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Articles 1 - 30 of 647

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson May 2020

Irrigation Design In Montana: Accommodating Varying Water Accessibility Across The Continental Divide., John Garrett Lampson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The design work performed in this project was conducted over two summers (2018, 2019) of internship experience with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) across the state of Montana. The first summer’s design work was based out of Glendive, MT, in Dawson County, approximately 50 kilometers from the North Dakota border. The second summer was in Missoula, MT, in Missoula County, near the Idaho border. The two areas differ significantly in topography, weather, and water availability with the main separating geographic influence being the Rocky Mountains.

This paper focuses on the design process and requirements for two farms located ...


Strengths And Weaknesses Of National Agricultural Research Systems: Attracting The Next Generation Of Grasslands Researchers, James E. Pratley, Casper W. Roxburgh Apr 2020

Strengths And Weaknesses Of National Agricultural Research Systems: Attracting The Next Generation Of Grasslands Researchers, James E. Pratley, Casper W. Roxburgh

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the 1960s and 1970s the world faced up to the poverty and hunger facing a significant proportion of the global population, which at the time was around 4 billion people. The efforts of Norman Borlaug and the Green Revolution resulted in food production increasing as the technologies and knowledge known at the time were directed to that task. The success of the Green Revolution was such that governments and the world communities turned attention to other issues and agricultural development slid down the list of priorities. The world population is now over 7 billion and projected to be over ...


Comprehensive And Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories For Nebraska And The Midwest As Baselines For Climate Change Mitigation, Eric R. Holley Apr 2020

Comprehensive And Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories For Nebraska And The Midwest As Baselines For Climate Change Mitigation, Eric R. Holley

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Climate change is the paramount challenge of today for a sustainable future. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is necessary to reduce the associated risks and impacts on society. Using the EPA’s SIT and literature review, comprehensive GHG-emissions inventories were developed for the state of Nebraska over 25 years (1990-2015) and agricultural GHG emissions inventories were developed for the Midwest U.S for one year (2016). Nebraska’s net emissions increased from 56.2 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMtCO2e) in 1990 to 87.4 MMtCO2e in 2016. Agriculture was found to be ...


The North Wyke Farm Platform: Methodologies Used In The Remote Sensing Of The Quantity And Quality Of Drainage Water, Bruce A. Griffith, Jane M. B. Hawkins, Robert J. Orr, Martin S. A. Blackwell, Phil J. Murray Mar 2020

The North Wyke Farm Platform: Methodologies Used In The Remote Sensing Of The Quantity And Quality Of Drainage Water, Bruce A. Griffith, Jane M. B. Hawkins, Robert J. Orr, Martin S. A. Blackwell, Phil J. Murray

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The North Wyke Farm Platform(NWFP) for agri-environmental research in temperate grassland was established in the UK in 2010 (Orr et al. 2011). Here we describe the instrumentation and methodologies used to monitor the quantity and quality of drainage water at a total of 15 H-flumes draining 5 sub-catchments within three farmlets. Each of 15 flume laboratories is supplied with 3 kW of mains power and connected to both fibre optic and UHF (Ultra High Frequency) radio networks for data exchange. The radio data network also provides telemetry for rain gauges and soil temperature/moisture probes located away from the ...


Sowing Uncertainty: What We Do And Don’T Know About The Planting Of Pesticide-Treated Seed, Claudia Hitaj, David J. Smith, Aimee Code, Seth Wechsler, Paul D. Esker, Margaret R. Douglas Mar 2020

Sowing Uncertainty: What We Do And Don’T Know About The Planting Of Pesticide-Treated Seed, Claudia Hitaj, David J. Smith, Aimee Code, Seth Wechsler, Paul D. Esker, Margaret R. Douglas

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Farmers, regulators, and researchers rely on pesticide use data to assess the effects of pesticides on crop yield, farm economics, off-target organisms, and human health. The publicly available pesticide use data in the United States do not currently account for pesticides applied as seed treatments. We find that seed treatment use has increased in major field crops over the last several decades but that there is a high degree of uncertainty about the extent of acreage planted with treated seeds, the amount of regional variability, and the use of certain active ingredients. One reason for this uncertainty is that farmers ...


Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta Jan 2020

Integrative Experience: Soil Microbes And The Sustainability Of Organic Agriculture, Kristen Deangelis, Luiz Domeignoz Horta

Microbiology Educational Materials

This curriculum describes a one-unit course designed to fulfill the University of Massachusetts requirement for Integrative Experience as part of the Gen Ed curriculum for undergraduates.


Projected Impacts Of Climate Change On Risk Of Spring Frost And Fire Blight For Malus Domestica, Paul J. Racco Jan 2020

Projected Impacts Of Climate Change On Risk Of Spring Frost And Fire Blight For Malus Domestica, Paul J. Racco

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The impact of climate change is projected for apple phenology, frost attrition, and fire blight risk under the highest emissions scenario through the 21st century.


An Investigation Into Morocco's Water Crisis, Elliese Wright Jan 2020

An Investigation Into Morocco's Water Crisis, Elliese Wright

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

For my honors senior project, I will attempt to answer the following questions: 1) What are some of the primary causes of water shortages in rural Morocco (primarily focusing on the south eastern area of Morocco). 2)What are the ways governments and NGO’s are trying to fix the problem? 3) How are rural communities affected by water shortages?

To answer this question, I am going to use a combination of field work, such as visiting, observing, and talking to people in the rural villages when possible, contacting people who are currently working on NGO projects or people who ...


Developing An Odonate-Based Index For Monitoring Freshwater Ecosystems In Rwanda: Towards Linking Policy To Practice Through Integrated And Adaptive Management, Erasme Uyizeye Jan 2020

Developing An Odonate-Based Index For Monitoring Freshwater Ecosystems In Rwanda: Towards Linking Policy To Practice Through Integrated And Adaptive Management, Erasme Uyizeye

Dissertations & Theses

Worldwide, the decline of biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems is occurring at an alarming rate, due to anthropogenic threats, which directly impact humans in a variety of ways. Freshwater ecosystems occupy an integral part of political, socio-economic and ecological spheres. Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) and Adaptive Management (AM) conceptual frameworks provide an underpinning holistic platform from which to evaluate the performance of policies and actions on the ground in relation to freshwater ecosystem management. I investigate the extent to which environmental policies and practices embrace IWM and AM frameworks in Rwanda. Furthermore, this dissertation develops an odonate-based ecological monitoring tool, referred ...


An Analysis Of The Success Of Farmers Markets In Kentucky Using Logistic Regression And Support Vector Machines, Jeron Russell Jan 2020

An Analysis Of The Success Of Farmers Markets In Kentucky Using Logistic Regression And Support Vector Machines, Jeron Russell

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The purpose of this research is to look at the relationship that market-specific, economic, and demographic variables have with the success of farmers markets in Kentucky. It additionally seeks to build a tool for predicting farmers market success that could be used by policy makers to aid in decision-making processes concerning farmers markets. Logistic regression and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are used on data acquired from the Kentucky Department of Agriculture and the American Community Survey in order to analyze the data in a traditional statistical approach as well as a machine learning approach. The results included an SVM model ...


Timing And Extent Of Crop Damage By Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa Linnaeus) To Corn And Peanut Fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley Jan 2020

Timing And Extent Of Crop Damage By Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa Linnaeus) To Corn And Peanut Fields, C. M. Boyce, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The global expansion of wild pigs over the last few decades has resulted in an increase in extent and distribution of damages to crops, placing a growing strain on agricultural producers and land managers. Despite the extent of wild pig damage to agriculture, there is little data regarding timing and spatial variability of damage to corn (Zea mays Linnaeus) and we found no data regarding the effect of these factors on peanuts (Arachis hypogaea Linnaeus). Our objective was to determine the timing and extent of wild pig damage to corn and peanut fields, as well as the extent to which ...


Feeding The World In 2050: Trade-Offs, Synergies And Tough Choices For The Livestock Sector, Jimmy Smith, Shirley Tarawali, Delia Grace, Keith Sones Nov 2019

Feeding The World In 2050: Trade-Offs, Synergies And Tough Choices For The Livestock Sector, Jimmy Smith, Shirley Tarawali, Delia Grace, Keith Sones

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Feeding the World in 2050 is a major challenge at the forefront of the global development agenda. The importance of agriculture in addressing this challenge has re-emerged in recent years as food security issues are considered in a more holistic manner. The role of livestock as part of the solution is, however, often not considered. This article presents a brief overview of the global food security challenge, and considers the increased focus on holistic food systems. It contends that animal agriculture is relevant to this complex, multifaceted and dynamic global challenge. However, if livestock-based solutions are to become a reality ...


Campus-Based Agriculture: The Future Of Food At Gettysburg College, Bryn K. Werley Oct 2019

Campus-Based Agriculture: The Future Of Food At Gettysburg College, Bryn K. Werley

Student Publications

This research investigates various methods for producing food on the campus of Gettysburg College in order to improve food sustainability. The transportation of food contributes to the increased use of fossil fuels, which in turn leads to global warming and climate change. By producing a larger portion of its food on-campus, Gettysburg College could reduce the amount of food transported to the school, thereby lessening the College’s environmental impact. Urban farming techniques, hydroponics, aquaponics, and greenhouse-based agriculture are explored as viable methods for achieving this goal. Examples of the use of these techniques on college campuses are drawn from ...


Sustainability Of Industrialized Agriculture, Fall/Winter 2002, Issue 5 Sep 2019

Sustainability Of Industrialized Agriculture, Fall/Winter 2002, Issue 5

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Local Foods, Fall/Winter 2013, Issue 27 Sep 2019

Local Foods, Fall/Winter 2013, Issue 27

Sustain Magazine

No abstract provided.


Drought Impacts Assessment In Brazil - A Remote Sensing Approach, Denis Mariano Aug 2019

Drought Impacts Assessment In Brazil - A Remote Sensing Approach, Denis Mariano

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Climate extremes are becoming more frequent in Brazil; studies project an increase in drought occurrences in many regions of the country. In the south, drought events lead to crop yield losses affecting the value chain and, therefore, the local economy. In the northeast, extended periods of drought lead to potential land degradation, affecting the livelihood and hindering local development. In the southern Amazon, an area that experienced intense land use change (LUC) in the last, the impacts are even more complex, ranging from crop yield loss and forest resilience loss, affecting ecosystem health and putting a threat on the native ...


The Influence Of Objective And Perceived Adaptive Capacity On Midwestern Farmers’ Use Of Cover Crops, Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jul 2019

The Influence Of Objective And Perceived Adaptive Capacity On Midwestern Farmers’ Use Of Cover Crops, Maaz Gardezi, J. Gordon Arbuckle

Sociology Publications

Cover crops are grown between periods of regular crop production or planted into crops with the primary purpose of protecting and improving soil health. These crops possess several resilience-enhancing properties that are well suited to help farmers adapt to climate change. Through an “adaptive capacities framework,” we examine how farmers’ adaptive capacities—contextualized within institutional and environmental conditions—can influence their decision to use cover crops. We use generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) to examine the relative importance of (i) “internal” variables—farmers’ perceived capacity to act; (ii) “external” or “objective” resources—assets and entitlements; and (iii) contextual variables—the ...


Determination Of Tobacco Alkaloid Enantiomers Using Reversed Phase Uplc/Ms/Ms, Huihua Ji, Ying Wu, Franklin Fannin, Lowell P. Bush May 2019

Determination Of Tobacco Alkaloid Enantiomers Using Reversed Phase Uplc/Ms/Ms, Huihua Ji, Ying Wu, Franklin Fannin, Lowell P. Bush

Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center Faculty Publications

Nʹ-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a carcinogenic tobacco-specific Nʹ-nitrosamine (TSNA), is on the FDA list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). Nornicotine, a product of the demethylation of nicotine, is the immediate alkaloid precursor for NNN formation. Nicotine, nornicotine and NNN are optically active. The accumulation of the isomers of nicotine, nornicotine, and NNN impacts their biological activity. In this paper, we report the determination of tobacco alkaloid enantiomers (including nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine) in samples of different tobacco lines using a reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC/MS/MS) method. Current method demonstates excellent detection capability for all ...


Green Energy At Any Cost: How Ethanol Producer Magazine Uses Science To Frame Ethanol Production, Ashley Kappers May 2019

Green Energy At Any Cost: How Ethanol Producer Magazine Uses Science To Frame Ethanol Production, Ashley Kappers

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis investigates the use of science by media to shape discussions about policy in society. Specifically, it investigates how one influential trade publication, Ethanol Producer Magazine, used science in its construction of pro-ethanol production stories. This study is a multi-method analysis of Ethanol Producer Magazine’s feature articles. To determine how sources and writers use science to frame ethanol production during policy changes in the industry, 36 feature stories from four issues in 2009 and 2010 of Ethanol Producer Magazine were analyzed. The results of this study found that Ethanol Producer Magazine is a publication that presents one side ...


Overcoming Disruptions Of Human Adjustment Processes To Ecological Shifts In Revolutionary Burkina Faso 1983-1987: The Inter-Relationship Between Externally Imposed Migration, Coordination Of Ngo Activities, And The Process Of Ecological Renewal Through Land Reform, Robert William Penner May 2019

Overcoming Disruptions Of Human Adjustment Processes To Ecological Shifts In Revolutionary Burkina Faso 1983-1987: The Inter-Relationship Between Externally Imposed Migration, Coordination Of Ngo Activities, And The Process Of Ecological Renewal Through Land Reform, Robert William Penner

Theses and Dissertations

This paper will explore the Burkinabé revolution and the governmental structure which formed out if it, as an ideological entity with some governing capabilities but not simply a political body as it did not possess the capacities at any time to fully govern the country in terms of the implementation of intended social and economic programs. However, these programs were extremely widespread encompassed swaths of rural society in ways that it had not since the Mossi Empire became centralized and rose to regional prominence in the 18th century. The ideological identity of the revolution in Burkina Faso was not a ...


Utilization Of Remote Sensing Data For Estimation Of The Groundwater Storage Variation, Gaurang Mistry May 2019

Utilization Of Remote Sensing Data For Estimation Of The Groundwater Storage Variation, Gaurang Mistry

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Groundwater is the most extracted raw material, with an average withdrawal rate of 982 km3 per year, where 70 percent of the total groundwater withdrawn is used for agriculture globally (Margat & van der Gun, 2013). With climate change and increased water demands in recent years, monitoring the changes in the groundwater storage is of the utmost importance. This thesis presents an analysis that determines the rates, trends, and directions where groundwater storage is going in Pakistan. It also correlates fluctuations in groundwater storage with variations in precipitation and agricultural productivity in the country. The overall objectives of this thesis are ...


Adjudication And The Adaptive Capacity Of Pecan Farmers In The Lower Rio Grande, Daniel R. Beene Apr 2019

Adjudication And The Adaptive Capacity Of Pecan Farmers In The Lower Rio Grande, Daniel R. Beene

Geography ETDs

Despite growing uncertainty of water availability in the future and popular understandings of water conservation in agriculture, a growing number of farmers in the Lower Rio Grande Basin are rapidly transitioning to pecan orchards, a long-term and highly water-dependent crop. Drivers of landscape change can be environmental, historic, socioeconomic, or institutional. Adaptation to change is understood as responses to external stimuli and is limited to a threshold by which an actor can meet their goals. Much of the current scholarship focuses on a given population’s adaptive capacity toward global climate change, however, most water policy in the western United ...


Fielding Sustainability: The Potential For Compost Extract As An Amendment On Athletic Turfgrass, Lacy M. Adams Apr 2019

Fielding Sustainability: The Potential For Compost Extract As An Amendment On Athletic Turfgrass, Lacy M. Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Sustainability and green initiatives are being pushed across the country and the globe, but athletics are not seeing the same pressures as intensely. Golf courses are largely the only athletic arena that have received pressure and are beginning to implement more sustainable management practices. Agriculture is also making strides to use less chemicals through organic farming and improve soil health with cover crops. Meanwhile, the rest of the athletic world continues to contribute to soil compaction, chemical maintenance, and runoff all of which affect the quality of the local environment. The strides to improve athletics’ sustainability record can be seen ...


Nitrate Concentrations In Streams As A Function Of Crop Cover In Midwestern Agricultural Watersheds: Assessing The Role Of Corn And Soybeans, Jacob Tyler Piske Mar 2019

Nitrate Concentrations In Streams As A Function Of Crop Cover In Midwestern Agricultural Watersheds: Assessing The Role Of Corn And Soybeans, Jacob Tyler Piske

Theses and Dissertations

Increased availability and reduced cost of synthetic-nitrogen fertilizers have led to excess nitrogen being deposited in reservoirs. The accumulation of nitrogen (N) in reservoirs has negative effects, generating algal blooms, hypoxic zones, and poor drinking water quality. Corn and soybean utilize nitrogen at different rates, resulting in higher nitrogen fertilizer application to fields for corn than for soybean. This work examines whether the nitrate concentration in a stream may be correlated to the percentage of land devoted to growing corn or soybeans in the watershed. To investigate potential relationships, discharge (Q) and nitrate concentration data from ten USGS gauging stations ...


2017 - Monterey County Crop Report Feb 2019

2017 - Monterey County Crop Report

Monterey County Crop Reports

2017 annual report pertaining to agriculture in Monterey County, California.


Solute Fluxes Through Restored Prairie And Intensively Managed Critical Zones In Nebraska And Iowa, Ashlee L. Dere, Andrew W. Miller, Amy M. Hemje, Sara K. Parcher, Courtney A. Capalli, E. Arthur Bettis Iii Feb 2019

Solute Fluxes Through Restored Prairie And Intensively Managed Critical Zones In Nebraska And Iowa, Ashlee L. Dere, Andrew W. Miller, Amy M. Hemje, Sara K. Parcher, Courtney A. Capalli, E. Arthur Bettis Iii

Geography and Geology Faculty Publications

Agricultural activities in the Midwestern United States have potentially altered geochemical fluxes within the critical zone (CZ) compared to native prairie systems that previously dominated the region. To quantify the impact of agricultural land use on soil and stream solute behavior, we are studying two watersheds in the region: Glacier Creek Preserve (GCP) in eastern Nebraska and the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IML-CZO) in eastern Iowa. Both watersheds were initially under agricultural land use for over 100 years, but part of each watershed was restored to prairie 20 – 50 years ago. Soils at both sites formed in thick ...


1890 - Report On Irrigation In The United States, Second Edition, Richard J. Hinton Jan 2019

1890 - Report On Irrigation In The United States, Second Edition, Richard J. Hinton

Miscellaneous Federal Documents & Reports

The report to the United States Senate Special Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation of Arid Lands was an inquiry into the progress and condition of irrigation involving the extent and character of the area within which the annual rain fall was not sufficient for industrial uses of the people. The inquiry involved the extent of the fall of rains or snow within an area, any evidence as to increase or decrease of precipitation resulting from agricultural settlement or of pastoral occupation, the increase of humidity, the destruction of the timber mainly by its use for settlement purposes, the effect of ...


1901 - Soil Survey Of The Lower Salinas Valley California, Macy H. Lapham And W. H. Heileman Jan 2019

1901 - Soil Survey Of The Lower Salinas Valley California, Macy H. Lapham And W. H. Heileman

Miscellaneous Monterey and San Luis Obispo County Documents and Reports

Prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils, this report addresses the conditions found in the Lower Salinas Valley of Monterey County, California in 1901, including the development of agriculture, climate, geology, soil types, cultivation, irrigation. groundwater, and alkali found in the soil.


1901 - Soil Survey Of The Lower Salinas Valley California, Macy H. Lapham And W. H. Heileman Jan 2019

1901 - Soil Survey Of The Lower Salinas Valley California, Macy H. Lapham And W. H. Heileman

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

Prepared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils, this report addresses the conditions found in the Lower Salinas Valley of Monterey County, California in 1901, including the development of agriculture, climate, geology, soil types, cultivation, irrigation. groundwater, and alkali found in the soil.


1994 - Agriculture, Water And California's Drought Of 1987-92, Kenneth W. Umbach.Pdf Jan 2019

1994 - Agriculture, Water And California's Drought Of 1987-92, Kenneth W. Umbach.Pdf

Miscellaneous Documents and Reports

The purpose of this paper was to summarize the 1987-1992 drought in the context of agriculture and water in California, to examine the types of response that farmers and institutions could and did use, and to draw lessons from that experience. California would be challenged as it grappled with population growth and environmental concerns. In view of the demand on water supplies made by California's agricultural sector (77 to 80 percent of the "developed" water used in the state, it was especially important to review those responses.