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2019

Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 608

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Diel Temperature And Ph Variability Scale With Depth Across Diverse Coral Reef Habitats, Tyler Cyronak, Yuichiro Takeshita, Travis A. Courtney, Eric H. Decarlo, Bradley D. Eyre, David I. Kline, Todd R. Martz, Heather Page, Nichole Price, Jennifer Smith, Laura Stoltenberg, Martin Tresguerres, Andreas J. Andersson Dec 2019

Diel Temperature And Ph Variability Scale With Depth Across Diverse Coral Reef Habitats, Tyler Cyronak, Yuichiro Takeshita, Travis A. Courtney, Eric H. Decarlo, Bradley D. Eyre, David I. Kline, Todd R. Martz, Heather Page, Nichole Price, Jennifer Smith, Laura Stoltenberg, Martin Tresguerres, Andreas J. Andersson

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Coral reefs are facing intensifying stressors, largely due to global increases in seawater temperature and decreases in pH. However, there is extensive environmental variability within coral reef ecosystems, which can impact how organisms respond to global trends. We deployed spatial arrays of autonomous sensors across distinct shallow coral reef habitats to determine patterns of spatiotemporal variability in seawater physicochemical parameters. Temperature and pH were positively correlated over the course of a day due to solar heating and light‐driven metabolism. The mean temporal and spatial ranges of temperature and pH were positively correlated across all sites, with different regimes of ...


Estimating Carbon Flux From Optically Recording Total Particle Volume At Depths Below The Primary Pycnocline, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Robert B. Dunbar, Dennis A. Hansell, Gerhard J. Herndl Dec 2019

Estimating Carbon Flux From Optically Recording Total Particle Volume At Depths Below The Primary Pycnocline, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Robert B. Dunbar, Dennis A. Hansell, Gerhard J. Herndl

OEAS Faculty Publications

Optical instruments can rapidly determine numbers and characteristics of water column particles with high sensitivity. Here we show the usefulness of optically assessed total particle volume below the main pycnocline to estimate carbon export in two systems: the open subarctic North Atlantic and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Both regions exhibit seasonally high phytoplankton production and efficient export (i.e., a strong biological pump). Total particle volumes in the mesopelagic (200-300 m) were significantly correlated with those in the overlying surface mixed layer (50-60 m), indicating that most particles at depth reflect export from the surface. This connectivity, however, is modulated ...


Beavers Alter Stream Macroinvertebrate Communities In Northeastern Utah, Susan E. Washko, Brett Roper, Trisha B. Atwood Dec 2019

Beavers Alter Stream Macroinvertebrate Communities In Northeastern Utah, Susan E. Washko, Brett Roper, Trisha B. Atwood

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

  1. Understanding changes in macroinvertebrate communities is important because they play a large role in stream ecosystem functioning, and they are an important food resource for fish. Beaver‐induced changes to stream morphology could alter macroinvertebrate communities, which in turn could affect food webs and ecosystem function. However, studies investigating the effects of North American beaver activities on macroinvertebrates are rare in the inter‐mountain west, an area with high potential for beaver‐assisted restoration.
  2. The aim of this study was to quantify differences in the macroinvertebrate community between unaltered segments of streams and within beaver ponds in north‐eastern Utah ...


Vintage Report 2019: North Willamette Valley, Gregory V. Jones Dec 2019

Vintage Report 2019: North Willamette Valley, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report describes the impacts of climate and phenology on vintage for the North Willamette Valley in Oregon in 2019. A relatively mild early winter in 2018 was followed by a cold and wet second half of winter in 2019 and then a wet, but warm, spring. The growing season saw a few mild frosts during late April, but started off warmer than average, moderating through mid-vintage with fewer than average heat spikes. Near-record precipitation amounts during late June and early July brought increased disease pressure to the region. The vintage will be remembered for the early rains in September ...


A Climatology Of Snowpack In The Southern Rocky Mountains And Snow To Liquid Ratio Forecasting Techniques Using Model Generated Soundings From The Rapid Refresh Model, Carson Jones Dec 2019

A Climatology Of Snowpack In The Southern Rocky Mountains And Snow To Liquid Ratio Forecasting Techniques Using Model Generated Soundings From The Rapid Refresh Model, Carson Jones

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Mountainous snowpack represents up to 70% of the total water resources for areas in the western United States. Temperature and precipitation control the accumulation and ablation of the snowpack throughout the cold season, both of which are subject to a changing climate. This study will use a network of snow telemetry (SNOTEL) stations to investigate changes in the snowpack season, snow water equivalent (SWE), and temperature in the southern Rocky Mountain region. Additionally, this study will use model generated soundings from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model to establish relationships between the depth and cloud proportion of ice crystal growth layers ...


Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Southeastern Florida's Octocoral Comunity, Alexandra Hiley Dec 2019

Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Southeastern Florida's Octocoral Comunity, Alexandra Hiley

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

In the Caribbean, local and global stressors have driven significant declines in scleractinian coral cover up to 80% in only three decades. Following these declines, phase shifts in benthic community composition have been reported. Shifts towards macroalgal dominance has been the most widely observed case, however, shifts towards octocoral and sponge dominance have also been reported. In Florida, USA, the Florida Reef Tract is an extensive barrier reef system that contains diverse assemblages of corals, sponges, fish, and other taxa. The Southeast Florida Reef Tract (SEFRT) within the Southeast Florida Coral Reef Conservation Area is the northern portion of this ...


A Risk Analysis Of Microplastic Consumption In Filter Feeders, Sheri Rahman Dec 2019

A Risk Analysis Of Microplastic Consumption In Filter Feeders, Sheri Rahman

HCNSO Student Capstones

Microplastics (plastic particles < 5 mm) pose a serious threat to marine organisms, as researchers have documented such particles in the gut contents of numerous species. In particular, filter feeders are at risk of consuming microplastics because they may accidentally consume the particulates when feeding or they may prey on species that have already consumed them. The goals of this research were to evaluate the risks that different filter feeders face in regards to microplastic consumption through the analysis of the calculated Microplastic Consumption Rates for numerous species of filter feeders. Factors that could potentially affect this risk were also considered, including ocean basin, environment type, salinity, life stage, IUCN status, and filtration technique. Initial analysis showed that body size greatly impacted a species’ risk of microplastic consumption and further tests were completed to evaluate overall microplastic contamination for each species. Microplastic consumption and microplastic contamination values were evaluated and analyzed to determine which filter feeding species were most at risk of experiencing ecological effects from microplastic pollution. From a resource management perspective, this research highlights the filter feeding species most at risk, contributing to the development of more effective plastic waste management policies.


Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: December 2019 Report, Gregory V. Jones Dec 2019

Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: December 2019 Report, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report provides a summary of the weather and climate forecast for December 2019. It includes forecast information specific to the Pacific Northwest and the western United States, as well as forecast information for other portions of the United States and abroad.


Temporally Consistent Urban-Rural Delineations For Global Urban Heat Island Monitoring, Tc Chakraborty Dec 2019

Temporally Consistent Urban-Rural Delineations For Global Urban Heat Island Monitoring, Tc Chakraborty

Yale Day of Data

Urbanization leads to local-scale modification of climate, particularly the urban heat island (UHI) effect - the high temperature in cities compared to their surroundings. The UHI effect is generally quantified by measuring the temperature differential between the city and its surrounding rural reference. Choices of both the city and the rural reference are prone to assumptions, which may affect, among other things, temporal variability in UHI intensity. To reduce these uncertainties, I create a global dataset of urban-rural delineations that can be used to better constrain the temporal trends in UHI intensity throughout the globe using the European Space Agency's ...


Barrier Layer Impact On Rapid Intensification Of Hurricanes (2000-2018) In The Atlantic Ocean, J. Gaston Hayworth Dec 2019

Barrier Layer Impact On Rapid Intensification Of Hurricanes (2000-2018) In The Atlantic Ocean, J. Gaston Hayworth

HCNSO Student Capstones

Hurricane prediction is an evolving challenge that has seen much improvement over the years. While hurricane models have improved in predicting the path of storms, forecasts of hurricane intensity are unreliable due to the complexity of environmental data, lack of understanding of how relative humidity, vertical wind shear, hurricane structure and other possible factors affect intensity. Rapid Intensification (RI), which is a wind speed increase of +30 kts over a 24-hr period, can contribute to major destruction and loss of life to coastal communities affected by hurricanes, and is especially difficult to predict. Given the continued development of coastal regions ...


Raman-Scatter Lidar Measurements Of Water Vapor Determined Using An Integrated Microwave Radiometer-Lidar Retrieval, Jeffrey Vankerkhove Dec 2019

Raman-Scatter Lidar Measurements Of Water Vapor Determined Using An Integrated Microwave Radiometer-Lidar Retrieval, Jeffrey Vankerkhove

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water vapor plays a crucially important role in many atmospheric processes. However, it is poorly characterized in much of the atmosphere. Vibrational Raman-scattering Lidar has excellent spatial and temporal resolution, but requires an external calibration to correct for instrumental biases. Microwave Radiometers have poorer resolution, but can be calibrated absolutely and can be used to calibrate the Lidar system. I have implemented a new technique, incorporating both instruments to generate a calibrated water vapor mixing ratio profile. This integrated retrieval uses an inverse method which includes a combined forward model, integrating radiative transfer equations (Schroeder and Westwater 1991) and lidar ...


Sargassum Infauna Community Structure In The Florida Straits And Gulf Stream, Dayna S. Hunn Dec 2019

Sargassum Infauna Community Structure In The Florida Straits And Gulf Stream, Dayna S. Hunn

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Community structure of Sargassum-associated organisms was examined from 11 sampling locations in the Florida Straits and Gulf Stream from May—September 2018 using a combination of modified shrimp trawls and dip nets. A total of 5413 organisms were collected from Sargassumhabitat representing 14 species from 10 families. A core group of organisms (Platynereis dumerilii, Litiopa melanostoma, Portunus sayi, Portunus spinimanus, Leander tenuicornis, and Latreutes fucorum) were found throughout the entirety of the geographic range surveyed. This core community was not found to vary significantly with increasing distance to shore (P=0.217) and latitude (P=0.217), nor ...


Examining The Effects Of Greenland Ice Sheet Melting And Atlantic Meridional Shutdown On The Climate Of Scandinavia And The British Isles, Tyler Lemburg Dec 2019

Examining The Effects Of Greenland Ice Sheet Melting And Atlantic Meridional Shutdown On The Climate Of Scandinavia And The British Isles, Tyler Lemburg

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Earth’s climate has been rapidly changing over the last hundred years, and its global average temperature is rising. However, climate change is far more complicated than a simple increase in temperature. For example, it is theorized that certain regions of Earth, including Scandinavia and the British Isles, could actually become cooler through ongoing climate change processes. Two of these processes are Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) melting, and slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). This research examines if climate change, through GrIS melting and AMOC slowdown, could contribute to cooler, instead of warmer, temperatures in Scandinavia and the ...


The Variability Of High-Frequency Motions And Their Interactions With The Mesoscale On The Mississippi Shelf, Jordan Earls Dec 2019

The Variability Of High-Frequency Motions And Their Interactions With The Mesoscale On The Mississippi Shelf, Jordan Earls

Master's Theses

In this study, we examine the spatial and temporal variability of high-frequency and low-frequency motions across the Mississippi Shelf and how the high-frequency motions are modulated by low-frequency mesoscale motions. For this purpose, we use Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements collected at nearshore (23 m), mid-shelf (60 m), and shelf break (88 m) stations. High-frequency motions are defined as motions with periods less than 36 hours, whereas mesoscale motions have larger periods. The collected datasets are analyzed through bandpass filtering, least square harmonic analysis, spectral analysis, and empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). We find that along-shelf barotropic mesoscale motions contain ...


Establishing The Role Of The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands In Mississippi Sound And Bight Circulation Using Observational Data Analysis And A Coastal Model, Laura Hode Dec 2019

Establishing The Role Of The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands In Mississippi Sound And Bight Circulation Using Observational Data Analysis And A Coastal Model, Laura Hode

Dissertations

The Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands restrict exchange between the Mississippi Sound and Mississippi Bight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The islands also act as storm breaks for tropical cyclones, so their continued existence sustains marine ecosystems and protects coastal communities. However, the chain has undergone extensive segmentation, erosion, and westward migration in the past two hundred years. The islands are now more susceptible to further erosion (Pendleton et al., 2013; Morton, 2007). Additional reduction in island subaerial land extent would alter circulation in the Mississippi Sound and Bight.

Consequently, this study targeted the two most vulnerable barrier islands in the ...


Growth Phase Proteomics Of The Heterotrophic Marine Bacterium Ruegeria Pomeroyi, Dasha Krayushkina, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Jessica Faux, Damon H. May, Michael Riffle, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn Dec 2019

Growth Phase Proteomics Of The Heterotrophic Marine Bacterium Ruegeria Pomeroyi, Dasha Krayushkina, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Jessica Faux, Damon H. May, Michael Riffle, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

The heterotrophic marine bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi, was experimentally cultured under environmentally realistic carbon conditions and with a tracer-level addition of 13C-labeled leucine to track bacterial protein biosynthesis through growth phases. A combination of methods allowed observation of real-time bacterial protein production to understand metabolic priorities through the different growth phases. Over 2000 proteins were identified in each experimental culture from exponential and stationary growth phases. Within two hours of the 13C-labeled leucine addition, R. pomeroyi significantly assimilated the newly encountered substrate into new proteins. This dataset provides a fundamental baseline for understanding growth phase differences in molecular physiology ...


Temporal And Spatial Scales Of Correlation In Marine Phytoplankton Communities, A. M. Kuhn, S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, Sophie Clayton, T. A. Rynearson, M. R. Mazloff, A. D. Barton Dec 2019

Temporal And Spatial Scales Of Correlation In Marine Phytoplankton Communities, A. M. Kuhn, S. Dutkiewicz, O. Jahn, Sophie Clayton, T. A. Rynearson, M. R. Mazloff, A. D. Barton

OEAS Faculty Publications

Ocean circulation shapes marine phytoplankton communities by setting environmental conditions and dispersing organisms. In addition, processes acting on the water column (e.g., heat fluxes and mixing) affect the community structure by modulating environmental variables that determine in situ growth and loss rates. Understanding the scales over which phytoplankton communities vary in time and space is key to elucidate the relative contributions of local processes and ocean circulation on phytoplankton distributions. Using a global ocean ecosystem model, we quantify temporal and spatial correlation scales for phytoplankton phenotypes with diverse functional traits and cell sizes. Through this analysis, we address these ...


Participatory Modeling Of Tidal Circulation On Maine Mudflats To Improve Water Quality Management Of Shellfish Areas, Gabrielle V. Hillyer Dec 2019

Participatory Modeling Of Tidal Circulation On Maine Mudflats To Improve Water Quality Management Of Shellfish Areas, Gabrielle V. Hillyer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the past decade, researchers have become increasingly aware of the vital role stakeholder knowledge plays in understanding complex social and environmental problems. Incorporating stakeholder knowledge into understanding complex problems allows for greater awareness and identification of community needs and can help build partnerships to support the development of applied research. In this thesis, I demonstrate the value of stakeholder knowledge and research partnerships by focusing on the soft-shell clamming industry in Maine and how a complex collaboration between clammers, municipal officials, representatives from state agencies, researchers, and other partners relied on and build adaptive capacity to address complex water ...


Defining Boat Wake Impacts On Shoreline Stability Toward Management And Policy Solutions, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly M. Mitchell, Jennifer Davis, Julie Herman, Elizabeth Andrews, Angela King, Pamela Mason, Navid Tahvildari, Jana Davis, Rachel L. Dixon Dec 2019

Defining Boat Wake Impacts On Shoreline Stability Toward Management And Policy Solutions, Donna Marie Bilkovic, Molly M. Mitchell, Jennifer Davis, Julie Herman, Elizabeth Andrews, Angela King, Pamela Mason, Navid Tahvildari, Jana Davis, Rachel L. Dixon

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

Coastal economies are often supported by activities that rely on commercial or recreational vessels to move people or goods, such as shipping, transportation, cruising, and fishing. Unintentionally, frequent or intense vessel traffic can contribute to erosion of coastlines; this can be particularly evident in sheltered systems where shoreline erosion should be minimal in the absence of boat waves. We reviewed the state of the science of known effects of boat waves on shoreline stability, examined data on erosion, turbidity, and shoreline armoring patterns for evidence of a response to boat waves in Chesapeake Bay, and reviewed existing management and policy ...


Debris-Bed Friction During Glacier Sliding With Ice–Bed Separation, Neal R. Iverson, Christian Helanow, Lucas K. Zoet Dec 2019

Debris-Bed Friction During Glacier Sliding With Ice–Bed Separation, Neal R. Iverson, Christian Helanow, Lucas K. Zoet

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Theory and experiments indicate that ice–bed separation during glacier slip over 2-D hard beds causes basal shear stress to reach a maximum at a particular slip velocity and decrease at higher velocities. We use the sliding theory of Lliboutry (1968) to explore how friction between debris particles in sliding ice and a rock bed affects this relationship between shear stress and slip velocity. Particle–bed contact forces and associated debris friction increase with increasing slip velocity, owing to increased rates of ice convergence with up-glacier facing surfaces. However, debris friction on diminished areas of the bed counteracts this effect ...


Increased Fluvial Runoff Terminated Inorganic Aragonite Precipitation On The Northwest Shelf Of Australia During The Early Holocene, Maximilian Hallenberger, Lars Reuning, Stephen J. Gallagher, Stefan Back, Takeshige Ishiwa, Beth A. Christensen, Kara Bogus Dec 2019

Increased Fluvial Runoff Terminated Inorganic Aragonite Precipitation On The Northwest Shelf Of Australia During The Early Holocene, Maximilian Hallenberger, Lars Reuning, Stephen J. Gallagher, Stefan Back, Takeshige Ishiwa, Beth A. Christensen, Kara Bogus

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

Inorganic precipitation of aragonite is a common process within tropical carbonate environments. Across the Northwest Shelf of Australia (NWS) such precipitates were abundant in the late Pleistocene, whereas present-day sedimentation is dominated by calcitic bioclasts. This study presents sedimentological and geochemical analyses of core data retrieved from the upper 13 meters of IODP Site U1461 that provide a high-resolution sedimentary record of the last ~15 thousand years. Sediments that formed from 15 to 10.1 ka BP are aragonitic and characterised by small needles (<5 >µm) and ooids. XRF elemental proxy data indicate that these sediments developed under arid conditions in ...


Umphlett Qci Dec 2019, Natalie A. Umphlett Dec 2019

Umphlett Qci Dec 2019, Natalie A. Umphlett

HPRCC Personnel Publications

Highlights for the Basin

Temperature and Precipitation Anomalies

Soil Moisture Conditions

Agriculture

Energy

Infrastructure

Temperature

Precipitation


Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin Dec 2019

Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin

Theses and Dissertations

Bioassays have been used extensively to assess various toxicity endpoints of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), but an emphasis on single compounds prevails. In this research, DBP mixtures were assessed using a cytotoxicity test with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and an Ames fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium TA-98 and TA-100 with and without S9 rat liver homogenate. Seven whole mixture DBP concentrates were formulated using reconstituted natural organic matter (NOM) extracts from the Upper Mississippi River using scaled disinfectant dosing protocols with free chlorine and monochloramine in the presence and absence of added bromide. DBPs were identified by gas ...


Long-Term Aerosol Trends And Variability Over Central Saudi Arabia Using Optical Characteristics From Solar Village Aeronet Measurements, Mohammed Al Otaibi, Ashraf Farahat, Bassam Tawabini, M. Hafidz Omar, Emad Ramadan, Abdelgadir Abuelgasim, Ramesh Singh Nov 2019

Long-Term Aerosol Trends And Variability Over Central Saudi Arabia Using Optical Characteristics From Solar Village Aeronet Measurements, Mohammed Al Otaibi, Ashraf Farahat, Bassam Tawabini, M. Hafidz Omar, Emad Ramadan, Abdelgadir Abuelgasim, Ramesh Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Natural and anthropogenic aerosols over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) play a major role in affecting the regional radiation budget. The long-term variability of these aerosols’ physical and optical parameters, including aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (α), were measured at a location near central KSA using the Solar Village (SV) AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) station during the period December 1999–January 2013. The AERONET measurements show an overall increase in AOD on an annual basis. This upward trend is mainly attributed to a prolonged increase in the monthly/seasonal mean AOD during March–June and during August ...


The Effect Of The 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse On The Phase Of Vlf/Lf Signals, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, S. Shalimov, Dimitar Ouzounov, P. Gallagher, G. Verth, J. Mccauley, S. Shelyag, V. Fedun Nov 2019

The Effect Of The 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse On The Phase Of Vlf/Lf Signals, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, S. Shalimov, Dimitar Ouzounov, P. Gallagher, G. Verth, J. Mccauley, S. Shelyag, V. Fedun

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An experimental study of the phase and amplitude observations of sub‐ionospheric very low and low frequency (VLF/LF) signals is performed to analyze the response of the lower ionosphere during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse in the United States of America. Three different sub‐ionospheric wave paths are investigated. The length of the paths varies from 2,200 to 6,400 km, and the signal frequencies are 21.4, 25.2, and 40.75 kHz. The two paths cross the region of the total eclipse, and the third path is in the region of 40–60% of ...


An Investigation Into Weather's Effect On Aerosol Particles Using Wrf And Mapss, Hayden Webb, Devin Smoot Nov 2019

An Investigation Into Weather's Effect On Aerosol Particles Using Wrf And Mapss, Hayden Webb, Devin Smoot

Student Research

Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in air or gas. Many processes contribute to increased aerosol particles in the atmosphere, such as winds, ocean waves, and industrial exhaust. Once suspended, particles can be carried thousands of miles before being returned to the ground by gravity or rain. Some particles can be suspended for several years and travel all around the world, these particles have the greatest impact on climate and weather.


Climate Change And Human Rights: Shaping The Narrative For Reflexive Responses From Civilization’S Leadership To Counter And Abate Climate Change And Enhance The Role Of Human Rights In The Rule Of Law, Michael Donlan Nov 2019

Climate Change And Human Rights: Shaping The Narrative For Reflexive Responses From Civilization’S Leadership To Counter And Abate Climate Change And Enhance The Role Of Human Rights In The Rule Of Law, Michael Donlan

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article offers a bold new legal process for enhancing and upgrading the rule of law to enable civilization to cope with and counter the mounting damage and injustice caused by climate change. Climate change, once an unimaginable threat, is now a brutal, ubiquitous game changer that is leading inexorably to the demise of all humanity. Only by enhancing the rule of law and melding international law with domestic law can civilization fashion a coherent, global action plan for survival.

For almost three centuries greenhouse gases have been emitted around the world by the burning of fossil fuel, and—most ...


Investigations Of Aerobic Methane Oxidation In Two Marine Seep Environments: Part 1—Chemical Kinetics, Eric W. Chan, Allan M. Shiller, Dongjoo J. Joung, Eleanor C. Arrington, David L. Valentine, Molly C. Redmond, John A. Breier, Scott A. Socolofsky, John D. Kessler Nov 2019

Investigations Of Aerobic Methane Oxidation In Two Marine Seep Environments: Part 1—Chemical Kinetics, Eric W. Chan, Allan M. Shiller, Dongjoo J. Joung, Eleanor C. Arrington, David L. Valentine, Molly C. Redmond, John A. Breier, Scott A. Socolofsky, John D. Kessler

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Microbial aerobic oxidation is known to be a significant sink of marine methane (CH4), contributing to the relatively minor atmospheric release of this greenhouse gas over vast stretches of the ocean. However, the chemical kinetics of aerobic CH4 oxidation are not well established, making it difficult to predict and assess the extent that CH4 is oxidized in seawater following seafloor release. Here we investigate the kinetics of aerobic CH4 oxidation using mesocosm incubations of fresh seawater samples collected from seep fields in Hudson Canyon, U.S. Atlantic Margin and MC118, Gulf of Mexico to gain a fundamental chemical understanding of ...


Use Of Spectrofluorometry To Detect Petroleum Hydrocarbons In The Marine Environment, Mary Iris Abercrombie Nov 2019

Use Of Spectrofluorometry To Detect Petroleum Hydrocarbons In The Marine Environment, Mary Iris Abercrombie

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The genesis of this research was the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which discharged petroleum and gas into the Gulf of Mexico for 87 days in 2010. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy was employed for the detection of petroleum in seawater samples following the oil spill. Fluorescence arises from the chemical structure of π-bonding in C=C bonds, especially those in aromatic structures. Spectrofluorometry was also used to observe and track the formation of petroleum plumes in seawater undergoing controlled physical dispersion in a wave tank, both with and without the addition of chemical dispersant. Further, the changing fluorescence characteristics of a broad ...


Untapped Potential Of Gorgonian Octocorals For Detecting Environmental Change In Biscayne National Park, Florida, Usa, Selena A. Kupfner Johnson Nov 2019

Untapped Potential Of Gorgonian Octocorals For Detecting Environmental Change In Biscayne National Park, Florida, Usa, Selena A. Kupfner Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One consequence of dramatic stony-coral loss has been recognition that gorgonian octocorals (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) have emerged among the dominant reef fauna. However, gorgonians are notoriously difficult to field-identify and consequently have been underrepresented in most monitoring efforts resulting in a lack of long-term data. The rich diversity of habitats, close proximity to the urban center of Miami, and connectivity to other areas of Florida have made Biscayne National Park an active location for reef research since its establishment in 1968. As such, a plethora of data (e.g., museum specimen and species abundance data) has been collected and stored in ...