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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Merk Obat Kencing Nanah Pada Pria Di Apotik Resep Dokter Kelamin, Riza Rihanna Dec 2021

Merk Obat Kencing Nanah Pada Pria Di Apotik Resep Dokter Kelamin, Riza Rihanna

Riza Rihanna

Merk obat kencing nanah pada pria di apotik resep dokter kelamin,bagi Anda yang memiliki penyakit kencing nanah , kami menyediakan obat yang ampuh untuk membantu mengobati penyakit anda dan harganya pun sangat terjangkau . Nama produk kami adalah Gangjie dan Ghosiah, obat ini sudah terdaftar di BPOM MUI dan sudah berstandar ISO Internasional. Untuk pemesanan hub call center:087736710838.


The Biased Media And Their Utilization Of Propaganda: The True Obstructionists Of World Events And Our Minds, David B. Ross, Gina Peyton, Melissa Tara Sasso, Rande Matteson, Cortney Matteson Dec 2019

The Biased Media And Their Utilization Of Propaganda: The True Obstructionists Of World Events And Our Minds, David B. Ross, Gina Peyton, Melissa Tara Sasso, Rande Matteson, Cortney Matteson

Dr. Melissa Tara Sasso

Propaganda is a widely controversial issue, especially when it collides with the media and politicians. This complex system creates tension between those who have a personal agenda to disseminate false statements to advance their plan to manipulate the minds of the public. Based upon 24/7 cable news and social media, there seems to be a miscommunication and disconnect from the truth regarding how the media reports world events, politics, environment, and how politicians were elected to help their constituents, not their own personal agendas. This chapter will address the concern for a better system of reporting the facts and ...


These 5 Simple Keto Zone Tricks Will Pump Up Your Sales Almost Instantly, Keto Healthys Nov 2019

These 5 Simple Keto Zone Tricks Will Pump Up Your Sales Almost Instantly, Keto Healthys

keto healthys

Keto Zone Diet is a health improvement plan where you pursue a low-carb and high-fat Keto diet as referenced previously. Alongside that, you likewise include an extra enhancement of Keto Zone to enable your body to achieve the territory of Ketosis quicker. This enhancement helps individuals colossally in their health improvement plan because of its few properties. In any case, you have to guarantee that the high-fat and low-carb diet is pursued with full life and no "cheat dinners" so you experience the total adequacy of this extraordinary enhancement.

How to Use Keto Zone?

Utilizing Keto Zone is very simple ...


Stock@>> Https://Slimtonediets.Com/Perfect-Keto-Max/, Jamesrtq Jamesrtq Nov 2019

Stock@>> Https://Slimtonediets.Com/Perfect-Keto-Max/, Jamesrtq Jamesrtq

Jamesrtq Jamesrtq


Perfect Keto Max weight reduction pills guarantee to help you in three different ways. They can profess to be a quick weight reduction sponsor, fat eliminator and digestion supporter across the board. This item utilizes Perfect Keto MaxNES to evidently trigger ketosis, you need to quit eating carbs. The Perfect Keto Max comes as the holder with around 60 tablets. It is counsel that a normal individual should take 2 tablets of this enhancement every day.


Source Function Of Na, Xuguang Cai Nov 2019

Source Function Of Na, Xuguang Cai

Xuguang Cai

Source function of Na global and seasonal


Co2 Levels And Climate Change During Early Eocene Hyperthermals, Ying Cui Nov 2019

Co2 Levels And Climate Change During Early Eocene Hyperthermals, Ying Cui

Ying Cui

Early Eocene (56 to 33.9 million years ago) is punctuated by a series of rapid and extreme global warming events, known as the ‘hyperthermals’, triggered by massive release of carbon dioxide. Despite the carbon emission rate might have been ten times smaller than the current emission from burning fossil fuels and cement production, the early Eocene hyperthermals are considered one of the best analogues for CO2 concentration projected into the future. The temperature records are well established from deep sea sediments during these hyperthermals, but the CO2 levels in the atmosphere remain poorly known, partly due to the lack ...


Marine Sediment Record From The East Antarctic Margin Reveals Dynamics Of Ice Sheet Recession, Amy Leventer, Eugene Domack, Jennifer Pike, Catherine Stickley, Eleanor Maddison, Stefanie A. Brachfeld, Patricia Manley, Charlie Mcclennen Nov 2019

Marine Sediment Record From The East Antarctic Margin Reveals Dynamics Of Ice Sheet Recession, Amy Leventer, Eugene Domack, Jennifer Pike, Catherine Stickley, Eleanor Maddison, Stefanie A. Brachfeld, Patricia Manley, Charlie Mcclennen

Stefanie Brachfeld

The Antarctic shelf is traversed by large-scale troughs developed by glacial erosion. Swath bathymetric, lithologic, and chronologic data from jumbo piston cores from four sites along the East Antarctic margin (Iceberg Alley, the Nielsen Basin, the Svenner Channel, and the Mertz-Ninnis Trough) are used to demonstrate that these cross-shelf features controlled development of calving bay reentrants in the Antarctic ice sheet during deglaciation. At all sites except the Mertz-Ninnis Trough, the transition between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene is characterized by varved couplets deposited during a short interval of extremely high primary productivity in a fjordlike setting. Nearly ...


Properties Of New York/New Jersey Harbor Sediments, K. W. Jones, Huan Feng, E. A. Stren, U. Neuhäusler, J. Osán, N. Marinkovic, Z. Song Nov 2019

Properties Of New York/New Jersey Harbor Sediments, K. W. Jones, Huan Feng, E. A. Stren, U. Neuhäusler, J. Osán, N. Marinkovic, Z. Song

Huan Feng

Sediments found in waterways around the world may contain toxic compounds of anthropogeilic origin that can harm the environment and human health. As a result, it is often necessary to remove them and find disposal methods that are environmentally and economically acceptable. Here, we report on results obtained in an experimental program to characterize the nature of the sediment contamination. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the properties of the sediments to develop better methods for understanding the fate and transport of the contaminants and for improving methods for their removal from the sediments. Our investigations made ...


Urban Environmental Pollution 2010: Trace Metal Dispersion In Soil From Auto-Mechanic Village To Urban Residential Areas In Owerri, Nigeria, Michael A. Nwachukwu, Huan Feng, Jude Alinnor Nov 2019

Urban Environmental Pollution 2010: Trace Metal Dispersion In Soil From Auto-Mechanic Village To Urban Residential Areas In Owerri, Nigeria, Michael A. Nwachukwu, Huan Feng, Jude Alinnor

Huan Feng

Due to poor waste management in mechanic villages (MVs), average metal concentration (mgkg-1) is Pb 1162±572; Mn 864±531; Cu 385±202; Fe 49259±4770; Cd 20±13; Zn 824±190; and Ni 40±35, causing ecological and public health risks in parts of Nigeria. Average metal dispersion (mgkg-1/m) from MVs to residential areas was estimated at 9.2 for Pb; 6.7 for Mn; 6.1 for Zn; 1.5 for Cu; 197 for Fe; 0.3 for Ni; and 0.04 for Cd. This represents a mobility order of Fe>Pb>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cd ...


Magnetic Mineral Diagenesis In The River‐Dominated Inner Shelf Of The East China Sea, China, Can Ge, Weiguo Zhang, Chenyin Dong, Yan Dong, Jinyan Liu, Nguyen Thi Thu Hien, Huan Feng, Lizhong Yu Nov 2019

Magnetic Mineral Diagenesis In The River‐Dominated Inner Shelf Of The East China Sea, China, Can Ge, Weiguo Zhang, Chenyin Dong, Yan Dong, Jinyan Liu, Nguyen Thi Thu Hien, Huan Feng, Lizhong Yu

Huan Feng

The inner shelf of the East China Sea is a river-dominated margin characterized by fine-grained mud deposits and a rapid sedimentation rate. Three short sediment cores (similar to 2.7m in length) were examined to characterize spatial variations in magnetic mineral diagenesis. The sediment cores were analyzed for sedimentation rates, magnetic properties, particle size distribution, organic carbon, and total sulfur content. The two more proximal cores with higher sedimentation rates (similar to 2.2cm/yr and similar to 0.96cm/yr) do not exhibit obvious effects of reductive dissolution of magnetite with increasing depth, which is consistent with their lower ...


Evidence For Exocellular Arsenic In Fronds Of Pteris Vittata, Rupali Datta, Padmini Das, Ryan Tappero, Pravin Punamiya, Evert Elzinga, Shivendra Sahi, Huan Feng, Jeffrey Kiiskila, Dibyendu Sarkar Nov 2019

Evidence For Exocellular Arsenic In Fronds Of Pteris Vittata, Rupali Datta, Padmini Das, Ryan Tappero, Pravin Punamiya, Evert Elzinga, Shivendra Sahi, Huan Feng, Jeffrey Kiiskila, Dibyendu Sarkar

Huan Feng

The arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating fern species Pteris vittata (PV) is capable of accumulating large quantities of As in its aboveground tissues. Transformation to AsIII and vacuolar sequestration is believed to be the As detoxification mechanism in PV. Here we present evidence for a preponderance of exocellular As in fronds of Pteris vittata despite numerous reports of a tolerance mechanism involving intracellular compartmentalization. Results of an extraction experiment show that 43–71% of the As extruded out of the fronds of PV grown in 0.67, 3.3 and 6.7mM AsV. SEM-EDX analysis showed that As was localized largely on ...


Enhancing Digestibility And Ethanol Yield Of Populus Wood Via Expression Of An Engineered Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferase, Yuanheng Cai, Kewei Zhang, Hoon Kim, Guichuan Hou, Xuebin Zhang, Huijun Yang, Huan Feng, Lisa Miller, John Ralph, Chang-Jun Liu Nov 2019

Enhancing Digestibility And Ethanol Yield Of Populus Wood Via Expression Of An Engineered Monolignol 4-O-Methyltransferase, Yuanheng Cai, Kewei Zhang, Hoon Kim, Guichuan Hou, Xuebin Zhang, Huijun Yang, Huan Feng, Lisa Miller, John Ralph, Chang-Jun Liu

Huan Feng

Producing cellulosic biofuels and bio-based chemicals from woody biomass is impeded by the presence of lignin polymer in the plant cell wall. Manipulating the monolignol biosynthetic pathway offers a promising approach to improved processability, but often impairs plant growth and development. Here, we show that expressing an engineered 4-O-methyltransferase that chemically modifies the phenolic moiety of lignin monomeric precursors, thus preventing their incorporation into the lignin polymer, substantially alters hybrid aspens’ lignin content and structure. Woody biomass derived from the transgenic aspens shows a 62% increase in the release of simple sugars and up to a 49% increase in the ...


Visco-Elastic Properties Of Duct Tape, Ashley Brown, Ulrich Zurcher Nov 2019

Visco-Elastic Properties Of Duct Tape, Ashley Brown, Ulrich Zurcher

Ulrich Zurcher

A simple experiment for determining the nonlinear stress–strain relation of duct tape is described. After weights are added and subsequently removed, the tape does not return to its original state and is no longer taut. The tape exhibits hysteresis, which implies the loss of work during the cyclical process. The exponent describing the nonlinearity is related to the fractional work loss.


Torque Around The Center Of Mass: Dynamic Stability During Quadrupedal Arboreal Locomotion In The Siberian Chipmunk (Tamias Sibiricus), Andrew R. Lammers, Ulrich Zurcher Nov 2019

Torque Around The Center Of Mass: Dynamic Stability During Quadrupedal Arboreal Locomotion In The Siberian Chipmunk (Tamias Sibiricus), Andrew R. Lammers, Ulrich Zurcher

Ulrich Zurcher

When animals travel on tree branches, avoiding falls is of paramount importance. Animals swiftly running on a narrow branch must rely on movement to create stability rather than on static methods. We examined how Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) remain stable while running on a narrow tree branch trackway. We examined the pitch, yaw, and rolling torques around the center of mass, and hypothesized that within a stride, any angular impulse (torque during step time) acting on the center of mass would be canceled out by an equal and opposite angular impulse. Three chipmunks were videotaped while running on a 2 ...


Thermal Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, Ulrich Zürcher Nov 2019

Thermal Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, Ulrich Zürcher

Ulrich Zurcher

We investigate relaxation and thermal fluctuations in systems with continuous symmetry in arbitrary spatial dimensions. For the scalar order parameter ζ(r, t) with r∈ℛd, the deterministic relaxation is caused by hydrodynamic modes η∂ζ(r, t)/∂t= K∇2ζ(r, t). For a finite volume V, we expand the scalar field in a discrete Fourier series and then we study the behavior in the limit V→∞. We find that the second moment is well defined for dimensions d≥3, while it diverges for d=1, 2. Furthermore, we show that for d<4, the decay of the scalar field does not define an "effective" relaxation time. For dimensions d<4, these two properties suggest scale-invariant properties of the scalar field in the limit V→∞. We show that thermal fluctuations are described by fractional Brownian motion for d ≤ 3 and by ordinary Brownian motion for d ≥ 4. The spectral density of the stochastic force follows 1/f for d=1 and d=2, for d=3, and "white noise," f0 for d≥4. We find explicit representation of the equilibrium distribution of the conserved scalar field. For d≥4 it is a Gaussian distribution, while for d=1 and d=2, it is the Cauchy distribution.


Thermally Activated Escape Over Fluctuating Barriers, Ulrich Zürcher, Charles R. Doering Nov 2019

Thermally Activated Escape Over Fluctuating Barriers, Ulrich Zürcher, Charles R. Doering

Ulrich Zurcher

We investigate the thermally activated escape of a Brownian particle over a potential barrier whose height fluctuates with a rate α between the values E+ and E−. We are mainly interested in the low-temperature behavior where E+/T≫E−/T. We calculate the mean exit time as a function of the rate of the barrier fluctuations for the piecewise linear and the piecewise constant barrier, τ=τ(α). For the piecewise constant potential we find three different regimes: τ∼τ+ for α<τ−1+=exp(-E+/T), τ∼2τ− for α>τ−1−=exp(-E−/T), and τ∼α−1 for τ−1+<α<τ−1−. The mean exit time for the piecewise linear potential has a different behavior for fast barrier fluctuations, α>τ−1−; τ(α) is a ...


Scaling Behavior Of Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, Ulrich Zürcher Nov 2019

Scaling Behavior Of Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, Ulrich Zürcher

Ulrich Zurcher

In nematic liquid crystals, director fluctuations correpond to the dynamical mode that is critical for all temperatures in zero external fields. The Hurst exponent characterizes the temporal behavior of the mean square displacement of director fluctuations, 〈[δn(r,t)-δn(r,0)]2〉∼t2H. We find H=1/2 in finite fields and H=3/4 in zero field. This result differs from that of Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1834 (1993)] who find a Hurst exponent that varies continuously from H≃1 in zero field to H≃1/2 in moderate fields.


Radial Motion In A Central Potential For Singular Mass Densities, Ulrich Zürcher, Miron Kaufman Nov 2019

Radial Motion In A Central Potential For Singular Mass Densities, Ulrich Zürcher, Miron Kaufman

Ulrich Zurcher

We study the radial motion of an object in the gravitational field produced by an isotropic mass density that is singular at the origin. This problem applies to elliptical galaxies and can be used to illustrate motion in a central field appropriate for an intermediate-level mechanics course.


Quantum-Mechanical Harmonic Chain Attached To Heat Baths Ii: Nonequilibrium Properties, Ulrich Zürcher, Peter Talkner Nov 2019

Quantum-Mechanical Harmonic Chain Attached To Heat Baths Ii: Nonequilibrium Properties, Ulrich Zürcher, Peter Talkner

Ulrich Zurcher

We study nonequilibrium properties of a one-dimensional harmonic chain to whose ends independent heat baths are attached which are kept at different temperatures. Using the quantum Langevin equation approach, we determine the stationary nonequilibrium state for arbitrary temperatures and coupling strength to the heat baths. This allows us to discuss several typical nonequilibrium properties. We find that the heat flux through the chain is finite as the length of the chain goes to infinity, i.e., we recover the well-known fact that the lattice thermal conductivity of the perfect harmonic chain is infinite. In the quantal case, the heat flux ...


Quantum-Mechanical Harmonic Chain Attached To Heat Baths I: Equilibrium Properties, Ulrich Zürcher, Peter Talkner Nov 2019

Quantum-Mechanical Harmonic Chain Attached To Heat Baths I: Equilibrium Properties, Ulrich Zürcher, Peter Talkner

Ulrich Zurcher

Starting from quantum Langevin equations for operators we study thermal properties of a one-dimensional harmonic chain to whose ends independent heat baths are attached. In this paper, we mainly discuss the thermal equilibrium state that the chain eventually approaches if the heat baths are at equal temperatures. In the classical limit, this state is determined by the Gibbs ensemble of the free chain, whereas in the quantal case, this is only true if the strength of coupling between chain and heat baths is made infinitely small. We find that corrections for finite coupling strength are appreciable only in boundary layers ...


Geometric Constructions For Image Formation By A Converging Lens, Ulrich Zürcher Nov 2019

Geometric Constructions For Image Formation By A Converging Lens, Ulrich Zürcher

Ulrich Zurcher

Light rays emerge from an object in all directions. In introductory texts, three 'special' rays are selected to draw the image produced by lenses and mirrors. This presentation may suggest to students that these three rays are necessary for the formation of an image. We discuss that the three rays attain their 'special status' from the geometric solution of the equation of a hyperbola x−1 + y−1 = c−1 (mirror/lens equation). The material is suitable for use in introductory courses for science majors.


Electrostatics At The Molecular Level, Ulrich Zurcher Nov 2019

Electrostatics At The Molecular Level, Ulrich Zurcher

Ulrich Zurcher

In molecular systems, positive and negative charges are separated, making them ideal systems to examine electrostatic interactions. The attractive force between positive and negative charges is balanced by repulsive ‘forces’ that are quantum-mechanical in origin. We introduce an ‘effective’ potential energy that captures the repulsion; it allows us to obtain fairly accurate estimates of the bonding properties of molecular systems. We use units (e.g., kcal mol–1 for energy) that emphasize the relevance of electrostatics to macroscopic behavior.


Comment On A Critique Of The Instantaneous Normal Mode (Inm) Approach To Diffusion, T. Keyes, Wu Xiong Li, Ulrich Zurcher Nov 2019

Comment On A Critique Of The Instantaneous Normal Mode (Inm) Approach To Diffusion, T. Keyes, Wu Xiong Li, Ulrich Zurcher

Ulrich Zurcher

A critique of the instantaneous normal mode (INM) theory of diffusion by Gezelter, Rabani, and Berne (GRB) [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4618 (1997)] is analyzed. GRB assert that imaginary-frequency INM are corrupted with modes unrelated to barrier crossing, that proposals for removing such nondiffusive (ND) modes are inadequate, and thus that INM cannot be used to predict the self-diffusion constant, D. In rebuttal it is argued that Lennard-Jones, the system studied by GRB, is anamolously rich in ND modes. INM in molecular liquids are shown to behave as excellent indicators of barrier crossing. Even in LJ ND-INM, while plentiful, do ...


An Instantaneous Normal Mode Description Of Relaxation In Supercooled Liquids, T. Keyes, G. V. Vijayadamodar, Ulrich Zurcher Nov 2019

An Instantaneous Normal Mode Description Of Relaxation In Supercooled Liquids, T. Keyes, G. V. Vijayadamodar, Ulrich Zurcher

Ulrich Zurcher

Relaxation in supercooled liquids is formulated from the instantaneous normal modes (INM) point of view. The frequency and temperature dependence of the unstable, imaginary frequency lobe of the INM density of states, ⟨ρu(ω,T)⟩ (for simplicity we write ω instead of iω), is investigated and characterized over a broad temperature range, 10⩾T⩾0.42, in the unit density Lennard-Jones liquid. INM theories of diffusion invoke Im-ω modes descriptive of barrier crossing, but not all imaginary frequency modes fall into this category. There exists a cutoff frequency ωc such that modes with ω<ωc correspond to “shoulder potentials,” whereas the potential profiles include barrier-crossing double wells for ω>ωc. Given that only modes with ...


Anharmonic Potentials In Supercooled Liquids: The Soft-Potential Model, Ulrich Zürcher, T. Keyes Nov 2019

Anharmonic Potentials In Supercooled Liquids: The Soft-Potential Model, Ulrich Zürcher, T. Keyes

Ulrich Zurcher

Instantaneous normal modes (INM) are the harmonic approximation to liquid dynamics. This is an extension of the phonon description of lattice dynamics, in which case Bloch's theorem shows that all modes are extended. Long-range order is destroyed in liquids and glasses, and the INM spectrum has contributions from both extended and localized modes. We use the soft-potential mode to describe localized modes. This model is a high-temperature extension of the standard two-level-system model for glasses. The equilibrium position of any atom in the liquid has only temporary character, and relaxation processes in the liquid are associated with particles hopping ...


Dephasing Processes In Glasses With Strong Strain Interactions, Ulrich Zürcher, R. Silbey Nov 2019

Dephasing Processes In Glasses With Strong Strain Interactions, Ulrich Zürcher, R. Silbey

Ulrich Zurcher

Spectral diffusion decay is calculated for a glass modeled by two level systems which are strongly coupled to phonons. The spin-phonon interaction induces an effective spin-spin interaction which dominates the energy scale. We show that spectral diffusion is a property of macroscopic local fields which fluctuate on time scales that are much longer than the spin-phonon relaxation time T1. We assume for the spectral diffusion a Gaussian distribution and derive a self-consistent equation for its variance which is nonlocal in time. At high temperatures, the variance grows linearly with time while at low temperatures, we find strong deviations from simple ...


Configurational Entropy And Collective Modes In Normal And Supercooled Liquids, Ulrich Zürcher, T. Keyes Nov 2019

Configurational Entropy And Collective Modes In Normal And Supercooled Liquids, Ulrich Zürcher, T. Keyes

Ulrich Zurcher

Soft vibrational modes have been used to explain anomalous thermal properties of glasses above 1 K. The soft-potential model consists of a collection of double-well potentials that are distorted by a linear term representing local stress in the liquid. Double-well modes contribute to the configurational entropy of the system. Based on the Adam-Gibbs theory of entropically driven relaxation in liquids, we show that the presence of stress drives the transition from Arrhenius to Zwanzig-Bässler temperature dependence of relaxation times. At some temperature below the glass transition, the energy scale is dominated by local stress, and soft modes are described by ...


A Stochastic Theory Of Inhomogeneously Broadened Linewidths In Solids, Ulrich Zürcher Nov 2019

A Stochastic Theory Of Inhomogeneously Broadened Linewidths In Solids, Ulrich Zürcher

Ulrich Zurcher

We investigate spectral diffusion decay using a model for solids that consists of two-level-systems (TLSs) interacting via strain fields. For the case when the rate of TLS flips vanishes, we find algebraic decay of correlation functions of the local field. We show that properties of equilibrium fluctuations are in agreement with the hierarchical picture proposed by Basché and Moerner: TLSs far away produce fast fluctuations that are small in magnitude, and close TLSs produce large fluctuations that are less frequent.


A New Optimization Algorithm For Single Hidden Layer Feedforward Neural Networks, Leong Kwan Li, Sally Shao, Ka-Fai Cedric Yiu Nov 2019

A New Optimization Algorithm For Single Hidden Layer Feedforward Neural Networks, Leong Kwan Li, Sally Shao, Ka-Fai Cedric Yiu

Sally Shao

Feedforward neural networks are the most commonly used function approximation techniques in neural networks. By the universal approximation theorem, it is clear that a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (FNN) is sufficient to approximate the corresponding desired outputs arbitrarily close. Some researchers use genetic algorithms (GAs) to explore the global optimal solution of the FNN structure. However, it is rather time consuming to use GA for the training of FNN. In this paper, we propose a new optimization algorithm for a single-hidden layer FNN. The method is based on the convex combination algorithm for massaging information in the hidden layer ...


Discrete-Time Recurrent Neural Network And Its Application To Compression Of Infra-Red Spectrum, Leong-Kwan Li, Sally S. L. Shao Nov 2019

Discrete-Time Recurrent Neural Network And Its Application To Compression Of Infra-Red Spectrum, Leong-Kwan Li, Sally S. L. Shao

Sally Shao

We study the discrete-time recurrent neural network that derived from the Leaky-integrator model and its application to compression of infra-red spec- trum. Our results show that the discrete-time Leaky-integrator recurrent neural network (RNN) model can be used to approximate the continuous-time model and inherit its dynamical characters if a proper step size is chosen. Moreover, the discrete-time Leaky-integrator RNN model is absolutely stable. By developing the double discrete integral method and employing the state space search algorithm for the discrete-time recurrent neural network model, we demonstrate with quality spectra regenerated from the compressed data how to compress the infra-red spectrum ...