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2002

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Przebieg Zmienności Stężeń Wybranych Zanieczyszczeń W Gazach Odlotowych Z Procesu Mokrego Gaszenia Koksu, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki Dec 2002

Przebieg Zmienności Stężeń Wybranych Zanieczyszczeń W Gazach Odlotowych Z Procesu Mokrego Gaszenia Koksu, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

Continuous measurement results of selected constituent concentrations in the gases emitted to the air during the coke wet quenching process were presented and discussed in the paper. The measurements were carried out for the standard wet quenching tower. The research covered such substances as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide and a total content of hydrocarbons and hydrogen (combustible gases). Changeability of the substance concentrations depending of the quenching process duration was analyzed. Among other things the beginning of these substances formation, appearance of the maximum and the range of observed concentrations were taken into consideration ...


Thermochemistry And Kinetics In Pyrolysis And Oxidation Of Oxygenated Chlorocarbons And Chlorinated Aromatics, Li Zhu Dec 2002

Thermochemistry And Kinetics In Pyrolysis And Oxidation Of Oxygenated Chlorocarbons And Chlorinated Aromatics, Li Zhu

Dissertations

Thermochemical. properties, ΔfH°298, S°298, and Cp°(T) (5<=T/K<=6000), are determined using different ab inifio and density functional theory methods for three chloromethyl radicals, CH2Cl, CHCl2, CCl3, all chlorobenzenes from monochlorobenzene to hexachlorobenzene, and all chlorophenols from ortho-, meta-, para-chlorophenol to pentachlorophenol. The B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method is used in the structure optimization. The B3LYP/6-31G(3df,2p), QCISD(T)/6-3 I G(d,p), and CB S-Q methods are used in single point calculations of total electronic energies. Harmonic vibration frequencies are scaled for zero point energies and thermal corrections. Isodesmic reaction(s) are utilized at each calculation level to determine ΔfH°298 of each species. Contributions ...


Experimental And Modeling Studies Of Formation Of Products Of Incomplete Combustion And Chlorocarbon Incineration, Roman Brukh Dec 2002

Experimental And Modeling Studies Of Formation Of Products Of Incomplete Combustion And Chlorocarbon Incineration, Roman Brukh

Dissertations

The two-stage combustor facility was used to investigate the process of chlorocarbon incineration and formation of products of incomplete combustion. For this purpose methylene chloride was used as a chlorine-containing compound. The propose of this research was to obtain a better understanding of the incineration process of chlorocarbons, such as methylene chloride, especially regarding its destruction efficiency and formation of products of incomplete combustion. For measuring near-real time very low concentrations of benzene and methylene chloride, on-line microtrap gas chromatography system was used.

The experimental system was validated using a known combustion reaction mechanism from literature. Modeling of combustion process ...


Closed-Loop Control Of Vortex Shedding By Means Of Lorentz Force, Xiaoyun Sun Dec 2002

Closed-Loop Control Of Vortex Shedding By Means Of Lorentz Force, Xiaoyun Sun

Dissertations

When an incompressible fluid flows past a circular cylinder, vortex shedding occurs as soon as the Reynolds number exceeds about 40. Vortex shedding is usually undesirable, as it generates a significant increase in drag, as well an oscillating lift force on the cylinder leading to cross-stream structural vibrations. Flow control to either delay the appearance of vortex shedding or fully suppress it has attracted much attention during the last decade. The focus of this dissertation is to control vortex shedding from a circular cylinder by applying an external electromagnetic field. As in previous works, the latter is generated by electrodes ...


Viscoelasticity From A Microscopic Model Of Dislocation Dynamics, M. Christina Marchetti, Karl Saunders Dec 2002

Viscoelasticity From A Microscopic Model Of Dislocation Dynamics, M. Christina Marchetti, Karl Saunders

Physics

It is shown that the dynamics of a viscoelastic medium can be modeled as that of a two-dimensional crystal with a finite concentration of dislocations, as well as vacancy and interstitial defects. At the longest length scales the viscoelasticity is described by the simplest Maxwell model, whose shear and compressional relaxation times are obtained in terms of microscopic quantities, including the density of free dislocations. At short length scales, t bond orientational order effects become important and lead to wave vector dependent corrections to the relaxation times.


Functional Annotation And Dendrogram Representation Of Gene Expression Clustering Results, Antoneta Petkova Vladimirova Dec 2002

Functional Annotation And Dendrogram Representation Of Gene Expression Clustering Results, Antoneta Petkova Vladimirova

Theses

The advances in genomic sciences have created vast amounts of gene expression data. To make sense of the expression information, various techniques have been applied. Clustering is among the unsupervised methods used to group the results according to gene expression level. Dendrogram visualization allows graphical representation of the clustering. The aim of this thesis is to enhance these techniques by adding another layer of functionality, namely, annotating the dendrogram with gene functional information. Presented is an application which visualizes yeast clustering results as a dendrogram along with color-coded gene keyword annotations. Gene keyword information was extracted from a major biological ...


Effect Of Assessment Method On The Discrepancy Between Judgments Of Health Disorders People Have And Do Not Have: A Web Study, Jonathan Baron, David A. Asch, Angela Fagerlin, Christopher A. Jepson, George Loewenstein, Jason Riis, Margaret G. Stineman, Peter A. Ubel Dec 2002

Effect Of Assessment Method On The Discrepancy Between Judgments Of Health Disorders People Have And Do Not Have: A Web Study, Jonathan Baron, David A. Asch, Angela Fagerlin, Christopher A. Jepson, George Loewenstein, Jason Riis, Margaret G. Stineman, Peter A. Ubel

Marketing Papers

Three experiments on the World Wide Web asked subjects to rate the severity of common health disorders such as acne or arthritis. People who had a disorder (“Haves”) tended to rate it as less severe than people who did not have it (“Not-haves”). Two explanations of this Have versus Not-have discrepancy were rejected. By one account, people change their reference point when they rate a disorder that they have. More precise reference points would, on this account, reduce the discrepancy, but, if anything, the discrepancy was larger. By another account, people who do not have the disorder focus on attributes ...


Handgrip Pattern Recognition, Zong Chen Dec 2002

Handgrip Pattern Recognition, Zong Chen

Dissertations

There are numerous tragic gun deaths each year. Making handguns safer by personalizing them could prevent most such tragedies. Personalized handguns, also called "smart" guns, are handguns that can only be fired by the authorized user. Handgrip pattern recognition holds great promise in the development of the smart gun.

Two algorithms, static analysis algorithm and dynamic analysis algorithm, were developed to find the patterns of a person about how to grasp a handgun. The static analysis algorithm measured 160 subjects' fingertip placements on the replica gun handle. The cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were applied to these fingertip placements, and ...


A Method For Developing In-Silico Protein Homologs, Susan Mcclatchy Dec 2002

A Method For Developing In-Silico Protein Homologs, Susan Mcclatchy

Theses

Computational methods for identifying and screening the most promising drug receptor candidates in the human genome are of great interest to drug discovery researchers. Successful methods will accurately identify and narrow the field of potential drug receptor candidates. This study details one such method.

The method described here begins with the assumption that novel drug receptors have high sequence similarity to established drug receptors. The similarity search program FASTA3 aligns translated sequences of the human genome to known drug receptor sequences and ranks these alignments by measuring their statistical significance. Query results returned by FASTA3 are assembled into "in-silico proteins ...


Reconsidering Restoration, Brian Hoffner Dec 2002

Reconsidering Restoration, Brian Hoffner

Theses

What does the process of ecological restoration actually produce? For some restoring nature is a point of no contention. By replacing ecosystems that have been damaged by human interference, humans are taking proper responsibility for their actions. However, the environmental ethics community is all but in agreement over humans' obligations to damaged ecosystems. Some in the field claim that it is human's responsibility to perform "wild gardening", through restorations, to "our" environments. While other philosophers insist that these acts produce "faked nature".

This thesis offers a compromise vision of the meaning of restoration. The author uses the concept of ...


Analysis Of Gene Expression Data Using Expressionist 3.1 And Genespring 4.2, Indu Shrivastava Dec 2002

Analysis Of Gene Expression Data Using Expressionist 3.1 And Genespring 4.2, Indu Shrivastava

Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the gene expression analysis methods of two data mining tools, ExpressionisticTM 3.1 and GeneSpringTM 4.2 with focus on basic statistical analysis and clustering algorithms. The data for this analysis was derived from the hybridization of Rattus norvegicus RNA to the Affymetrix RG34A GeneChip. This analysis was derived from experiments designed to identify changes in gene expression patterns that were induced in vivo by an experimental treatment.

The tools were found to be comparable with respect to the list of statistically significant genes that were up-regulated ...


Search For Radiative B,-Hadron Decays In Pp̅ Collisions At √S=1.8 Tev, Darin Acosta, Kenneth A. Bloom, Collider Detector At Fermilab Collaboration Dec 2002

Search For Radiative B,-Hadron Decays In Pp̅ Collisions At √S=1.8 Tev, Darin Acosta, Kenneth A. Bloom, Collider Detector At Fermilab Collaboration

Kenneth Bloom Publications

We have performed a search for radiative b-hadron decays using events produced in pp̅ collisions at √s=1.8 TeV and collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The decays we considered were d0K*0(→K-π+) γ, s0→φ(→K+K-) γ, Λb0→ Λ(→pπ-) γ, and their charge conjugates. Two independent methods to identify photons from such decays were employed. In the first method, the photon was detected in the electromagnetic calorimeter. In the second method, the photon was identified by an electron-positron pair produced through the external photon ...


Limits On Extra Dimensions And New Particle Production In The Exclusive Photon, Darin Acosta, Kenneth A. Bloom, Collider Detector At Fermilab Collaboration Dec 2002

Limits On Extra Dimensions And New Particle Production In The Exclusive Photon, Darin Acosta, Kenneth A. Bloom, Collider Detector At Fermilab Collaboration

Kenneth Bloom Publications

The exclusive γE/T signal has a small standard model cross section and is thus a channel sensitive to new physics. This signature is predicted by models with a superlight gravitino or with large extra spatial dimensions. We search for such signals at the Collider Detector at Fermilab, using 87   pb-1 of data at √s=1.8   TeV, and extract 95% C.L. limits on these processes. A limit of 221 GeV is set on the scale |F|1/2 in supersymmetric models. For 4, 6, and 8 extra dimensions, model-dependent limits on the fundamental mass scale MD ...


Mylanodon Rosei, A New Metacheiromyid (Mammalia: Palaeanodonta) From The Late Tiffanian (Late Paleocene) Of Northwestern Wyoming, Ross Secord, Philip D. Gingerich, Jonathan I. Bloch Dec 2002

Mylanodon Rosei, A New Metacheiromyid (Mammalia: Palaeanodonta) From The Late Tiffanian (Late Paleocene) Of Northwestern Wyoming, Ross Secord, Philip D. Gingerich, Jonathan I. Bloch

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Mylanodon rosei is a new genus and species of late Paleocene metacheiromyid palaeanodont from a new late Tiffanian locality, Y2K Quarry, in the Clarks Fork Basin, Wyoming. The type is an adult dentary with P4 and a molariform double-rooted M1. This provides the first evidence that molariform teeth were retained in early Metacheiromyidae. A second specimen is a juvenile dentary with a partial P3 and an unerupted P4. This is the first juvenile dentition known for a Paleocene metacheiromyid. The new specimens enable determination of dental homologies. Reduction of teeth in early metacheiromyids took place from ...


Unusual Sequences Of Tilted Smectic Phases In Liquid Crystals Of Bent-Shape Molecules, Antal Jakli, P. Toledano Dec 2002

Unusual Sequences Of Tilted Smectic Phases In Liquid Crystals Of Bent-Shape Molecules, Antal Jakli, P. Toledano

Chemical Physics Publications

The first theoretical description of the experimentally often-observed isotropic-polar smectic phase transitions of symmetric and asymmetric bent-shape molecules is presented. The isotropic-tilted polar smectic phase transition requires a coupling among three types of ordering processes: polar packing, director tilt, and layer ordering. For explaining the unusual triclinic-monoclinic phase transition with the lower symmetry phase at higher temperature, observed in fluoro-containing compounds recently, a mechanism is proposed in which the layer ordering triggers the simultaneous onset of the tilt and polar order.


Perturbative Calculation Of The Triply Differential Cross Section For Photo-Double-Ionization Of He, Andrei Y. Istomin, N. L. Manakov, Anthony F. Starace Dec 2002

Perturbative Calculation Of The Triply Differential Cross Section For Photo-Double-Ionization Of He, Andrei Y. Istomin, N. L. Manakov, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Single-photon, two-electron ionization of He is analyzed, taking into account electron correlation using lowest-order perturbation theory and including all individual electron angular momenta in the final two-electron continuum. Perturbative account of electron correlation in the final state, which describes the so-called TS-1 mechanism of double photoionization, combined with a variational account of electron screening, is found to provide results for the triply differential cross section at an excess energy of 20 eV that are in excellent agreement with both absolute experimental data and results of non-perturbative calculations, for all kinematics of the process in which the TS-1 mechanism is expected ...


Dynamics Of The Nematic Phase Of A Bent-Core Liquid Crystal, S. Stojadinovic, A. Adorjan, Samuel N. Sprunt, Hans Sawade, Antal Jakli Dec 2002

Dynamics Of The Nematic Phase Of A Bent-Core Liquid Crystal, S. Stojadinovic, A. Adorjan, Samuel N. Sprunt, Hans Sawade, Antal Jakli

Chemical Physics Publications

The dielectric fluctuations in the uniaxial nematic phase of a bent-core liquid crystal have been studied by dynamic light scattering. Polarization selection of the scattering cross-section reveals one mode due to ordinary director fluctuations and, in the lower part of the nematic phase, a second mode attributable to fluctuations of the biaxial order parameter. The director fluctuations are similar to100 times slower than observed in typical nematics based on straight-core molecules, suggesting that the bent core nematogenic units may be microscopic smectic domains ("cybotactic" clusters).


Pigeon-Holing Monodromy Groups, Niles G. Johnson Dec 2002

Pigeon-Holing Monodromy Groups, Niles G. Johnson

Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR)

A simple tiling on a sphere can be used to construct a tiling on a d-fold branched cover of the sphere. By lifting a so-called equatorial tiling on the sphere, the lifted tiling is locally kaleidoscopic, yielding an attractive tiling on the surface. This construction is via a correspondence between loops around vertices on the sphere and paths across tiles on the cover. The branched cover and lifted tiling give rise to an associated monodromy group in the symmetric group on d symbols. This monodromy group provides a beautiful connection between the cover and its base space. Our investigation ...


Hyperbolic Billiard Paths, Rebecca Lehman, Chad White Dec 2002

Hyperbolic Billiard Paths, Rebecca Lehman, Chad White

Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR)

A useful way to investigate closed geodesics on a kaleidoscopically tiled surface is to look at the billiard path described by a closed geodesic on a single tile. When looking at billiard paths it is possible to ignore surfaces and restrict ourselves to the tiling of the hyperbolic plane. We classify the smallest billiard paths by wordlength and parity. We also demonstrate the existence of orientable paths and investigate conjectures about the billiard spectrum for the (2, 3, 7)-tiling.


Volunteer For Iowater In 2003, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Lynette Seigley, Michael J. Tidman Dec 2002

Volunteer For Iowater In 2003, Mahdi Al-Kaisi, H. Mark Hanna, Lynette Seigley, Michael J. Tidman

Integrated Crop Management News

Water quality is an important issue for agriculture. The protection of Iowa's rivers, streams, and lakes from nonpoint source pollution is one of the greatest environmental challenges facing our state. Despite the accomplishments of Iowa producers over the past few years (buffer strips, grassed waterways, no-till, and similar efforts), some water bodies have fallen short of water quality standards.


Search For The Production Of Single Sleptons Through R-Parity Violation In Pp̅ Collisions At √S = 1.8 Tev, V. M. Abazov, Gregory R. Snow, D0 Collaboration Dec 2002

Search For The Production Of Single Sleptons Through R-Parity Violation In Pp̅ Collisions At √S = 1.8 Tev, V. M. Abazov, Gregory R. Snow, D0 Collaboration

Gregory Snow Publications

We report the first search for supersymmetric particles via s-channel production and decay of smuons or muon sneutrinos at hadronic colliders. The data for the two-muon and two-jets final states were collected by the D0 experiment and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 94 ± 5 pb-1. Assuming that R parity is violated via the single coupling λ′211, the number of candidate events is in agreement with expectation from the standard model. Exclusion contours are given in the (m0; m½) and (mΧ̅,mν planes for λ′211= 0.09, 0.08, and 0.07.


Valley Floor Climate Observations From The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, 1986-2000, Peter T. Doran, Christopher P. Mckay, Gary D. Clow, Gayle L. Dana, Andrew G. Fountain, Thomas H. Nylen, W. Berry Lyons Dec 2002

Valley Floor Climate Observations From The Mcmurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, 1986-2000, Peter T. Doran, Christopher P. Mckay, Gary D. Clow, Gayle L. Dana, Andrew G. Fountain, Thomas H. Nylen, W. Berry Lyons

Geography Faculty Publications and Presentations

Climate observations from the McMurdo dry valleys, East Antarctica are presented from a network of seven valley floor automatic meteorological stations during the period 1986 to 2000. Mean annual temperatures ranged from −14.8°C to −30.0°C, depending on the site and period of measurement. Mean annual relative humidity is generally highest near the coast. Mean annual wind speed increases with proximity to the polar plateau. Site to site variation in mean annual solar flux and PAR is due to exposure of each station and changes over time are likely related to changes in cloudiness. During the non-summer ...


Characteristics Of Quasi-Monochromatic Gravity Waves Observed With Na Lidar In The Mesopause Region At Starfire Optical Range, Nm, Xiong Hu, Alan Z. Liu, Chester S. Gardner, Gary R. Swenson Dec 2002

Characteristics Of Quasi-Monochromatic Gravity Waves Observed With Na Lidar In The Mesopause Region At Starfire Optical Range, Nm, Xiong Hu, Alan Z. Liu, Chester S. Gardner, Gary R. Swenson

Physical Sciences - Daytona Beach

The University of Illinois Na wind/temperature lidar data collected at the Starfire Optical Range, NM, between Jan. 1998 and May 2000 was used to extract the dominant monochromatic gravity waves. By using simultaneously measured horizontal wind and temperature profiles, the vertical wavelengths (λz), (TI), and propagation directions were determined using the hodograph method. A total of 700 monochromatic gravity waves were analyzed from ~300 h of observations. It was found that 84.4% of the waves were propagating upwards. The mean λz was 12.6 km and 9.9 km for upward and downward propagating waves ...


Chaotic Free-Space Laser Communication Over Turbulent Channel, N. F. Rulkov, Mikhail Vorontsov, L. Illing Dec 2002

Chaotic Free-Space Laser Communication Over Turbulent Channel, N. F. Rulkov, Mikhail Vorontsov, L. Illing

Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty Publications

The dynamics of errors caused by atmospheric turbulence in a self-synchronizing chaos-based communication system that stably transmits information over a ∼5  km free-space laser link is studied experimentally. Binary information is transmitted using a chaotic sequence of short-term pulses as a carrier. The information signal slightly shifts the chaotic time position of each pulse depending on the information bit. We report the results of an experimental analysis of the atmospheric turbulence in the channel and the impact of turbulence on the bit-error-rate performance of this chaos-based communication system.


He Ii Reverberation In Active Galactic Nucleus Spectra, Mark C. Bottorff, Jack A. Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, Jason W. Ferguson, Kirk T. Korista Dec 2002

He Ii Reverberation In Active Galactic Nucleus Spectra, Mark C. Bottorff, Jack A. Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, Jason W. Ferguson, Kirk T. Korista

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

This paper compares the observed reverberation response lags and the intensity ratios of the broad-line region (BLR) emission lines He II λ1640, He II λ4686, and C IV λ1549 with predictions. Published observations indicate that the He II λ1640 lag is 3 times shorter than the lags of He II λ4686 or C IV λ1549. Diverse models, however, do not reproduce this observation. Extensive improved numerical simulations of the hydrogenic isoelectronic sequence emission show that the He II spectrum remains especially simple, even in the central regions of a luminous quasar. Line trapping never builds up a significant population of ...


On The Effect Of Random Errors In Gridded Bathymetric Compilations, Martin Jakobsson, Brian R. Calder, Larry A. Mayer Dec 2002

On The Effect Of Random Errors In Gridded Bathymetric Compilations, Martin Jakobsson, Brian R. Calder, Larry A. Mayer

Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping

We address the problem of compiling bathymetric data sets with heterogeneous coverage and a range of data measurement accuracies. To generate a regularly spaced grid, we are obliged to interpolate sparse data; our objective here is to augment this product with an estimate of confidence in the interpolated bathymetry based on our knowledge of the component of random error in the bathymetric source data. Using a direct simulation Monte Carlo method, we utilize data from the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean database to develop a suitable methodology for assessment of the standard deviations of depths in the interpolated ...


On Matrices With Signed Null Spaces, S. J. Kim, Bryan L. Shader, S. G. Hwang Dec 2002

On Matrices With Signed Null Spaces, S. J. Kim, Bryan L. Shader, S. G. Hwang

Mathematics Faculty Publications

We denote by Q(A) the set of all matrices with the same sign pattern as A. A matrix A has signed null-space provided there exists a set S of sign patterns such that the set of sign patterns of vectors in the null-space of (A) over tilde is S for each (A) over tilde is an element of Q (A). Some properties of matrices with signed null-spaces are investigated.


Two-Photon Bremsstrahlung Processes In Atoms: Polarization Effects And Analytic Results For The Coulomb Potential, A. A. Krylovetskiĭ, N. L. Manakov, S. I. Marmo, Anthony F. Starace Dec 2002

Two-Photon Bremsstrahlung Processes In Atoms: Polarization Effects And Analytic Results For The Coulomb Potential, A. A. Krylovetskiĭ, N. L. Manakov, S. I. Marmo, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

The partial wave analysis of two-photon free–free (bremsstrahlung) electron transition cross sections during scattering by a static potential U(r), as well as by an atom with a nonzero angular momentum, is carried out. The dipole interaction with radiation is taken into account in the second order of perturbation theory for the general case of elliptic polarization of photons. The polarization and angular dependences of the twophoton potential scattering amplitude is presented as a combination of the scalar product of electron momenta and photon polarization vectors and five atomic parameters containing Legendre polynomials of the scattering angle as well ...


Search For Minimal Supergravity In Single-Electron Events With Jets And Large Missing Transverse Energy In Pp̅ Collisions At √S =1.8 Tev, V. M. Abazov, Gregory R. Snow, D0 Collaboration Dec 2002

Search For Minimal Supergravity In Single-Electron Events With Jets And Large Missing Transverse Energy In Pp̅ Collisions At √S =1.8 Tev, V. M. Abazov, Gregory R. Snow, D0 Collaboration

Gregory Snow Publications

We describe a search for evidence of minimal supergravity (MSUGRA) in 92.7 pb-1 of data collected with the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp̅ collider at√s =1.8 TeV. Events with a single electron, four or more jets, and large missing transverse energy were used in this search. The major backgrounds are from W +jets, misidentified multijet, tt̅, and WW production. We observe no excess above the expected number of background events in our data. A new limit in terms of MSUGRA model parameters is obtained.


Level Oriented Formal Model For Asynchronous Circuit Verification And Its Efficient Analysis Method, Eric G. Mercer, Tomoya Kitai, Chris Myers, Yusuke Oguro, Tomohiro Yoneda Dec 2002

Level Oriented Formal Model For Asynchronous Circuit Verification And Its Efficient Analysis Method, Eric G. Mercer, Tomoya Kitai, Chris Myers, Yusuke Oguro, Tomohiro Yoneda

All Faculty Publications

Using a level-oriented model for verification of asynchronous circuits helps users to easily construct formal models with high readability or to naturally model datapath circuits. On the other hand, in order to use such a model on large circuits, techniques to avoid the state explosion problem must be developed. This paper first introduces a level-oriented formal model based on time Petri nets, and then proposes its partial order reduction algorithm that prunes unnecessary state generation while guaranteeing the correctness of the verification.