States do not currently account for pesticides applied as seed treatments. We find that seed treatment use has increased in major field crops over the last several decades but that there is a high degree of uncertainty about the extent of acreage planted with treated seeds, the amount of regional variability, and the use of certain active ingredients. One reason for this uncertainty is that farmers ...


Risk And Cost Assessment Of Nitrate Contamination In Domestic Wells, Pongpun Juntakut, Erin M.K. Haacker, Daniel D. Snow, Chittaranjan Ray Feb 2020

Risk And Cost Assessment Of Nitrate Contamination In Domestic Wells, Pongpun Juntakut, Erin M.K. Haacker, Daniel D. Snow, Chittaranjan Ray

Daugherty Water for Food Global Institute: Faculty Publications

This study combines empirical predictive and economics models to estimate the cost of remediation for domestic wells exceeding suggested treatment thresholds for nitrates. A multiple logistic regression model predicted the probability of well contamination by nitrate, and a life cycle costing methodology was used to estimate costs of nitrate contamination in groundwater in two areas of Nebraska. In south-central Nebraska, 37% of wells were estimated to be at risk of exceeding a threshold of 7.5 mg/L as N, and 17% were at risk of exceeding 10 mg/L as N, the legal limit for human consumption in the ...


Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta Jan 2020

Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta

Microbiology Educational Materials

This curriculum describes a one-unit course designed to fulfill the University of Massachusetts requirement for Integrative Experience as part of the Gen Ed curriculum for undergraduates.


Projected Impacts Of Climate Change On Risk Of Spring Frost And Fire Blight For Malus Domestica, Paul J. Racco Jan 2020

Projected Impacts Of Climate Change On Risk Of Spring Frost And Fire Blight For Malus Domestica, Paul J. Racco

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The impact of climate change is projected for apple phenology, frost attrition, and fire blight risk under the highest emissions scenario through the 21st century.


Evaluation Of The Relationship Between Land Use And Water Quality In Kittitas County, Wa, Lindsay Schulz Jan 2020

Evaluation Of The Relationship Between Land Use And Water Quality In Kittitas County, Wa, Lindsay Schulz

All Master's Theses

Water in Kittitas County is extremely valuable since it supports farming, recreation, and cultural activities, as well as environmental processes and a diversity of biological life while providing many ecosystem services. However, land conversions required by agricultural and urban land uses can negatively impact water quality and the biological function of the stream. I studied how forested, agricultural, and urban land use affect six streams. Fourteen sites were sampled, once each in July, August, and September 2019. Land use was calculated as a percentage of forested, agricultural, and urban land use within a 100-m buffer of the stream, upstream of ...


The Conservation And Population Ecology Of The Imperiled Crawfish Frog (Lithobates Areolatus) In Human-Altered Landscapes, Chelsea Shannon Kross Jan 2020

The Conservation And Population Ecology Of The Imperiled Crawfish Frog (Lithobates Areolatus) In Human-Altered Landscapes, Chelsea Shannon Kross

Theses and Dissertations

The Crawfish Frog (Lithobates areolatus) is an imperiled amphibian currently experiencing severe declines across its range. As a species with unique habitat requirements that is threatened by habitat loss, understanding their status across the landscape and how they respond to environmental stressors is key to developing effective conservation strategies that maintain and expand viable populations. We used a combination of observational, experimental, and theoretical approaches to understand the status of Crawfish Frog populations in Northwest Arkansas (NWA), their individual and population-level response to human-induced changes in vegetation surrounding breeding wetlands, and the effects of fire management on larval development within ...


Assessing Agricultural Risk Management Using Historic Crop Insurance Loss Data Over The Ogallala Aquifer, Julian Reyes, Emile Elias, Erin M.K. Haacker, Amy Kremen, Lauren Parker, Caitlin Rottler Jan 2020

Assessing Agricultural Risk Management Using Historic Crop Insurance Loss Data Over The Ogallala Aquifer, Julian Reyes, Emile Elias, Erin M.K. Haacker, Amy Kremen, Lauren Parker, Caitlin Rottler

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Much of the agricultural production in the Ogallala Aquifer region relies on groundwater for irrigation. In addition to declining water levels, weather and climate-driven events affect crop yields and revenues. Crop insurance serves as a risk management tool to mitigate these perils. Here, we seek to understand what long-term crop insurance loss data can tell us about agricultural risk management in the Ogallala. We assess patterns and trends in crop insurance loss data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Risk Management Agency. Indemnities, or insurance payments, totaled $22 billion from 1989–2017 for the 161 counties that overlie the ...


Timing And Extent Of Crop Damage By Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa Linnaeus) To Corn And Peanut Fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley Jan 2020

Timing And Extent Of Crop Damage By Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa Linnaeus) To Corn And Peanut Fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The global expansion of wild pigs over the last few decades has resulted in an increase in extent and distribution of damages to crops, placing a growing strain on agricultural producers and land managers. Despite the extent of wild pig damage to agriculture, there is little data regarding timing and spatial variability of damage to corn (Zea mays Linnaeus) and we found no data regarding the effect of these factors on peanuts (Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus). Our objective was to determine the timing and extent of wild pig damage to corn and peanut fields, as well as the extent to which ...