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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Radio Graceful Labelling Of Graphs, Laxman Saha, Alamgir Rahaman Basunia May 2020

Radio Graceful Labelling Of Graphs, Laxman Saha, Alamgir Rahaman Basunia

Theory and Applications of Graphs

Radio labelling problem of graphs have their roots in communication problem known as \emph{Channel Assignment Problem}. For a simple connected graph $G=(V(G), E(G))$, a radio labeling is a mapping $f \colon V(G)\rightarrow \{0,1,2,\ldots\}$ such that $|f(u)-f(v)|\geq {\rm diam}(G)+1-d(u,v)$ for each pair of distinct vertices $u,v\in V(G)$, where $\rm{diam}(G)$ is the diameter of $G$ and $d(u,v)$ is the distance between $u$ and $v$. A radio labeling $f$ of a graph $G$ is a \emph{radio graceful labeling ...


Waiting-Time Paradox In 1922, Naoki Masuda, Takayuki Hiraoka May 2020

Waiting-Time Paradox In 1922, Naoki Masuda, Takayuki Hiraoka

Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

We present an English translation and discussion of an essay that a Japanese physicist, Torahiko Terada, wrote in 1922. In the essay, he described the waiting-time paradox, also called the bus paradox, which is a known mathematical phenomenon in queuing theory, stochastic processes, and modern temporal network analysis. He also observed and analyzed data on Tokyo City trams to verify the relevance of the waiting-time paradox to busy passengers in Tokyo at the time. This essay seems to be one of the earliest documentations of the waiting-time paradox in a sufficiently scientific manner.


On Statistical Significance Of Discriminant Function Coefficients, Tolulope T. Sajobi, Gordon H. Fick, Lisa M. Lix May 2020

On Statistical Significance Of Discriminant Function Coefficients, Tolulope T. Sajobi, Gordon H. Fick, Lisa M. Lix

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Discriminant function coefficients are useful for describing group differences and identifying variables that distinguish between groups. Test procedures were compared based on asymptotically approximations, empirical, and exact distributions for testing hypotheses about discriminant function coefficients. These tests are useful for assessing variable importance in multivariate group designs.


Table Of Contents May 2020

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Sandy Buck '78: Seeing Light Amidst The Gloom, Gerry Boyle May 2020

Sandy Buck '78: Seeing Light Amidst The Gloom, Gerry Boyle

Colby Magazine

"If you look at the macro you could come to a grinding halt and throw your hand up. But when you look at the local, and even state and regional levels, there are reasons for hope." -Sandy Buck '78


Gail Carlson: Inspiring Students To Step Up, Gerry Boyle May 2020

Gail Carlson: Inspiring Students To Step Up, Gerry Boyle

Colby Magazine

"When you become a doomsday person, when you're really pessimistic, it's because you can't see that you can make a difference." -Gail Carlson, associate professor of environmental studies


Support Vector Machine-Based Modified Sp Statistic For Subset Selection With Non-Normal Error Terms, Shivaji Shripati Desai, D N. Kashid May 2020

Support Vector Machine-Based Modified Sp Statistic For Subset Selection With Non-Normal Error Terms, Shivaji Shripati Desai, D N. Kashid

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Support vector machine (SVM) is used for estimation of regression parameters to modify the sum of cross products (Sp). It works well for some nonnormal error distributions. The performance of existing robust methods and the modified Sp is evaluated through simulated and real data. The results show the performance of the modified Sp is good.


Recurrence Relations For Marginal And Joint Moment Generating Functions Of Topp-Leone Generated Exponential Distribution Based On Record Values And Its Characterization, Zaki Anwar, Neetu Gupta, Mohd Akram Raza Khan, Qazi Azhad Jamal May 2020

Recurrence Relations For Marginal And Joint Moment Generating Functions Of Topp-Leone Generated Exponential Distribution Based On Record Values And Its Characterization, Zaki Anwar, Neetu Gupta, Mohd Akram Raza Khan, Qazi Azhad Jamal

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

The exact expressions and some recurrence relations are derived for marginal and joint moment generating functions of kth lower record values from Topp-Leone Generated (TLG) Exponential distribution. This distribution is characterized by using the recurrence relation of the marginal moment generating function of kth lower record values.


An Improved Two Independent-Samples Randomization Test For Single-Case Ab-Type Intervention Designs: A 20-Year Journey, Joel R. Levin, John M. Ferron, Boris S. Gafurov May 2020

An Improved Two Independent-Samples Randomization Test For Single-Case Ab-Type Intervention Designs: A 20-Year Journey, Joel R. Levin, John M. Ferron, Boris S. Gafurov

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Detailed is a 20-year arduous journey to develop a statistically viable two-phase (AB) single-case two independent-samples randomization test procedure. The test is designed to compare the effectiveness of two different interventions that are randomly assigned to cases. In contrast to the unsatisfactory simulation results produced by an earlier proposed randomization test, the present test consistently exhibited acceptable Type I error control under various design and effect-type configurations, while at the same time possessing adequate power to detect moderately sized intervention-difference effects. Selected issues, applications, and a multiple-baseline extension of the two-sample test are discussed.


A New Exponential Approach For Reducing The Mean Squared Errors Of The Estimators Of Population Mean Using Conventional And Non-Conventional Location Parameters, Housila P. Singh, Anita Yadav May 2020

A New Exponential Approach For Reducing The Mean Squared Errors Of The Estimators Of Population Mean Using Conventional And Non-Conventional Location Parameters, Housila P. Singh, Anita Yadav

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Classes of ratio-type estimators t (say) and ratio-type exponential estimators te (say) of the population mean are proposed, and their biases and mean squared errors under large sample approximation are presented. It is the class of ratio-type exponential estimators te provides estimators more efficient than the ratio-type estimators.


Supercdms: Energy Calibration Of A Ge Hv Particle Detector, Salamong Xiong, Vuk Mandic, Matthew Fritts, Nicholas Mast, Jacob Nelson May 2020

Supercdms: Energy Calibration Of A Ge Hv Particle Detector, Salamong Xiong, Vuk Mandic, Matthew Fritts, Nicholas Mast, Jacob Nelson

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The goal of the SuperCDMS collaboration is to directly detect dark matter. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are potential candidates. To detect WIMPs, it is important to be able to predict how a Ge/Si particle detector will respond to a dark matter signal. In particular, it is necessary to calibrate the recoil energy measured by these detectors. This paper presents evidence for dark matter, a description of the detector operation, and procedures used to analyze measured data from a SuperCDMS-HV Ge particle detector using Am-241 and a PuBe neutron source. Due to high event rate, criteria were developed to ...


Calculating Centrality Variables And Geometric Quantities Associated With High Energy Pb+Pb And Au+Au Collisions Using A Monte Carlo Glauber Model, Anya Wolterman May 2020

Calculating Centrality Variables And Geometric Quantities Associated With High Energy Pb+Pb And Au+Au Collisions Using A Monte Carlo Glauber Model, Anya Wolterman

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The Glauber model provides insight into the initial state of nuclear collisions by treating them in terms of the interactions between their constituent nucleons, in accordance with theories about the scattering of composite particles. These phenomenological techniques are commonly used to determine various geometric quantities associated with such complex, femtoscopic many-body systems. The Monte Carlo Glauber approach uses a random impact parameter and measured nuclear densities to investigate quantifiable properties like particle multiplicity and average geometric eccentricity for heavy ion collisions. The former involves incorporating a particle production model to plot the total transverse energy or the number of particles ...


Fabrication Of Nanoscale Columnar Diodes By Glancing Angle Deposition, Jacob D. Weightman May 2020

Fabrication Of Nanoscale Columnar Diodes By Glancing Angle Deposition, Jacob D. Weightman

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is a process in which thin films are deposited onto a substrate with obliquely incident vapor together with precisely controlled azimuthal substrate rotation. Ballistic shadowing effects due to the oblique incidence produce nanoscale structures, and a variety of feature shapes, including tilted columns, helices, and vertical columns can be achieved by varying the azimuthal rotation during the deposition process. Due to this control of morphology and the compatibility of the process with a wide variety of materials, GLAD films have found applications in a variety of fields including sensing, photonics, photovoltaics, and catalysis, where they are ...


The Leoncino Dwarf: A Neutral Hydrogen Analysis Of Agc 198691 And Its Extremely Metal-Poor Environment, Tylyn Page May 2020

The Leoncino Dwarf: A Neutral Hydrogen Analysis Of Agc 198691 And Its Extremely Metal-Poor Environment, Tylyn Page

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Studies of low-mass galaxies are important for populating the low-mass ends of funda- mental physical relations. Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are low-mass galaxies with gas-phase oxygen abundances of 12+log(O/H) ≤ 7.35 ( 1/20 Z⊙), and are especially interesting as proxies for studying the distant past, as their chemical makeup resembles those of galaxies in the early universe. AGC 198691, referred to as the Leoncino Dwarf, was discovered through the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey and found to have an oxygen abundance of less than 3% Z⊙. Presented here are the results of recent Karl G. Jansky ...


Large Scale Grid Integration Of Wind And Solar Power With Storage, Nicholas Moore May 2020

Large Scale Grid Integration Of Wind And Solar Power With Storage, Nicholas Moore

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The current energy grid in the United States is dominated by carbon intense energy generation methods that are based on production when and where it is required. However, solar and wind power have proved themselves as the most promising carbon free energy generation sources. Due to the unpredictable and uncontrollable nature of energy production from solar and wind, large scale integration of these resources into the electric grid will require robust storage capacity. In this project, we model the energy grid of the Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) energy region with high concentrations of solar and wind power to analyze ...


Deposition Of Tin For Battery And Supercapacitor Electrodes For Energy Storage, Kieran M. Liming May 2020

Deposition Of Tin For Battery And Supercapacitor Electrodes For Energy Storage, Kieran M. Liming

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Titanium Nitride (TiN) can be sputtered into a thin film, and is a promising component for battery and supercapacitor electrodes. This research explored the relationship between Nitride partial pressure and film characteristics. We sputtered TiN into thin films in a low vacuum environment at tempuratures of approximately 70o C. Most films were deposited over the course of one hour including a five minute presputtering period where the substrate was covered. We found that film thickness, system voltage, and film restivitiy to be a function of N2 partial pressure.


Searching For Doublet Vectorlike Leptons Using The Atlas Particle Detector, Brynn Keller May 2020

Searching For Doublet Vectorlike Leptons Using The Atlas Particle Detector, Brynn Keller

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Vectorlike leptons are a simple extension of the standard model, akin to a fourth family of leptons. This paper describes aspects of the preparation for a search for VLLs at an ATLAS particle collider. During this research, signal and control regions were determined with use of a Monte Carlo simulation in order to best estimate where to measure different kinds of background and where to search for a potential signal. These signal and control regions were optimized with respect to MET, LT, and number of light and heavy leptons with a goal of a 95\% confidence limit.


A Search For Pulsars Towards The Galactic Center, Jacob W. Hetrick, Kunal Mooley, Preshanth Jagannathan May 2020

A Search For Pulsars Towards The Galactic Center, Jacob W. Hetrick, Kunal Mooley, Preshanth Jagannathan

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We present observations from two separate methods for observing the Galactic Center in an attempt to characterize its pulsar and neutron star populations. A persistent puzzle of the past 20 years has been the lack of pulsar detections towards the Galactic Center, specifically within a few parsecs of the central supermassive black hole Sgr A*. This object is bright in the total intensity of its polarized emission, but is very weakly linearly polarized. We take advantage of these circumstances in an experimental search technique where we utilize the Faraday effect in an attempt to detect high rotation measure (RM) point ...


Modeling Scavenging For A Hydraulic Free-Piston Engine, Nathan Davies May 2020

Modeling Scavenging For A Hydraulic Free-Piston Engine, Nathan Davies

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

The hydraulic free-piston engine at the University of Minnesota offers a solution to improve the hydraulic efficiency and reduce emission output of off-road vehicles. We developed a MATLAB Simulink model to track the pressure, temperature, and mass profile of the fuel within the cylinder during operation. By varying different initial conditions of our model, we found that a higher intake manifold pressure and larger bottom dead center location results in higher scavenging efficiency. These results can be used to improve the controller of this engine and better maintain stable operation.


Alfalfa Harvest: Hi Imaging And 3d Modeling Of Candidate Local Group Dwarf Galaxies, Lilly Bralts-Kelly, Susie Paine, Elizabeth A. K. Adams, John M. Cannon May 2020

Alfalfa Harvest: Hi Imaging And 3d Modeling Of Candidate Local Group Dwarf Galaxies, Lilly Bralts-Kelly, Susie Paine, Elizabeth A. K. Adams, John M. Cannon

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Isolated neutral hydrogen (HI) clouds, or "ultra-compact high-velocity clouds" (UCHVCs), form a small subset of detections by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) blind extragalactic survey. These systems, if located within ~1 Mpc, would populate the lowest-mass end of the HI mass function. Subsequent optical imaging has revealed that some of these UCHVCs harbor associated (thought sparse) stellar populations, suggesting that they may be some of the most extreme galaxies known in the Local Volume, with properties akin to ultra-faint dwarf galaxies but with significant neutral gas reservoirs. In this work, we investigate the neutral hydrogen properties of six UCHVC ...


Leoncino And Ugc 5186, Josh Bartz May 2020

Leoncino And Ugc 5186, Josh Bartz

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

AGC 198691 is commonly known as the Leoncino Dwarf and is one of the most metal poor galax- ies known. An Arecibo observation in 2011 first suggested that Leoncino could be gravitationally interacting with its neighbor UGC 5186. In this paper new VLA data is used to examine the H I com- ponent of both galaxies to determine their gravitational relationship. Although the VLA could not confirm intragalactic gas seen by Aricebo, the H I density and velocity components are strong indirect evidence of gravitational interaction. UGC 5186 has a large gaseous arm reaching in the direction of Leoncino. Additionally ...


Domination Number Of Annulus Triangulations, Toshiki Abe, Junki Higa, Shin-Ichi Tokunaga May 2020

Domination Number Of Annulus Triangulations, Toshiki Abe, Junki Higa, Shin-Ichi Tokunaga

Theory and Applications of Graphs

An {\em annulus triangulation} $G$ is a 2-connected plane graph with two disjoint faces $f_1$ and $f_2$ such that every face other than $f_1$ and $f_2$ are triangular, and that every vertex of $G$ is contained in the boundary cycle of $f_1$ or $f_2$. In this paper, we prove that every annulus triangulation $G$ with $t$ vertices of degree 2 has a dominating set with cardinality at most $\lfloor \frac{|V(G)|+t+1}{4} \rfloor$ if $G$ is not isomorphic to the octahedron. In particular, this bound is best possible.


Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis In Traffic Safety, Amin Azimian, Dimitra Pyrialakou May 2020

Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis In Traffic Safety, Amin Azimian, Dimitra Pyrialakou

International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research

This paper presents an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) of road traffic crashes at different severity levels in West Virginia (WV). Although ESDA can support transportation safety decision-making by helping planners understand and summarize crash data, it is underutilized in practice. This paper describes the application of five representative easy-to-use method to identify crash patterns and high crash-risk counties in WV. Analysis of crash data from 2010 to 2015 indicated that traffic crashes in WV were not spatially correlated. However, crash severities were found to be positively correlated.


Cryptocurrencies' Revolt Against The Bsa: Why The Supreme Court Should Hold That The Bank Secrecy Act Violates The Fourth Amendment, Jeremy Ciarabellini May 2020

Cryptocurrencies' Revolt Against The Bsa: Why The Supreme Court Should Hold That The Bank Secrecy Act Violates The Fourth Amendment, Jeremy Ciarabellini

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) creates a Hobson’s choice: one must either struggle to function in modern society without a bank account or submit to financial surveillance by the government. Both choices result in drastic consequences.


The Use Of Digital Millenium Copyright Act To Stifle Speech Through Non-Copyright Related Takedowns, Miller Freeman May 2020

The Use Of Digital Millenium Copyright Act To Stifle Speech Through Non-Copyright Related Takedowns, Miller Freeman

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

In 1998, Congress passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. This law provided new methods of protecting copyright in online media. These protections shift the normal judicial process that would stop the publication of infringing materials to private actors: the online platforms. As a result, online platforms receive notices of infringement and issue takedowns of allegedly copyrighted works without the judicial process which normally considers the purpose of the original notice of infringement. In at least one case, discussed in detail below, this has resulted in a notice and takedown against an individual for reasons not related to the purpose of ...


Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling May 2020

Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The urgency to prepare for the climate crisis has never been greater. We are currently living in the sixth mass extinction and the effects are only going to accelerate. We will inherit more wildfires, larger wildfires, and more frequent wildfires.

This piece is not meant to stoke fear in its readers or be depressing, but to shift public perception on what our future holds by evaluating the laws and science presented to us. This piece will look at regional and federal regulations and assess the increased rate of forest fires and the grave public health concerns from stagnant smoke specifically ...


Numerical Modeling Of Magnetic Fields For Mirror Neutron Search Experiment, Adam Johnston May 2020

Numerical Modeling Of Magnetic Fields For Mirror Neutron Search Experiment, Adam Johnston

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

This paper will outline the configuration of 3D magnetic field model simulated from electric current sources using MATLAB. The model is using 3D arrays allowing for quick and accurate numerical approximations of Bio-Savart integrals, of error < , modeling the behavior of a magnetic field due to current carrying wires. We will discuss the development of a 3D magnetic field configuration produced by the current carrying wires around a large 2.5 m diameter vacuum beam tube in the proposed mirror neutron search experiment at High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The simulations demonstrate that the magnetic field with uniformity better than ± 2.5 mG that will allow for optimal results in experiment within the controlled range of net magnetic field magnitudes |B| 500 mG and in the large vacuum tube along 20-m neutron flight path can be achieved for an approximately 6 cm radius section at the center of the tube.


Ecosystem Services Of Urban Tree Canopy For The Mitigation Of Climate Change: Measuring Carbon Sequestration And Understory Temperature Reduction Of Knoxville’S Urban Forest, Tyler Hounshell May 2020

Ecosystem Services Of Urban Tree Canopy For The Mitigation Of Climate Change: Measuring Carbon Sequestration And Understory Temperature Reduction Of Knoxville’S Urban Forest, Tyler Hounshell

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

In the future, the city of Knoxville, Tennessee will be impacted by climate warming due to anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the ecosystem services provided by urban tree canopy in Knoxville’s urban forest can help mitigate the effects of climate warming. In addition to improving air quality, regulating water flow, and reducing noise pollution, Knoxville’s urban forest serves as a carbon sink and sequesters carbon dioxide on an annual basis. Utilizing methods for calculating carbon sequestration by trees in urban and suburban settings developed by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, the sequestration potential and its uncertainty is calculated ...


Introduction To Research Statistical Analysis: An Overview Of The Basics, Christian Vandever Apr 2020

Introduction To Research Statistical Analysis: An Overview Of The Basics, Christian Vandever

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

This article covers many statistical ideas essential to research statistical analysis. Sample size is explained through the concepts of statistical significance level and power. Variable types and definitions are included to clarify necessities for how the analysis will be interpreted. Categorical and quantitative variable types are defined, as well as response and predictor variables. Statistical tests described include t-tests, ANOVA and chi-square tests. Multiple regression is also explored for both logistic and linear regression. Finally, the most common statistics produced by these methods are explored.


A Simulation Study On Increasing Capture Periods In Bayesian Closed Population Capture-Recapture Models With Heterogeneity, Ross M. Gosky, Joel Sanqui Apr 2020

A Simulation Study On Increasing Capture Periods In Bayesian Closed Population Capture-Recapture Models With Heterogeneity, Ross M. Gosky, Joel Sanqui

Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods

Capture-Recapture models are useful in estimating unknown population sizes. A common modeling challenge for closed population models involves modeling unequal animal catchability in each capture period, referred to as animal heterogeneity. Inference about population size N is dependent on the assumed distribution of animal capture probabilities in the population, and that different models can fit a data set equally well but provide contradictory inferences about N. Three common Bayesian Capture-Recapture heterogeneity models are studied with simulated data to study the prevalence of contradictory inferences is in different population sizes with relatively low capture probabilities, specifically at different numbers of capture ...