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2019

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Articles 1 - 30 of 11110

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

About Time: Visualizing Time At Burning Man, Gordon D. Hoople, Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel Parde, Diane Hoffoss, Max Mellette, Rachel Nishimura, Virginia Gutman Dec 2019

About Time: Visualizing Time At Burning Man, Gordon D. Hoople, Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel Parde, Diane Hoffoss, Max Mellette, Rachel Nishimura, Virginia Gutman

The STEAM Journal

About Time was a 30 foot long, 3000 pound wooden sundial that went up in flames at Burning Man 2019. The piece reflected on the role time plays in our lives. We organize our lives around time—are enslaved to time—and yet we know so little about it. Physicists and philosophers continue to grapple with deep puzzles of time—Is time a fundamental quantity, independent of human actions or observations or is it an emergent property of our perception? This installation projected time using two sundials: a horizontal dial which swept time out across the desert floor and ...


Can Precision Farming Technologies Be Applied To Grazing Management?, S. Mark Rutter Dec 2019

Can Precision Farming Technologies Be Applied To Grazing Management?, S. Mark Rutter

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In arable farming, precision is used to monitor and manage crop variability. The same precision approach can be used to manage grassland, by using crop sensing, targeted fertilizer/herbicide/pesticide application and forage yield measurement when it is harvested mechanically. An additional challenge in grassland agriculture is developing precision approaches to manage the grazing process. This requires technologies to determine where an animal is, when, what and how much it is grazing which the system then needs to use in conjunction with other sources of information to control where the animal grazes next. This paper reviews the existing technologies in ...


Manipulation Of The Spatial Grazing Behaviour Of Livestock In Extensive Grassland Systems, Derek W. Bailey, Mitch B. Stephenson, Milton G. Thomas, Juan F. Medrano, Gonzalo Rincon Dec 2019

Manipulation Of The Spatial Grazing Behaviour Of Livestock In Extensive Grassland Systems, Derek W. Bailey, Mitch B. Stephenson, Milton G. Thomas, Juan F. Medrano, Gonzalo Rincon

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Spatial behaviour of livestock is a critical factor in grassland management. Recent and ongoing research suggests that new approaches can be used to manipulate where cattle graze. The combination of strategic supplement placement and low-stress herding can be used to target cattle grazing and potentially may be useful for managing fine fuels. A phenotype to genotype association study of cattle spatial behavior suggests that use of rugged terrain and areas far from water is inherited. Although more research is needed, selection for animals specifically adapted for mountainous terrain or extensive paddocks may be an alternative for managing grasslands in the ...


Case Studies Which Demonstrate The Financial Viability Of Precision Dairy Farming, Ian Yule, Hayden Lawrence, Craige Mackenzie, Carolyn Hedley, Miles Grafton Dec 2019

Case Studies Which Demonstrate The Financial Viability Of Precision Dairy Farming, Ian Yule, Hayden Lawrence, Craige Mackenzie, Carolyn Hedley, Miles Grafton

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

A number of case studies are used to demonstrate the financial viability of precision farming methods for intensively managed pastures. Precision farming has sometimes been criticized as being technology-led where the management goals and desired outcomes are sometimes poorly defined. Case studies presented in this paper demonstrate a strong management approach where appropriate technologies are selected to contribute to the financial success of the farm. The first case study farm has increased milk production by 70% in four years, increased pasture production by 43%, reduced fertilizer costs to 43% of previous levels and has successfully predicted annual production to within ...


Front Matter Dec 2019

Front Matter

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Connectivity Differences Between Gulf War Illness (Gwi) Phenotypes During A Test Of Attention, Tomas Clarke, Jessie Jamieson, Patrick Malone, Rakib U. Rayhan, Stuart Washington, John W. Vanmeter, James N. Baraniuk Dec 2019

Connectivity Differences Between Gulf War Illness (Gwi) Phenotypes During A Test Of Attention, Tomas Clarke, Jessie Jamieson, Patrick Malone, Rakib U. Rayhan, Stuart Washington, John W. Vanmeter, James N. Baraniuk

Faculty Publications, Department of Mathematics

One quarter of veterans returning from the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War have developed Gulf War Illness (GWI) with chronic pain, fatigue, cognitive and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Exertion leads to characteristic, delayed onset exacerbations that are not relieved by sleep. We have modeled exertional exhaustion by comparing magnetic resonance images from before and after submaximal exercise. One third of the 27 GWI participants had brain stem atrophy and developed postural tachycardia after exercise (START: Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia). The remainder activated basal ganglia and anterior insulae during a cognitive task (STOPP: Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception). Here, the role of ...


Quantitative Metrics For Mutation Testing, Amani M. Ayad Dec 2019

Quantitative Metrics For Mutation Testing, Amani M. Ayad

Dissertations

Program mutation is the process of generating versions of a base program by applying elementary syntactic modifications; this technique has been used in program testing in a variety of applications, most notably to assess the quality of a test data set. A good test set will discover the difference between the original program and mutant except if the mutant is semantically equivalent to the original program, despite being syntactically distinct.

Equivalent mutants are a major nuisance in the practice of mutation testing, because they introduce a significant amount of bias and uncertainty in the analysis of test results; indeed, mutants ...


Cancer Risk Prediction With Whole Exome Sequencing And Machine Learning, Abdulrhman Fahad M Aljouie Dec 2019

Cancer Risk Prediction With Whole Exome Sequencing And Machine Learning, Abdulrhman Fahad M Aljouie

Dissertations

Accurate cancer risk and survival time prediction are important problems in personalized medicine, where disease diagnosis and prognosis are tuned to individuals based on their genetic material. Cancer risk prediction provides an informed decision about making regular screening that helps to detect disease at the early stage and therefore increases the probability of successful treatments. Cancer risk prediction is a challenging problem. Lifestyle, environment, family history, and genetic predisposition are some factors that influence the disease onset. Cancer risk prediction based on predisposing genetic variants has been studied extensively. Most studies have examined the predictive ability of variants in known ...


Reduction In Salt Deposition On Carbon Nano-Tube Immobilized Membrane During Desalination Via Membrane Distillation, Madihah Saud Humoud Dec 2019

Reduction In Salt Deposition On Carbon Nano-Tube Immobilized Membrane During Desalination Via Membrane Distillation, Madihah Saud Humoud

Dissertations

As water scarcity increases globally under the stresses of increasing demand, aquifer depletion, and climate change, the market for efficient desalination technologies has grown rapidly to fill the void. One such developing technology, membrane distillation (MD), has found much interest in the scientific community. MD has also been powered by solar energy and waste heat resources because it can be operated at relatively low temperatures. Recent studies indicate that MD could potentially achieve the efficiencies of state-of-the-art mature thermal desalination technologies, although additional engineering and scientific challenges must first be overcome.

MD can be used to treat high salinity water ...


Dimension Reduction Techniques For High Dimensional And Ultra-High Dimensional Data, Subha Datta Dec 2019

Dimension Reduction Techniques For High Dimensional And Ultra-High Dimensional Data, Subha Datta

Dissertations

This dissertation introduces two statistical techniques to tackle high-dimensional data, which is very commonplace nowadays. It consists of two topics which are inter-related by a common link, dimension reduction.

The first topic is a recently introduced classification technique, the weighted principal support vector machine (WPSVM), which is incorporated into a spatial point process framework. The WPSVM possesses an additional parameter, a weight parameter, besides the regularization parameter. Most statistical techniques, including WPSVM, have an inherent assumption of independence, which means the data points are not connected with each other in any manner. But spatial data violates this assumption. Correlation between ...


Investigation Of Small-Scale Energy Release And Transfer Processes In The Solar Atmosphere With High-Resolution Observations In Infrared, Xu Yang Dec 2019

Investigation Of Small-Scale Energy Release And Transfer Processes In The Solar Atmosphere With High-Resolution Observations In Infrared, Xu Yang

Dissertations

Solar spectrum in the infrared (IR) contains abundant information of solar activities, however, it has not spectral lines in the solar IR spectrum provide different tools to probe the solar atmosphere in various heights. This radiation band in such relatively long wavelength includes various atom and molecule spectral lines that are generated by relatively small energy level transitions. The temperature-sensitive and highly dynamic spectral lines could reveal the energy transmission process more easily than those in the visible wavelength of solar emission. Moreover, the better magnetic sensitivities for the infrared lines resulting from their longer wavelength make them detect the ...


Early Detection Of Fake News On Social Media, Yang Liu Dec 2019

Early Detection Of Fake News On Social Media, Yang Liu

Dissertations

The ever-increasing popularity and convenience of social media enable the rapid widespread of fake news, which can cause a series of negative impacts both on individuals and society. Early detection of fake news is essential to minimize its social harm. Existing machine learning approaches are incapable of detecting a fake news story soon after it starts to spread, because they require certain amounts of data to reach decent effectiveness which take time to accumulate. To solve this problem, this research first analyzes and finds that, on social media, the user characteristics of fake news spreaders distribute significantly differently from those ...


Convex Relaxations Of A Continuum Aggregation Model, And Their Efficient Numerical Solution, Mahdi Bandegi Dec 2019

Convex Relaxations Of A Continuum Aggregation Model, And Their Efficient Numerical Solution, Mahdi Bandegi

Dissertations

In this dissertation, the global minimization of a large deviations rate function (the Helmholtz free energy functional) for the Boltzmann distribution is discussed. The Helmholtz functional arises in large systems of interacting particles — which are widely used as models in computational chemistry and molecular dynamics. Global minimizers of the rate function (Helmholtz functional) characterize the asymptotics of the partition function and thereby determine many important physical properties such as self-assembly, or phase transitions. Finding and verifying local minima to the Helmholtz free energy functional is relatively straightforward. However, finding and verifying global minima is much more difficult since the Helmholtz ...


Dental Professionals Occupational Noise Exposure And Its Auditory And Non-Auditory Effects, Alexis Frees Dec 2019

Dental Professionals Occupational Noise Exposure And Its Auditory And Non-Auditory Effects, Alexis Frees

Theses

The purpose of this study was to assess noise exposure and its auditory and non-auditory effects on workers in five clinical departments in the School of Dental Medicine at Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences Campus in Newark, New Jersey. The study included environmental noise level measurement, dental instrument sound level measurement, personal noise dosimetry and a questionnaire survey to assess non-auditory effects. Octave band analysis of environmental noise levels showed that they are slightly above the standard noise criteria for clinics, and measurements from six dental instruments confirm that they contribute higher sound pressure levels at the frequencies of 1000, 2000 ...


Coal Mining Sector Contribution To Environmental Conditions And Human Development Index In East Kalimantan Province, Kunny Izza Indah Afkarina, Sindhung Wardana, Poerborini Damayanti Dec 2019

Coal Mining Sector Contribution To Environmental Conditions And Human Development Index In East Kalimantan Province, Kunny Izza Indah Afkarina, Sindhung Wardana, Poerborini Damayanti

Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainable Development

Coal mining has been one of the issues that led to pros and cons in Indonesia. Research shows that mining activities are one of the factors that affect people’s incomes and local and national economic development. However, mining is a lucrative activity that leads to construction booms that attract population growth and lead to deforestation, thus affecting the environmental conditions of a region. The coal mining industry of Indonesian province of East Kalimantan, on the island of Borneo, provides most of the economic base needed to build the infrastructure and provide energy of the country. Kalimantan Province accounts for ...


Behind The Trash: A Qualitative Research On How Trash Pickers In Cirendeu Area Contribute To Recycling, Mana Kakinuma Dec 2019

Behind The Trash: A Qualitative Research On How Trash Pickers In Cirendeu Area Contribute To Recycling, Mana Kakinuma

Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainable Development

Trash is one of the most serious environmental issues. People strive to solve the problem with reducing the use of plastic and figuring out the method to recycle efficiently; however, the story of trash pickers is barely on the topic. The problems are the ignorance and underestimation of the society. People should consider the integrated solution for both the environment and those trash pickers. The ideal solution would be formalizing waste disposal system, officially hire trash pickers for their stable life, and let their children access to education for brighter future. This discussion will examine the importance of understanding the ...


Accessibility And Iot / Smart And Connected Communities, John Rochford Dec 2019

Accessibility And Iot / Smart And Connected Communities, John Rochford

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The Internet of things (IoT) has unlimited potential to empower the lives of everyone. IoT devices increasingly appear in homes and power smart and connected communities. Related user experience design efforts must involve and consider people with disabilities, including the world’s rapidly aging population of seniors. They must be able to use IoT device and app interfaces. While secure and private IoT device data collection and communication are important for everyone, people with disabilities have unique related needs. Many current resources and developing efforts that can benefit UX designers to address these needs exist.


Opportunities For Improving Livestock Production With E-Management Systems, Dave L. Swain, Rebecca N. Handcock, Greg J. Bishop-Hurley, Don Menzies Dec 2019

Opportunities For Improving Livestock Production With E-Management Systems, Dave L. Swain, Rebecca N. Handcock, Greg J. Bishop-Hurley, Don Menzies

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

There is increased interest in hardware and software that can support e-Management for grassland-based livestock industries. Managers of grazing livestock were early adopters of radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies automatically monitoring individual animal performance. Recent developments of remote sensing, automated individual recording and management, location based systems, improved data transfer and technologies that can be used in more extensive grazing systems are providing new opportunities for the development of e-Management systems. There is a need for better data integration and systems that can provide the best available information to enable better decision-making. For greater industry adoption of more integrated e-Management ...


Growth Of Bali Bulls Fattened With Forage Tree Legumes In Eastern Indonesia: Leucaena Leucocephala In Sumbawa, Tanda Panjaitan, Muhammad Fauzan, H. Dahlanuddin, Michael J. Halliday, H. Max Shelton Dec 2019

Growth Of Bali Bulls Fattened With Forage Tree Legumes In Eastern Indonesia: Leucaena Leucocephala In Sumbawa, Tanda Panjaitan, Muhammad Fauzan, H. Dahlanuddin, Michael J. Halliday, H. Max Shelton

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The contribution of West Nusa Tenggara Province to domestic beef supply in Indonesia is relatively small, however, beef cattle are very important for the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in the region.

Bali cattle (Boss javanicus) are the predominant breed as they are adapted to harsh nutritional conditions, are highly fertile and have low calf mortality (Toelihere 2003). While genetically capable of achieving a growth rate of 0.85 kg/d (Mastika 2003), Panjaitan (2012) identified poor nutrition as a severe limitation to animal growth in traditional village systems. Improving feed quality and supply is vital to increasing growth rates and ...


Effect Of High Se And Co Alfalfa Forage On Animal Production, Xiao-Lei Jie, Xiao Guo, Hua-Feng Hu Dec 2019

Effect Of High Se And Co Alfalfa Forage On Animal Production, Xiao-Lei Jie, Xiao Guo, Hua-Feng Hu

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Total and available selenium (Se) and cobalt (Co) concentrations are low in Chinese soils, especially those found in mainly in temperate humid sub-humid conditions in the northeast to the southwest band across China (Tan et al. 2002). The levels of Se and Co are marginally deficit in the brown soil of the Yellow River region which causes lower production level and quality in forage and crop plants. Application of Se and Co fertilizers to arable lands is essential to produce high Se and Co forages. Henan is a Province where produce high-quality grass forages are used to support dairy farming ...


Pre-Conditioned Cattle Sales For Forage-Based Cow-Calf Management Systems, C. P. Bagley, L. S. Dale, B. C. Housewright Dec 2019

Pre-Conditioned Cattle Sales For Forage-Based Cow-Calf Management Systems, C. P. Bagley, L. S. Dale, B. C. Housewright

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Demand for preconditioned feeder cattle continues to increase in the beef industry as value-based marketing and information flow expands indicating preconditioned forage-raised calves require less management, fewer losses due to illness and deaths, and increased profitability to both buyer and seller. The goal of a preconditioning program is to increase the value of weaned cattle (Bailey, 2002). The Northeast Texas Beef Improvement Organization (NET-BIO) is comprised of commercial cow/calf and stocker operators and various agribusinesses with the same interest. The objective of this study is to determine if prices received for preconditioned NETBIO stocker cattle increase the net income ...


Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Grazing Lambs Finished On Tropical Grasses, Cesar H. E. C. Poli, Samuel Carnesella, Fernando M. Souza, Concepta Mcmanus, Zélia M. S. Castilhos, Liris Kindlein, Jaime U. Tarouco Dec 2019

Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Meat Quality Of Grazing Lambs Finished On Tropical Grasses, Cesar H. E. C. Poli, Samuel Carnesella, Fernando M. Souza, Concepta Mcmanus, Zélia M. S. Castilhos, Liris Kindlein, Jaime U. Tarouco

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Brazil is a country of continental size, and more than seven million ha are occupied with tropical pasture. Worldwide animal production from tropical pastures is also very significant where Cynodon, Panicum and Paspalum are important genus. These grasses are widely used in the production of cattle, and are growing in importance for sheep production, but their potential for producing quality lamb is not fully known.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of two tropical grasses for finishing lambs in autumn to reduce the seasonality of production of lamb for meat.


Alternative Pasture Development System And Breeding Weight For Beef Heifers, H. A. Lardner, Daalkhaijav Damiran, Steve Hendrick, Kathy Larson Dec 2019

Alternative Pasture Development System And Breeding Weight For Beef Heifers, H. A. Lardner, Daalkhaijav Damiran, Steve Hendrick, Kathy Larson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Proper development of replacement beef heifers is critical and needs to be accomplished at lower costs without sacrificing reproductive performance. The current recommendations indicate heifers should reach approximately 65% of mature body weight (MBW) at breeding for successful reproduction (Patterson et al. 1992; NRC 1996). Meeting heifer maintenance and gestation nutrient requirements are getting more economically challenged for beef producers in western Canada. Therefore, producers are moving from drylot development systems where cattle are housed and fed in pens to the adoption of extensive grazing systems (Kelln et al. 2011) in field paddocks. Limited research has been conducted to determine ...


Variation Of Rumen Bacterial Diversity In Steers After The Beginning Of Grazing, Miwa Nakano, Satoshi Haga, Masanori Tohno, Kazuhiro Matoba, Ryuichi Uegaki, Hiroshi Ishizaki Dec 2019

Variation Of Rumen Bacterial Diversity In Steers After The Beginning Of Grazing, Miwa Nakano, Satoshi Haga, Masanori Tohno, Kazuhiro Matoba, Ryuichi Uegaki, Hiroshi Ishizaki

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Holstein heifers before or after puberty often are herded on public pastures in Japan. The herbage intake and rumen fermentation of grazing heifers that are not adapted for fresh herbage decreases due to a change of feed from stall-fed dried forage to fresh herbage. This limits their performance during the first several weeks on pasture. Thus, the feeding program such as supplementation before and after the beginning of grazing is important. An increase in ammonia concentration and a decline in fibre degradation in the rumen of a heifer (both of which occur simultaneously with low herbage intake and rumen fermentation ...


Forage Systems Effect On Forage-Fed Beef Production, Guillermo Scaglia, Basu Bhandari, Jeffrey M. Gillespie, Jim J. Wang Dec 2019

Forage Systems Effect On Forage-Fed Beef Production, Guillermo Scaglia, Basu Bhandari, Jeffrey M. Gillespie, Jim J. Wang

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Locally produced forage-finished beef offers high value while enhancing economic, environmental, and social sustainability. It enhances environmental quality and the natural resource base, and makes good use of resources both on and off-farm. On the farm, it makes the most of the ability of cattle to convert grass to meat in a low-input system, making efficient use of solar energy, improving soil nutrient cycling, conserving soil and water, and limiting reliance on non-renewable resources (DeRamus 2004). Although the major causes of increased greenhouse gas emissions are due to population growth and industrialization, agriculture contributes to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through ...


Activity, Physiology And Milk Production Of Yaks And Two Different Yak Crossbreds Grazing Himalayan Pasture Sites At 4700 M And 3000 M, Shanker R. Barsila, Naba R. Devkota, Michael Kreuzer, Svenja Marquardt Dec 2019

Activity, Physiology And Milk Production Of Yaks And Two Different Yak Crossbreds Grazing Himalayan Pasture Sites At 4700 M And 3000 M, Shanker R. Barsila, Naba R. Devkota, Michael Kreuzer, Svenja Marquardt

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Yaks (Bos grunniens) and crossbreds of yaks with different local cattle breeds are important for the livelihood of local herders in the Himalayas. They are often kept in a system of transhumance comprising the use of different pasture sites for grazing along an altitudinal gradient throughout the year. The animals are moved upwards to the high altitude pastures in spring/early summer and gradually moved downwards in late summer/autumn. Yaks are suitable for very high altitudes as they are especially adapted to low oxygen partial pressure, forage scarcity and cold and harsh environment (Wiener et al. 2003). However, yak-cattle ...


Fatty Acid Metabolism On Pasture- And Feedlot-Finished Cattle, Cuk T. Noviandi, Robert E. Ward, Jong-Su Eun, Dale R. Zobell, Rusty D. Stott, Blair L. Waldron, Mike D. Peel Dec 2019

Fatty Acid Metabolism On Pasture- And Feedlot-Finished Cattle, Cuk T. Noviandi, Robert E. Ward, Jong-Su Eun, Dale R. Zobell, Rusty D. Stott, Blair L. Waldron, Mike D. Peel

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Feeding high-grain diets to finishing beef cattle results in high proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the beef, which is considered to confer negative impacts on human health. In contrast, pasture-finished cattle produce lower proportion of SFA, greater n-3 and less n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and higher conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) compared to high grain-finished beef (Noviandi et al. 2012). Increased n-3 PUFA, especially C18:3 n-3, can reduce the risk of heart disease, hypertension, inflammation, and mammary cancer, and lower cholesterol concentration in blood (De Deckere et al. 1998; Tapiero et al. 2002).

Nitrogen fertilisation can increase ...


Development Of Feeding System Based On Azolla (Azolla Pinnata) And Sheanut Cake (Vitellaria Paradoxa) For Nellore Sheep Reared In Different Production Systems, K. Sarjan Rao, Y. Ravindra Reddy Dec 2019

Development Of Feeding System Based On Azolla (Azolla Pinnata) And Sheanut Cake (Vitellaria Paradoxa) For Nellore Sheep Reared In Different Production Systems, K. Sarjan Rao, Y. Ravindra Reddy

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Since protein sources such as ground nut cake and soya bean are too expensive to feed as supplements to livestock in India, steps have been taken to reduce cost by utilizing alternative feedstuffs to replace the traditional sources in ration formulation (Parashuramului et al. 2013). Azolla which is a free-floating nitrogen fixing water fern has a potential to be used as a protein supplement for ruminants (Ahirwar and Leela, 2012). Sheanut cake (Vitellaria paradoxa) which is produced after extraction of fats use in cosmetics and as a cocoa butter substitute in chocolate making, is also a rich in carbohydrates and ...


Lca Study On Sheep Milk Production In Sardinian Farms At Different Input Levels, Enrico Vagnoni, Antonello Franca, Leo Breedveld, Claudio Porqueddu, Pierpaolo Duce Dec 2019

Lca Study On Sheep Milk Production In Sardinian Farms At Different Input Levels, Enrico Vagnoni, Antonello Franca, Leo Breedveld, Claudio Porqueddu, Pierpaolo Duce

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

This paper illustrates a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study carried out with the purposes of comparing the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three different dairy farms in Sardinia, Italy, characterized by different production systems.


Forage Allowance And Cow Genotype, Tools To Increase Animal Production In Native Pastures, Pablo Soca, Mariana Carriquiry, Martín Do Carmo Dec 2019

Forage Allowance And Cow Genotype, Tools To Increase Animal Production In Native Pastures, Pablo Soca, Mariana Carriquiry, Martín Do Carmo

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In eight plots (four per block) the effects of two FA per two cow genotypes were tested from August 2007 to March 2010, on a Campos grassland (major species were Axonopus affinis, Oxalis sp., Cyperus sp., Cynodon dactylon, Eryngium nudicaule, Gaudinia fragilis, Chevreulia sarmentosa, Stipa setigera, Paspalum notatum and Coelorhachis selloana) in Uruguay (32º 20` S, 54º 26` W). Forage allowance varied seasonally, in HIGH (5, 3, 4 and 4 kg DM/kg LW) and LOW (3, 3, 2 and 2 kg DM/kg LW) during autumn, winter, spring and summer; respectively. Continuous stocking method was applied throughout the year ...