Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons™

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Dec 2019

Constraints On Parton Distribution Functions Imposed By Hadronic Experiments, Boting Wang

Physics Theses and Dissertations

The theoretical uncertainties of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) observables are decreasing with the increasing statistics of the LHC experiments, and it is becoming more and more important to reduce the uncertainties in the knowledge of the nucleon structure. The latest LHC high-energy experiments, future experimental proposals, and computational tools are expected to enhance the knowledge of the nucleon structure. However, the global analysis that assesses their impact on Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) knowledge is computationally expensive due to the corresponding large size of data. I developed a new approach that can make a quick preliminary evaluation to help the ...

Anomalous Stranski-Krastanov Growth Of (111)-Oriented Quantum Dots With Tunable Wetting Layer Thickness, Christopher F. Schuck, Simon K. Roy, Trent Garrett, Paul J. Simmonds Dec 2019

Anomalous Stranski-Krastanov Growth Of (111)-Oriented Quantum Dots With Tunable Wetting Layer Thickness, Christopher F. Schuck, Simon K. Roy, Trent Garrett, Paul J. Simmonds

Materials Science and Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Driven by tensile strain, GaAs quantum dots (QDs) self-assemble on In0.52Al0.48As(111)A surfaces lattice-matched to InP substrates. In this study, we show that the tensile-strained self-assembly process for these GaAs(111)A QDs unexpectedly deviates from the well-known Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode. Traditionally, QDs formed via the SK growth mode form on top of a flat wetting layer (WL) whose thickness is fixed. The inability to tune WL thickness has inhibited researchers’ attempts to fully control QD-WL interactions in these hybrid 0D-2D quantum systems. In contrast, using microscopy, spectroscopy, and computational modeling, we ...

Properties Of New York/New Jersey Harbor Sediments, K. W. Jones, Huan Feng, E. A. Stren, U. Neuhäusler, J. Osán, N. Marinkovic, Z. Song Nov 2019

Properties Of New York/New Jersey Harbor Sediments, K. W. Jones, Huan Feng, E. A. Stren, U. Neuhäusler, J. Osán, N. Marinkovic, Z. Song

Huan Feng

Sediments found in waterways around the world may contain toxic compounds of anthropogeilic origin that can harm the environment and human health. As a result, it is often necessary to remove them and find disposal methods that are environmentally and economically acceptable. Here, we report on results obtained in an experimental program to characterize the nature of the sediment contamination. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the properties of the sediments to develop better methods for understanding the fate and transport of the contaminants and for improving methods for their removal from the sediments. Our investigations made ...

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.

Preparing A Database Of Extremely High Velocity Outflows In Quasars, Griffin Kowash, Carla P. Quintero, Sean S. Haas, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo Sep 2019

Preparing A Database Of Extremely High Velocity Outflows In Quasars, Griffin Kowash, Carla P. Quintero, Sean S. Haas, Paola Rodriguez Hidalgo

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Humboldt State University

No abstract provided.

Ucna/Ucna+, Robert Pattie Aug 2019

Ucna/Ucna+, Robert Pattie

Robert W. Pattie Jr.

The neutron provides a simple yet dynamic nuclear system to study the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The process of transforming a neutron into a proton, an electron, and an anti-neutrino contains a wealth of information in the decay rate and the kinematics of the emitted particles. Precision measurements of angular correlations in neutron β-decay can lend insight to the structure of the weak interaction and probe for physics beyond the Standard Model. The UCNA experiment at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is the only experiment to use ultracold neutrons to perform such a measurement, determining the β-asymmetry parameter ...

A Search For Boosted Low Mass Resonances Decaying To The Bb̅ Final State And Produced In Association With A Jet At √S = 13 Tev With The Atlas Detector, Matthew Feickert

Physics Theses and Dissertations

A search in the high momentum regime for new resonances, produced in association with a jet, decaying into a pair of bottom quarks is presented using an integrated luminosity of 80.5 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy √s = 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The search was performed for low mass resonances, including the Standard Model Higgs boson and leptophobic Z' dark matter mediators, in the mass range of 100 GeV to 200 GeV. For the Standard Model Higgs boson, the observed signal strength is μH = 5.8 ± 3.1 (stat ...

Massive Elementary Particles In The Standard Model And Its Supersymmetric Triplet Higgs Extension, Keping Xie

Physics Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, we focus on massive elementary particles in the Standard Model and its supersymmetric triplet Higgs extension.

In the first part, we start with a review of electroweak (EW) sector in the Standard Model. Motivated by nonzero neutrino masses, we consider triplet scalars in addition to the Standard Model. The vacuum expectation values of scalar triplets are strongly constrained by the $\rho$ parameter, extracted from electroweak precision measurements. Therefore, we introduce a custodial symmetry to weaken this constraint and obtain the well-known Georgi-Machacek (GM) Model. The GM model still requires fine-tuning to satisfy the $\rho$ parameter constraint. It ...

Single-Neutron States In Titanium Isotopes, Jessica Nebel-Crosson Jul 2019

Single-Neutron States In Titanium Isotopes, Jessica Nebel-Crosson

Physics and Astronomy Summer Fellows

Current theory regarding the collective behavior of exotic nuclei systematically over-predicts the probabilities of exciting those collective states. The theory lacks any adjustable parameters, however, the model inputs are characteristics of single particle states which we are attempting to verify through neutron transfer into a 50Ti target.

Principles Of Physics Ii (Ga Southern), William Baird, Jeffery Secrest Jul 2019

Principles Of Physics Ii (Ga Southern), William Baird, Jeffery Secrest

Physics and Astronomy Grants Collections

This Grants Collection for Principles of Physics II was created under a Round Twelve ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.

Affordable Learning Georgia Grants Collections are intended to provide faculty with the frameworks to quickly implement or revise the same materials as a Textbook Transformation Grants team, along with the aims and lessons learned from project teams during the implementation process.

Documents are in .pdf format, with a separate .docx (Word) version available for download. Each collection contains the following materials:

• Initial Proposal
• Final Report

Arduino Lab Assignments For Principles Of Physics Ii, William Baird, Jeffery Secrest Jul 2019

Arduino Lab Assignments For Principles Of Physics Ii, William Baird, Jeffery Secrest

Physics and Astronomy Ancillary Materials

This set of two Arduino assignments for Principles of Physics II includes an introductory assignment in exploring the Arduino's capabilities, followed by a lab assignment on data collection using the Arduino. These assignments were created as part of a Round Twelve Textbook Transformation Grant for Principles of Physics II.

Improving 3d Printed Prosthetics With Sensors And Motors, Rachel Zarin Jul 2019

Improving 3d Printed Prosthetics With Sensors And Motors, Rachel Zarin

Honors Projects

A 3D printed hand and arm prosthetic was created from the idea of adding bionic elements while keeping the cost low. It was designed based on existing models, desired functions, and materials available. A tilt sensor keeps the hand level, two motors move the wrist in two different directions, a limit switch signals the fingers to open and close, and another motor helps open and close the fingers. All sensors and motors were built on a circuit board, programmed using an Arduino, and powered by a battery. Other supporting materials include metal brackets, screws, guitar strings, elastic bands, small clamps ...

A Brief Review Of Modern Uses Of Scattering Techniques, Daniel M. Wade, Dereth J. Drake Jun 2019

A Brief Review Of Modern Uses Of Scattering Techniques, Daniel M. Wade, Dereth J. Drake

Georgia Journal of Science

Thomson, Rayleigh, Mie, and Raman scattering are commonly used in several disciplines in science and engineering. The techniques involve the scattering of electromagnetic radiation or particles in a sample. This paper provides a brief history for each scattering method, describes the traditional laboratory approach for implementation, and discusses current uses and variations of these four techniques.

Kinematics And Dynamics Of Lead Climbing, Arik B. Espineli May 2019

Kinematics And Dynamics Of Lead Climbing, Arik B. Espineli

Honors Projects

The goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of the kinematics and dynamics involved with lead climbing. Digital accelerometers, load sensors, and slow motion cameras were used to conduct both small and large scale testing of different factors of that might effect a climber and belayer during lead climbing. Rope elasticity and belayer movement were the two factors that were looked at for this research. Small scale testing was done using rigid masses, cords with different levels of elasticity, and a pulley system to simulate anchor points. From the small scale testing it was found that a ...

Resources For Interdisciplinary Understanding Of Energy, Alessandra Hughes, Jessica Trottier May 2019

Resources For Interdisciplinary Understanding Of Energy, Alessandra Hughes, Jessica Trottier

Scholars Week

In most undergraduate curricula, students are expected to have the ability to apply, or transfer, a learned concept to new coursework. In the sciences, students are often introduced to energy ideas with discipline-specific vocabulary and tasks which encourage compartmentalized, surface-level understandings of energy concepts. Our research investigates student transfer of energy ideas within a coherent science course series, where physics is the foundational course. Similar modeling tools and vocabulary are used in the classes to help students see energy as a unifying framework. We seek to identify and describe what transfer “looks like” in this idealized context by interviewing students ...

May 2019

Quantifying Complex Systems Via Computational Fly Swarms, Troy Taylor

Senior Theses

Complexity is prevalent both in natural and in human-made systems, yet is not well understood quantitatively. Qualitatively, complexity describes a phenomena in which a system composed of individual pieces, each having simple interactions with one another, results in interesting bulk properties that would otherwise not exist. One example of a complex biological system is the bird flock, in particular, a starling murmuration. Starlings are known to move in the direction of their neighbors and avoid collisions with fellow starlings, but as a result of these simple movement choices, the flock as a whole tends to exhibit fluid-like movements and form ...

May 2019

New Methodologies For Examining And Supporting Student Reasoning In Physics, John C. Speirs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Learning how to reason productively is an essential goal of an undergraduate education in any STEM-related discipline. Many non-physics STEM majors are required to take introductory physics as part of their undergraduate programs. While certain physics concepts and principles may be of use to these students in their future academic careers and beyond, many will not. Rather, it is often expected that the most valuable and longlasting learning outcomes from a physics course will be a repertoire of problem-solving strategies, a familiarity with mathematizing real-world situations, and the development of a strong set of qualitative inferential reasoning skills.

For more ...

Exploring The Electrical Properties Of Twisted Bilayer Graphene, William Shannon May 2019

Exploring The Electrical Properties Of Twisted Bilayer Graphene, William Shannon

Senior Theses

Two-dimensional materials exhibit properties unlike anything else seen in conventional substances. Electrons in these materials are confined to move only in the plane. In order to explore the effects of these materials, we have built apparatus and refined procedures with which to create two-dimensional structures. Two-dimensional devices have been made using exfoliated graphene and placed on gold contacts. Their topography has been observed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) confirming samples with monolayer, bilayer, and twisted bilayer structure. Relative work functions of each have been measured using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) showing that twisted bilayer graphene has a surface potential ...

May 2019

Manufacturing And Testing The Permanent Magnet Linear Motor, Renjie Kang

Senior Theses

Controlled mechanical motion is vital in many useful applications in technology. Among them, linear motors have advantages over traditional rotating motors. In this work, we built a permanent magnet linear motor to test and measure its energy efficiency. A maximum 29% total energy efficiency, and 67% energy transfer rate, were detected. In addition, a C-shape support structure was added to the moving part in order to increase the moving accuracy. The tests show that, with the support structure, the fluctuation in the vertical direction decreases significantly, but the friction of the system slightly increases.

Transferring Power Through A Magnetic Couple, Nickolas Cruz Villalobos Jr. May 2019

Transferring Power Through A Magnetic Couple, Nickolas Cruz Villalobos Jr.

Senior Theses

Properties of several working magnetic coupled rotors have been measured and their performance compared to theoretical models. Axial magnetic couplers allow rotors to work within harsh environments, without the need for seals, proper alignment, or overload protection on a motor. The influence of geometrical parameters, such as distance from the center of the rotors, polarity arrangement, and the number of dipole pairs were experimentally tested. These results can be used to improve rotor designs, to increase strength and efficiency.

Adding Student Video Projects To Physics Courses, David Abbott, Andrew Roberts, Dan L. Macisaac, Kathleen Falconer, Florian Genz, Stefan Hoffmann, Andre Bresges, Jeremias Weber Apr 2019

Adding Student Video Projects To Physics Courses, David Abbott, Andrew Roberts, Dan L. Macisaac, Kathleen Falconer, Florian Genz, Stefan Hoffmann, Andre Bresges, Jeremias Weber

Videos for Physics Teaching

Physics students have traditionally prepared many kinds of reports—laboratory, activity, project, and even book or article reports. Smartphones and YouTube videos are familiar cultural objects to current students, and our students use smartphone cameras to include photographs of apparatus, phenomena, hand-sketched figures, graphs, and mathematical equations in their physics reports. Here we present basic techniques for physics students to use smartphones and tablets to create short (< 5 min) end-of-semester video projects. Our students mainly use Apple Computer’s iPad1 tablets, but also other tablets and various smartphones. Finally we discuss appropriate instructor expectations and grading. Similar non-physics student video reporting efforts were reported using video cameras by Kearney,2 and Hechter and Guy.3

Physics 4900, David Maughan Apr 2019

Physics 4900, David Maughan

Physics Capstone Projects

More than a century has passed since Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity. The theory has been tested many times experimentally, primarily in the relatively weak gravitational fields of the solar system [1,2]. More recently the first experimental results from the strong gravitational fields of two black holes have been measured in the form of gravitational waves, which are another prediction of general relativity. The 2017 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss, and Barry Barish for their role in the detection of gravitational waves. This year we have seen the first image ...

Specification-Based Grading Resources For Openstax College Physics (Ggc), Edward Forringer Apr 2019

Specification-Based Grading Resources For Openstax College Physics (Ggc), Edward Forringer

Physics and Astronomy Ancillary Materials

This collection of ancillary materials for Introductory Biology was created under a Round Eleven Mini-Grant for Ancillary Materials Creation and Revision. Included are the following resources to assist a faculty member in implementing specification grading in an introductory physics course using OpenStax College Physics:

• Specification Documents
• Quizzes
• Practice Final Exam

Author's Description:

"Rather than grading each assignment with partial credit and then taking a weighted average of your assignments to find a grade, this course uses a set of course expectations called “specifications” (spec for short). Each spec has an associated quiz. Some specifications are designated ...

The Hottest Color For The Fastest Ride: A Problem-Based Unit Of Instruction For The Elementary And Middle School Science Classroom, Madison Wells

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

There is a major gap in the availability of Next Generation Science Standard focused curriculum that effectively utilizes technology to solve real-world problems in an authentic way. “The Hottest Color for the Fastest Ride” will allow students to participate in the real-world application of reflection absorption of light and heat due to color through designing, building, and testing two dual-tone corvettes. This three-day unit of physics instruction designed for fourth- and fifth- grade science classrooms will be tied to a grand challenge that tasks the students with designing a dual-tone car that will stay cool during Kentucky’s hot summer ...

Ordered Growth Of Ferroelectric Diisopropylammonium-Bromide Microcrystals Through Slotted-Jar Growth And Lithographically Controlled Wetting, Andrew J. Fanning

Organic molecular ferroelectrics show promise for industry applications because of their switchable high spontaneous polarization value, mechanical flexibility, and cost-effectiveness. Since these materials, namely diisopropylammonium bromide, exhibit ferroelectricity only in tandem with a high level of crystallinity, novel methods must be explored in order to ensure that high levels of crystallinity are achieved. This project seeked to perfect the methods of Slotted Jar Growth and Lithographically Controlled Wetting (LCW). Slotted Jar Growth uses temperature driven solution saturation to grow crystals on a desired substrate. LCW drives the growth of microscopic diisopropylammonium bromide crystals, in their ferroelectric phase, through the use ...

Jan 2019

Efficient Numerical Methods For Chemotaxis And Plasma Modulation Instability Studies, Truong B. Nguyen

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, we develop efficient numerical solvers for nonlinear systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). These systems of PDEs concern two different sets of physical problems. The first set includes chemotaxis models such as Keller-Segel models and cancer cell invasion models. Solutions of these models are observed to experience the blow-up phenomenon or the development of sharp and spiky features. Therefore, efficient and accurate numerical techniques must be employed in order to capture the solutions' behaviors. For this research, we design efficient solvers for these systems in the one and two spatial dimensions. In particular, we plan to apply ...

Identified Flying Objects: A Multidisciplinary Scientific Approach To The Ufo Phenomenon, Dr. Michael P. Masters Jan 2019

Identified Flying Objects: A Multidisciplinary Scientific Approach To The Ufo Phenomenon, Dr. Michael P. Masters

Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences Books

Identified Flying Objects cautiously examines the premise that ‘UFOs’ & ‘Aliens’ are simply our distant human descendants, returning from the future to study their own hominin evolutionary past. This text challenges readers to consider new possibilities while cultivating conversations about our ever-evolving understanding of time & time travel.

Development Of Nonlocal Green-Kubo Formalism With Applications To Coupled Heat And Mass Transport, Kevin Fernando

Nonlocal equations for coupled heat and mass transport are developed within the Green-Kubo formalism. Nonlocal thermal transport in Lennard-Jones solids is computed to establish the existence of semi-ballistic transport. Deviations from the diffusive theory are shown by comparing the Fourier transform of the response function from the nonlocal theory to that of the diffusive one. It is shown that the deviations from the local theory correspond to acoustic phonons, whose frequency dependence gives rise to the observed deviations from the local theory.

Jan 2019

Quartic Metamaterials: The Inverse Method, Perturbations, And Bulk Optical Neutrality, Thomas Mulkey

University Honors Program Theses

A primary goal of photonics is designing material structures that support predetermined electromagnetic field distributions. We have developed an inverse method to determine material parameters for a quartic metamaterial from six desired plane waves. This work inspired us to study how perturbations to the parameters can result in optical neutrality.

Jan 2019

Practical Chaos: Using Dynamical Systems To Encrypt Audio And Visual Data, Julia Ruiter

Scripps Senior Theses

Although dynamical systems have a multitude of classical uses in physics and applied mathematics, new research in theoretical computer science shows that dynamical systems can also be used as a highly secure method of encrypting data. Properties of Lorenz and similar systems of equations yield chaotic outputs that are good at masking the underlying data both physically and mathematically. This paper aims to show how Lorenz systems may be used to encrypt text and image data, as well as provide a framework for how physical mechanisms may be built using these properties to transmit encrypted wave signals.