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1997

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Articles 1 - 30 of 2023

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Jurassic Eolian Oolite On A Paleohigh In The Sundance Sea, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, Zoran Kilibarda, David Loope Aug 2015

Jurassic Eolian Oolite On A Paleohigh In The Sundance Sea, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, Zoran Kilibarda, David Loope

David B. Loope

Aeolian limestones are widespread in the Quaternary record and have been identified in outcrops and cores of late Palaeozoic strata. These rocks have been interpreted as a low latitude signal of glacio-eustatic sea level fluctuations and have not been previously reported from the Mesozoic or from other episodes of earth history generally believed to have been non-glacial. Numerous lenticular bodies of cross-stratified oolite lie near the contact between the lower and upper members of the mudstone-dominated lower Sundance Formation (Middle and Upper Jurassic) in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming, USA. The lenses, up to 12 m thick, contain sedimentary ...


Emisja Metali Ciężkich Ze Spalania Odpadów Niebezpiecznych, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki Dec 1997

Emisja Metali Ciężkich Ze Spalania Odpadów Niebezpiecznych, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the results of measurements of air emissions of heavy metals from hazardous waste incineration in a multiple hearth furnace and a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a single wet flue gas cleaning systems. In the multiple hearth furnace an industrial sewage sludge (from coke industry) was being incinerated. In the rotary kiln such wastes were being incinerated as: waste paints, varnish and lubricant, coal tars waste, contaminated cleaning rags, sawdust and used gloves, waste resins and plastics, rubber waste, outdated pharmaceuticals and medicines, and hospital waste. The research allowed us to determine the levels of pollutant concentrations ...


Effects Of Surfactants And Fenton's Reagents On Extraction And Destruction Of Phenanthrene In Spiked Sand, Ming-Chin Chang Dec 1997

Effects Of Surfactants And Fenton's Reagents On Extraction And Destruction Of Phenanthrene In Spiked Sand, Ming-Chin Chang

Dissertations

In this study, surfactants and Fenton's reagents (Fe(II) and H202) ere proposed to solve contaminated site problems in situ on a lab scale. Phenanthrene is a simple PAHs (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons). The phenanthrene spiked ottawa sand simulated contaminated soil. HPLC was used for phenanthrene analysis because it provided excellent separation and no interference. Six surfactants (including nonionic and ionic) were tested. The operating conditions were optimized based on process and economic considerations such as reaction time, mixing speed, concentrations of surfactants and concentrations of Fenton's reagents. Surfactants could effectively dissolve phenanthrene from the spiked ...


Flag : The Fault-Line Analytic Graph And Fingerprint Classification, Ching-Yu Huang Dec 1997

Flag : The Fault-Line Analytic Graph And Fingerprint Classification, Ching-Yu Huang

Dissertations

Fingerprints can be classified into millions of groups by quantitative measurements of their new representations - Fault-Line Analytic Graphs (FLAG), which describe the relationship between ridge flows and singular points. This new model is highly mathematical, therefore, human interpretation can be reduced to a minimum and the time of identification can be significantly reduced.

There are some well known features on fingerprints such as singular points, cores and deltas, which are global features which characterize the fingerprint pattern class, and minutiae which are the local features which characterize an individual fingerprint image. Singular points are more important than minutiae when classifying ...


Biodegradation Of Pah Contaminated Soil And Sludge Using Non-Ionic Surfactants, Seema Narula Dec 1997

Biodegradation Of Pah Contaminated Soil And Sludge Using Non-Ionic Surfactants, Seema Narula

Dissertations

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most prevalent environmental pollutants contaminating a large number of industrial and Superfund sites. Low solubility and sorption to solid surfaces limit biodegradation rates of PAHs in the environment. Bioremediation of these compounds have been previously tested with partial success. In the present study, aerobic biodegradation of three PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) has been studied in shaker flasks, batch fermenter, and bioslurry reactor, in the presence of non-ionic surfactants. A mixed bacterial culture derived from both a refinery sludge and an activated sludge was used as the seed population in the degradation ...


Applications Of Internet Technology For Requirements Elicitation, Deepak Pandit Dec 1997

Applications Of Internet Technology For Requirements Elicitation, Deepak Pandit

Theses

During the Requirements Elicitation part of a project various stakeholders need to be able to communicate their requirements to the developers, and the developers need to be able communicate their understanding back to the stakeholders. Communication between the various members of the project is the key factor during the Requirements Elicitation part of a project. Easing communications between stakeholders and developers makes the process of eliciting requirement easier, leading to better requirements specification and eventually a better product.

The Requirements Elicitation Process through Internet (REPI) web site has been designed and implemented to explore this idea. The prototype version of ...


A Simple Neural Agent Communicating Through Sets, James P. Stanski Dec 1997

A Simple Neural Agent Communicating Through Sets, James P. Stanski

Theses

Networked agents of the simplest kind offer the power of cooperative problem solving through parallel operation along with tight packaging potential. Such agents are self-contained analog machines capable of only a few primitive intelligent operations. In this thesis, a design will be developed for a simple agent capable of sending, receiving, and processing information in a environment where agents are coupled together. This environment imposes unorchestrated simultaneous input while expecting a useful timely response. Successful collaboration in these conditions is accomplished through sets encoded within pulse ensembles. The simplicity of the set definition is an inviting candidate for message communication ...


Thermodynamic Properties Of Chlorocarbons And Kinetic Analysis For A- And B -Addition Of Oh+C2h3cl, Li Zhu Dec 1997

Thermodynamic Properties Of Chlorocarbons And Kinetic Analysis For A- And B -Addition Of Oh+C2h3cl, Li Zhu

Theses

Thermodynamic properties, ΔHf°298, S°298 and Cp(T) 300≤T/K≤1500, for C1, C2 chlorocarbons are calculated by AM1 and PM3 in MOPAC6, then compared with the literature data. AM1- and PM3-derived S°298 and Cp(T) (300≤T/K≤1500) are found to be consistent with the literature (Rd ≤ ± 5%). ΔHf°298 of CH2Cl2, CH2ClCH2Cl, CH2ClCHCl2, CHCl2CHCl2, and C2Cl4 and C2Cl2 calculated by PM3 as well as ΔHf°298 of CCl4, C2HCl3 ...


Module Embedding, Atanas Radenski Dec 1997

Module Embedding, Atanas Radenski

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This paper proposes a code reuse mechanism called module embedding that enables the building of new modules from existing ones through inheritance, overriding of procedures, and overriding of types; the paper also describes an implementation scheme for this mechanism. Module embedding is beneficial when modules and classes are used in combination and need to be extended together, or when modules are more appropriate medium than classes.


Zastosowanie Modelu "Skrzynki" Do Oceny Poziomu Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń Komunikacyjnych W Przyziemnej Warstwie Atmosfery, Marek Bogacki, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz Dec 1997

Zastosowanie Modelu "Skrzynki" Do Oceny Poziomu Stężeń Zanieczyszczeń Komunikacyjnych W Przyziemnej Warstwie Atmosfery, Marek Bogacki, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz

Robert Oleniacz

Road transport is an essential source of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and reactive hydrocarbons (RHC) emissions to atmosphere. Quantity and chemical constitution of emitted substances and meteorological conditions determine the level of ozon (O3) concentration forming as a result of photochemical reactions. The method presented in the paper consists in designation of quantity and chemical constitution of substances emitted from mo-bile sources and special mathematical modeling of physical and chemical transformations that take place in the lowest atmospheric layer.

English title: The use of box model to estimate the size of traffic pollutant concentrations in the lowest atmospheric ...


Assessment Of The Record Of The 1982 El Chichón Eruption As Preserved In Greenland Snow, Gregory A. Zielinski, Jack E. Dibb, Qinzhao Yang, Paul Andrew Mayewski, Sallie Whitlow, Mark S. Twickler, Mark S. Germani Dec 1997

Assessment Of The Record Of The 1982 El Chichón Eruption As Preserved In Greenland Snow, Gregory A. Zielinski, Jack E. Dibb, Qinzhao Yang, Paul Andrew Mayewski, Sallie Whitlow, Mark S. Twickler, Mark S. Germani

Earth Science Faculty Scholarship

Variability in the SO 4 2 - and Cl time series for the 1980s from 12 shallow snow pits across the Greenland ice sheet is used to evaluate the record of the 1982 El Chichón eruption and the potential for recording a moderate northern equatorial eruption in a single Greenland ice core. Composition of volcanic glass found in spring 1983 snow in one of the pits in the Summit region matches that from El Chichón glass, thereby verifying the deposition of material from the eruption. High Na+ and Cl concentrations in this same layer probably represent deposition of the reaction products ...


Observation Of The Plasma Channel Dynamics And Coulomb Explosion In The Interaction Of A High-Intensity Laser Pulse With A He Gas Jet, G.S. Sarkisov, V. Yu. Bychenkov, V.T. Tikhonchuk, Anatoly Maksimchuk, Shouyuan Chen, R. Wagner, G. Mourou, Donald P. Umstadter Dec 1997

Observation Of The Plasma Channel Dynamics And Coulomb Explosion In The Interaction Of A High-Intensity Laser Pulse With A He Gas Jet, G.S. Sarkisov, V. Yu. Bychenkov, V.T. Tikhonchuk, Anatoly Maksimchuk, Shouyuan Chen, R. Wagner, G. Mourou, Donald P. Umstadter

Donald Umstadter Publications

We report the first interferometric observations of the dynamics of electron–ion cavitation of relativistically self-focused intense 4 TW, 400 fs laser pulse in a He gas jet. The electron density in a channel 1 mm long and 30 mm in diameter drops by a factor of approximately 10 from the maximum value of ~8x1019 cm23. A high radial velocity of the plasma expansion, ~3.8x108 cm/s, corresponding to an ion energy of about 300 keV, is observed. The total energy of fast ions is estimated to be 6% of the laser pulse energy. The high-velocity ...


On The Strain-Rate Sensitivity Of Columnar Ice, M. E. Manley, E. M. Schulson Dec 1997

On The Strain-Rate Sensitivity Of Columnar Ice, M. E. Manley, E. M. Schulson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

A power law relation between stress and strain rate of the form σ ∝ ε̇1/n was used to describe the response to strain rate of S1 ice loaded across the columns at -10°C. The rate exponent, n, decreased with increasing strain from about 4.6 at an observed peak on the load displacement curve to approximately 2.6 at a shortening of 2%. Analysis of these results and of the results of other authors on different forms of ice deformed at the same temperature suggests that the power law exponent, n, is proportional to Fc/Fg. The parameter ...


Transport Of Sulfur Dioxide From The Asian Pacific Rim To The North Pacific Troposphere, D C. Thornton, A R. Bandy, Byrin W. Blomquist, R. Talbot, Jack E. Dibb Dec 1997

Transport Of Sulfur Dioxide From The Asian Pacific Rim To The North Pacific Troposphere, D C. Thornton, A R. Bandy, Byrin W. Blomquist, R. Talbot, Jack E. Dibb

Earth Sciences Scholarship

The NASA Pacific Exploratory Mission over the Western Pacific Ocean (PEM-West B) field experiment provided an opportunity to study sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the troposphere over the western Pacific Ocean from the tropics to 60°N during February–March 1993. The large suite of chemical and physical measurements yielded a complex matrix in which to understand the distribution of sulfur dioxide over the western Pacific region. In contrast to the late summer period of Pacific Exploratory Mission-West A (PEM-West A) (1991) over this same area, SO2showed little increase with altitude, and concentrations were much lower in the ...


Chemical Characteristics Of Continental Outflow From Asia To The Troposphere Over The Western Pacific Ocean During February-March 1994: Results From Pem-West B, R. Talbot, Jack E. Dibb, Barry Lefer, J D. Bradshaw, S T. Sandholm, D R. Blake, N J. Blake, G W. Sachse, J E. Collins Jr, B J. Heikes, J T. Merrill, G L. Gregory, B E. Anderson, H B. Singh, D C. Thornton, A R. Bandy, R F. Pueschel Dec 1997

Chemical Characteristics Of Continental Outflow From Asia To The Troposphere Over The Western Pacific Ocean During February-March 1994: Results From Pem-West B, R. Talbot, Jack E. Dibb, Barry Lefer, J D. Bradshaw, S T. Sandholm, D R. Blake, N J. Blake, G W. Sachse, J E. Collins Jr, B J. Heikes, J T. Merrill, G L. Gregory, B E. Anderson, H B. Singh, D C. Thornton, A R. Bandy, R F. Pueschel

Earth Sciences Scholarship

We present here the chemical composition of outflow from the Asian continent to the atmosphere over the western Pacific basin during the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) in February–March 1994. Comprehensive measurements of important tropospheric trace gases and aerosol particulate matter were performed from the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory. Backward 5 day isentropic trajectories were used to partition the outflow from two major source regions: continental north (>20°N) and continental south (<20°N). Air parcels that had not passed over continental areas for the previous 5 days were classified as originating from an aged marine source. The trajectories and the chemistry together indicated that there was extensive rapid outflow of air parcels at altitudes below 5 km, while aged marine air was rarely encountered and only at <20°N latitude. The outflow at low altitudes had enhancements in common industrial solvent vapors such as C2Cl4, CH3CCl3, and C6H6, intermixed with the combustion emission products C2H2, C2H6, CO ...


Distributions Of Beryllium 7 And Lead 2109, And Soluble Aerosol-Associated Ionic Species Over The Western Pacific: Pem West B, February-March 1994, Jack E. Dibb, R. Talbot, Barry Lefer, Eric Scheuer, G L. Gregory, E V. Browell, J D. Bradshaw, S T. Sandholm, H B. Singh Dec 1997

Distributions Of Beryllium 7 And Lead 2109, And Soluble Aerosol-Associated Ionic Species Over The Western Pacific: Pem West B, February-March 1994, Jack E. Dibb, R. Talbot, Barry Lefer, Eric Scheuer, G L. Gregory, E V. Browell, J D. Bradshaw, S T. Sandholm, H B. Singh

Earth Sciences Scholarship

Aerosol sampling for the determination of the concentrations of soluble ionic species and the natural radionuclides 7Be and 210Pb was conducted from the NASA DC-8 over the western Pacific as part of GTE/PEM-West B during February-March 1994. Concentrations of most soluble ionic species in the free troposphere were higher in samples collected on flights originating from Hong Kong and Japan than those collected further east over the open ocean. In both regions the measured concentrations were higher than those found during PEM-West A (fall 1991). Activities of 210Pb, a tracer of air masses influenced by sources ...


Large-Scale Distributions Of Tropospheric Nitric, Formic, And Acetic Acids Over The Western Pacific Basin During Wintertime, R. Talbot, Jack E. Dibb, Barry Lefer, Eric Scheuer, J D. Bradshaw, S T. Sandholm, S Smyth, D R. Blake, N J. Blake, G W. Sachse, J E. Collins Jr, G L. Gregory Dec 1997

Large-Scale Distributions Of Tropospheric Nitric, Formic, And Acetic Acids Over The Western Pacific Basin During Wintertime, R. Talbot, Jack E. Dibb, Barry Lefer, Eric Scheuer, J D. Bradshaw, S T. Sandholm, S Smyth, D R. Blake, N J. Blake, G W. Sachse, J E. Collins Jr, G L. Gregory

Earth Sciences Scholarship

We report here measurements of the acidic gases nitric (HNO3), formic (HCOOH), and acetic (CH3COOH) over the western Pacific basin during the February-March 1994 Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B). These data were obtained aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft as it flew missions in the altitude range of 0.3–12.5 km over equatorial regions near Guam and then further westward encompassing the entire Pacific Rim arc. Aged marine air over the equatorial Pacific generally exhibited mixing ratios of acidic gases <100 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered below 6 km altitude contained up to 8 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) HNO3 and 10 ppbv HCOOH and CH3COOH. Overall there was a general correlation ...


Comparisons Of Trace Constituents From Ground Stations And The Dc-8 Aircraft During Pem-West B, Richard Arimoto, R A. Duce, J M. Prospero, D L. Savoie, R. Talbot, Jack E. Dibb, B J. Heikes, B J. Ray, N F. Lewis, U Tomza Dec 1997

Comparisons Of Trace Constituents From Ground Stations And The Dc-8 Aircraft During Pem-West B, Richard Arimoto, R A. Duce, J M. Prospero, D L. Savoie, R. Talbot, Jack E. Dibb, B J. Heikes, B J. Ray, N F. Lewis, U Tomza

Earth Sciences Scholarship

Chemical data from ground stations in Asia and the North Pacific are compared with data from the DC-8 aircraft collected during the Pacific Exploratory Measurements in the Western Pacific Ocean (PEM-West B) mission. Ground station sampling took place on Hong Kong, Taiwan, Okinawa, and Cheju; and at three Pacific islands, Shemya, Midway, and Oahu. Aircraft samples were collected during 19 flights, most over the western North Pacific. Aluminum was used as an indicator of mineral aerosol, and even though the aircraft did sample Asian dust, strong dust storms were not encountered. The frequency distribution for non-sea-salt sulfate (nss SO4 ...


A Detailed Comparison Of Hubble Space Telescopefaint Object Spectrograph Andiueultraviolet Spectra Of Selected Seyfert Nuclei, Anuradha Koratkar, Ian Evans, Sharon Pesto, Cynthia Taylor Dec 1997

A Detailed Comparison Of Hubble Space Telescopefaint Object Spectrograph Andiueultraviolet Spectra Of Selected Seyfert Nuclei, Anuradha Koratkar, Ian Evans, Sharon Pesto, Cynthia Taylor

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Despite the contributions of the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) to the archive of UV observations of active galactic nuclei, the vast majority of UV reference data were obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. These data remain important since they provide historical information about the intensities of the UV continua and emission lines that is needed to constrain models of the active nucleus. A detailed comparison of the FOS and IUE data is critical to understanding how the measurable quantities depend on the individual instrumental calibrations, and how any conclusions derived from modeling the observations may ...


A New Approach To Probing Large-Scale Power With Peculiar Velocities, Hume A. Feldman, Richard Watkins Dec 1997

A New Approach To Probing Large-Scale Power With Peculiar Velocities, Hume A. Feldman, Richard Watkins

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

We propose a new strategy for probing the power spectrum on large scales using galaxy peculiar velocities. We explore the properties of surveys that cover only two small fields in opposing directions on the sky. Surveys of this type have several advantages over those that attempt to cover the entire sky; in particular, by concentrating on galaxies in narrow cones, these surveys are able to achieve the density needed to measure several moments of the velocity field with only a modest number of objects, even for surveys designed to probe scales >∼100h−1Mpc. We construct mock surveys with this ...


Nanoscale Imaging Of Domain Dynamics And Retention In Ferroelectric Thin Films, Alexei Gruverman, H. Tokumoto, A. S. Prakash, S. Aggarwal, B. Yang, M. Wuttig, R. Ramesh, O. Auciello, T. Venkatesan Dec 1997

Nanoscale Imaging Of Domain Dynamics And Retention In Ferroelectric Thin Films, Alexei Gruverman, H. Tokumoto, A. S. Prakash, S. Aggarwal, B. Yang, M. Wuttig, R. Ramesh, O. Auciello, T. Venkatesan

Alexei Gruverman Publications

We report results on the direct observation of the microscopic origins of backswitching in ferroelectric thin films. The piezoelectric response generated in the film by a biased atomic force microscope tip was used to obtain static and dynamic piezoelectric images of individual grains in a polycrystalline material. We demonstrate that polarization reversal occurs under no external field (i.e., loss of remanent polarization) via a dispersive continuous-time random walk process, identified by a stretched exponential decay of the remanent polarization.


Global Energetic Neutral Atom (Ena) Measurements And Their Association With The Dst Index, A. M. Jorgensen, Harlan E. Spence, M. G. Henderson, G. D. Reeves, M. Sugiura, T. Kamei Dec 1997

Global Energetic Neutral Atom (Ena) Measurements And Their Association With The Dst Index, A. M. Jorgensen, Harlan E. Spence, M. G. Henderson, G. D. Reeves, M. Sugiura, T. Kamei

Physics Scholarship

We present a new global magnetospheric index that measures the intensity of the Earth's ring current through energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). We have named it the Global Energetic Neutral Index (GENI), and it is derived from ENA measurements obtained by the Imaging Proton Spectrometer (IPS), part of the Comprehensive Energetic Particle and Pitch Angle Distribution (CEPPAD) experiment on the POLAR satellite. GENI provides a simple orbit-independent global sum of ENAs measured with IPS. Actual ENA measurements for the same magnetospheric state look different when seen from different points in the POLAR orbit. In addition, the instrument is sensitive to ...


Electro-Deposition Of Polymer Chains On An Adsorbing Wall: Density Profiles And Wall Coverage, Grace M. Foo, Ras B. Pandey Dec 1997

Electro-Deposition Of Polymer Chains On An Adsorbing Wall: Density Profiles And Wall Coverage, Grace M. Foo, Ras B. Pandey

Faculty Publications

Growth of polymer density in an electro-deposition model of polymer chains on an impenetrable wall is studied on a two dimensional discrete lattice using a Monte Carlo simulation. Polymer-polymer repulsion and polymer-wall attraction for the adsorbing wall (along with the neutral and repulsive interactions) are considered in an external field. Effects of the field strength (B), temperature (T), and chain length (L-c) on the density profile of the polymer chains and wall coverage are investigated. The spatial density profile shows onset of oscillation near the wall at a characteristic field (B-c) which depends on chain length and temperature, In low ...


Hyperfine Splitting Of Low-Lying Heavy Baryons, Joseph Schechter, Masayasu Harada, Asif Qamar, Francesco Sannino, Herbert Weigel Dec 1997

Hyperfine Splitting Of Low-Lying Heavy Baryons, Joseph Schechter, Masayasu Harada, Asif Qamar, Francesco Sannino, Herbert Weigel

Physics

We calculate the next-to-leading order contribution to the masses of the heavy baryons in the bound state approach for baryons containing a heavy quark. These 1/N_C corrections arise when states of good spin and isospin are generated from the background soliton of the light meson fields. Our study is motivated by the previously established result that light vector meson fields are required for this soliton in order to reasonably describe the spectrum of both the light and the heavy baryons. We note that the inclusion of light vector mesons significantly improves the agreement of the predicted hyperfine splitting with ...


Learning To See Analogies: A Connectionist Exploration, Douglas S. Blank Dec 1997

Learning To See Analogies: A Connectionist Exploration, Douglas S. Blank

Computer Science Faculty Research and Scholarship

The goal of this dissertation is to integrate learning and analogy-making. Although learning and analogy-making both have long histories as active areas of research in cognitive science, not enough attention has been given to the ways in which they may interact. To that end, this project focuses on developing a computer program, called Analogator, that learns to make analogies by seeing examples of many different analogy problems and their solutions. That is, it learns to make analogies by analogy. This approach stands in contrast to most existing computational models of analogy in which particular analogical mechanisms are assumed a priori ...


Effective Elastic Thickness Of The Lithosphere Along The Easter Seamount Chain, Sarah E. Kruse, Zhengro J. Liu, David F. Naar, Robert A. Duncan Dec 1997

Effective Elastic Thickness Of The Lithosphere Along The Easter Seamount Chain, Sarah E. Kruse, Zhengro J. Liu, David F. Naar, Robert A. Duncan

Geology Faculty Publications

Bathymetry and gravity data collected during Legs 5, 6, and 7 of the 1993 GLORIA Expedition and the recently released 2-min altimetry-derived global gravity grid are used to determine the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere along the Easter Seamount Chain (ESC). Forward modeling, admittance, and coherence methods yield consistent results. With the exception of the eastern and western ends of the ESC the effective elastic thickness along the chain is ∼1–4 km. The thin elastic thickness for the majority of the ESC seamounts is compatible with a young seafloor age at the time of loading derived from new ...


Audit Of The Department Of Energy's Contracts With Envirocare Of Utah, Inc., U.S. Department Of Energy, Office Of Inspector General, Office Of Audit Services, Eastern Regional Audit Office Dec 1997

Audit Of The Department Of Energy's Contracts With Envirocare Of Utah, Inc., U.S. Department Of Energy, Office Of Inspector General, Office Of Audit Services, Eastern Regional Audit Office

All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository)

The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for protecting human health and the environment by providing an effective and efficient system that treats, stores, and disposes of Departmental waste. The Department disposes of some of its waste at Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare) a commercial treatment and disposal facility in Clive, Utah. The audit objective was to determine whether the Department and its contractors were using the most favorable rates available for the disposal of waste at Envirocare.

We found that the Department's contractors did not always use the most favorable rates available. Although volume discounts were available under ...


Bias And The Probability Of Generalization, Tony R. Martinez, D. Randall Wilson Dec 1997

Bias And The Probability Of Generalization, Tony R. Martinez, D. Randall Wilson

All Faculty Publications

In order to be useful, a learning algorithm must be able to generalize well when faced with inputs not previously presented to the system. A bias is necessary for any generalization, and as shown by several researchers in recent years, no bias can lead to strictly better generalization than any other when summed over all possible functions or applications. This paper provides examples to illustrate this fact, but also explains how a bias or learning algorithm can be “better” than another in practice when the probability of the occurrence of functions is taken into account. It shows how domain knowledge ...


Phase Structure Of Dynamical Triangulation Models In Three Dimensions, Simon Catterall, Ray L. Renken, John B. Kogut Dec 1997

Phase Structure Of Dynamical Triangulation Models In Three Dimensions, Simon Catterall, Ray L. Renken, John B. Kogut

Physics

The dynamical triangulation model of three-dimensional quantum gravity is shown to have a line of transitions in an expanded phase diagram which includes a coupling mu to the order of the vertices. Monte Carlo renormalization group and finite size scaling techniques are used to locate and characterize this line. Our results indicate that for mu < mu1 ~ -1.0 the model is always in a crumpled phase independent of the value of the curvature coupling. For mu < 0 the results are in agreement with an approximate mean field treatment. We find evidence that this line corresponds to first order transitions extending to positive mu. However, the behavior appears to change for mu > mu2 ~ 2-4. The simplest scenario that is consistent with the data is the existence of a critical end point.


Cholesteric Gratings With Field-Controlled Period, Darius Subacius, Sergij V. Shiyanovskii, Philip J. Bos, Oleg Lavrentovich Dec 1997

Cholesteric Gratings With Field-Controlled Period, Darius Subacius, Sergij V. Shiyanovskii, Philip J. Bos, Oleg Lavrentovich

Chemical Physics Publications

Diffractive gratings with period varied by an electric field are developed using a cholesteric liquid crystal confined between two transparent electrodes with unidirectionally treated alignment layers. In the initial state (zero field), the cholesteric layers are parallel to the cell planes. The electric field creates an in-plane modulated structure of variable period. Diffraction regimes of both Raman-Nath and Bragg types are demonstrated. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics.