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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Future Of Blackbird Management Research, Page E. Klug Jan 2017

The Future Of Blackbird Management Research, Page E. Klug

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Human society values birds for their intrinsic and aesthetic value as well as the ecosystem services they provide as pollinators, consumers of pests, and distributors of nutrients and seeds (Wenny et al. 2011). At the same time, conflict between birds and humans is an age-old phenomenon that has persisted as society has transformed and the scale of agriculture has expanded (Conover 2002). Managing conflict between birds and agriculture is challenging for many reasons. Foremost, the need to consider both human welfare and conservation of protected bird species is paramount, with nonlethal management methods preferred to lethal measures from societal, economical ...


Exposure Of Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) In The United States To Selected Pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, Marcelo Gottschalk Jan 2014

Exposure Of Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) In The United States To Selected Pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, Marcelo Gottschalk

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed in the United States. In 2011 and 2012, serum samples and tonsils were recovered from 162 and 37 feral swine, respectively, in the US to evaluate exposure to important swine endemic pathogens. Antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were found in 2.5% and 25.3% of tested sera, respectively. Positive serological reactions against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae have been detected in 19.7% and 69.7% of animals. More than 15% of animals presented antibodies against these 2 pathogens simultaneously. Most animals ...


Influenza Exposure In United States Feral Swine Populations, Jeffrey S. Hall, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott Barras, Randy W. Deyoung, Kristy Pabilonia, Michael L. Avery, Heather Sullivan, Larry Clark, Robert G. Mclean Jul 2012

Influenza Exposure In United States Feral Swine Populations, Jeffrey S. Hall, Richard B. Minnis, Tyler A. Campbell, Scott Barras, Randy W. Deyoung, Kristy Pabilonia, Michael L. Avery, Heather Sullivan, Larry Clark, Robert G. Mclean

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Swine play an important role in the disease ecology of influenza. Having cellular receptors in common with birds and humans, swine provide opportunities for mixed infections and potential for genetic re-assortment between avian, human, and porcine influenza. Feral swine populations are rapidly expanding in both numbers and range and are increasingly coming into contact with waterfowl, humans, and agricultural operations. In this study, over 875 feral swine were sampled from six states across the United States for serologic evidence of exposure to influenza. In Oklahoma, Florida, and Missouri, USA, no seropositive feral swine were detected. Seropositive swine were detected in ...


The Role Of A Generalized Ultraviolet Cue For Blackbird Food Selection, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, George M. Linz Jan 2012

The Role Of A Generalized Ultraviolet Cue For Blackbird Food Selection, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, George M. Linz

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Birds utilize ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths for plumage signaling and sexual selection. Ultraviolet cues may also be used for the process of avian food selection. The aim of our study was to investigate whether a UV cue and a postingestive repellent can be used to condition food avoidance in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). We found that birds conditioned with an UV-absorbent, postingestive repellent subsequently avoided UV-absorbent food. Thus, the UV-absorbent cue (coupled with 0–20% of the conditioned repellent concentration) was used to maintain avoidance for up to 18 days post-conditioning. Similarly, birds conditioned with the UV-absorbent, postingestive repellent subsequently avoided ...


Active Use Of Coyotes (Canis Latrans) To Detect Bovine Tuberculosis In Northeastern Michigan, Usa, Are R. Berentsen, Michael R. Dunbar, Shylo R. Johnson, S. Robbe-Austerman, L. Martinez, R. L. Jones Jan 2011

Active Use Of Coyotes (Canis Latrans) To Detect Bovine Tuberculosis In Northeastern Michigan, Usa, Are R. Berentsen, Michael R. Dunbar, Shylo R. Johnson, S. Robbe-Austerman, L. Martinez, R. L. Jones

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Michigan, USA, and research suggests transmission to cattle. Prevalence of the disease in deer is estimated at 1.8%, but as prevalence decreases the difficulty of detection increases. Research suggests coyotes (Canis latrans) have a higher prevalence of bTB in Michigan than deer and sampling coyotes may be a more efficient surveillance tool to detect presence or spread of the disease. Coyotes possess suitable ecological characteristics to serve as a sentinel species, assuming transmission between coyotes is not significant. The question of whether free-ranging coyotes shed Mycobacterium bovis ...


The Carrot Or The Stick? Evaluation Of Education And Enforcement As Management Tools For Human-Wildlife Conflicts., Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Stewart W. Breck, Kenneth R. Wilson, John Broderick Jan 2011

The Carrot Or The Stick? Evaluation Of Education And Enforcement As Management Tools For Human-Wildlife Conflicts., Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Stewart W. Breck, Kenneth R. Wilson, John Broderick

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Evidence-based decision-making is critical for implementing conservation actions, especially for human-wildlife conflicts, which have been increasing worldwide. Conservation practitioners recognize that long-term solutions should include altering human behaviors, and public education and enforcement of wildlife-related laws are two management actions frequently implemented, but with little empirical evidence evaluating their success. We used a system where human-black bear conflicts were common, to experimentally test the efficacy of education and enforcement in altering human behavior to better secure attractants (garbage) from bears. We conducted 3 experiments in Aspen CO, USA to evaluate: 1) on-site education in communal dwellings and construction sites, 2 ...


Hair Of The Dog: Obtaining Samples From Coyotes And Wolves Noninvasively, David E. Ausband, Julie K. Young, Barbara Fannin, Michael S. Mitchell, Jennifer L. Stenglen, Lizette P. Waits, John A. Shivik Jan 2011

Hair Of The Dog: Obtaining Samples From Coyotes And Wolves Noninvasively, David E. Ausband, Julie K. Young, Barbara Fannin, Michael S. Mitchell, Jennifer L. Stenglen, Lizette P. Waits, John A. Shivik

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Canids can be difficult to detect and their populations difficult to monitor. We tested whether hair samples could be collected from coyotes (Canis latrans) in Texas, USA and gray wolves (C. lupus) in Montana, USA using lure to elicit rubbing behavior at both man-made and natural collection devices. We usedmitochondrial and nuclearDNA to determine whether collected hair samples were from coyote, wolf, or nontarget species. Both coyotes and wolves rubbed on man-made barbed surfaces but coyotes in Texas seldom rubbed on hanging barbed surfaces. Wolves in Montana showed a tendency to rub at stations where natural material collection devices (sticks ...


Diseases And Parasites, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Tyler A. Campbell Jan 2011

Diseases And Parasites, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Tyler A. Campbell

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


Efficacy Of The Boar-Operated-System To Deliver Baits To Feral Swine., Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Giovanna Massei Jan 2011

Efficacy Of The Boar-Operated-System To Deliver Baits To Feral Swine., Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Giovanna Massei

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine (Sus scrofa) pose a significant disease threat to livestock and humans. Emerging technologies to reduce feral swine disease transmission risks include fertility control, vaccination, and toxicants. However, for these technologies to be appropriate for field application, a feral swine-specific oral delivery system is needed. We used two field trials to generate information related to appropriate field application of the Boar-Operated-System (BOSTM), an oral delivery system designed to provide bait access only to feral swine. Our objectives were to determine whether pre-baiting BOSTM units increased bait removal and to evaluate the proportion of feral swine and non-target animals that ...


Clinical And Pathologic Responses Of American Crows (Corvus Brachyrhynchos) And Fish Crows (C Ossifragus) To Experimental West Nile Virus Infection, N. M. Nemeth, B. V. Thomsen, T. R. Spraker, J. M. Benson, A. M. Bosco-Lauth, P. T. Oesterle, J. M. Bright, J. P. Muth, T. W. Campbell, T. L. Gidlewski, R. A. Bowen Jan 2011

Clinical And Pathologic Responses Of American Crows (Corvus Brachyrhynchos) And Fish Crows (C Ossifragus) To Experimental West Nile Virus Infection, N. M. Nemeth, B. V. Thomsen, T. R. Spraker, J. M. Benson, A. M. Bosco-Lauth, P. T. Oesterle, J. M. Bright, J. P. Muth, T. W. Campbell, T. L. Gidlewski, R. A. Bowen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

West Nile virus (WNV)-associated disease has a range of clinical manifestations among avian taxa, the reasons for which are not known. Species susceptibility varies within the avian family Corvidae, with estimated mortality rates ranging from 50 to 100%. We examined and compared virologic, immunologic, pathologic, and clinical responses in 2 corvid species, the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and the fish crow (C ossifragus), following experimental WNV inoculation. Unlike fish crows, which remained clinically normal throughout the study, American crows succumbed to WNV infection subsequent to dehydration, electrolyte and pH imbalances, and delayed or depressed humoral immune responses concurrent with ...


Interface Between Black-Footed Ferret Research And Operational Conservation., Dean E. Biggins, Travis M. Livieri, Stewart W. Breck Jan 2011

Interface Between Black-Footed Ferret Research And Operational Conservation., Dean E. Biggins, Travis M. Livieri, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Questions and problems that emerged during operational conservation of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes)have been addressed by a wide variety of studies. Early results from such studies often were communicated orally during meetings of recovery groups and in written form using memoranda, unpublished reports, and theses. Typically, implementation of results preceded their publication in widely distributed journals. Many of these studies eventually were published in journals, and we briefly summarize the contents of 8 volumes and special features of journals that have been dedicated to the biology of ferrets and issues in ferret recovery. This year marks the 30th anniversary ...


White-Tailed Deer Incidents With U.S. Civil Aircraft, Kirsten M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. Devault, Guiming Wang Jan 2011

White-Tailed Deer Incidents With U.S. Civil Aircraft, Kirsten M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. Devault, Guiming Wang

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Aircraft incidents with ungulates cause substantial economic losses and pose risks to human safety. We analyzed 879 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) incidents with United States civil aircraft from 1990 to 2009 reported in the Federal Aviation Administration National Wildlife Strike Database. During that time, deer incidents followed a quadratic response curve, peaking in 1994 and declining thereafter. There appeared to be some seasonal patterning in incident frequency, with deer incidents increasing overall from January to November, and peaking in October and November (30.7%). Most incidents (64.8%) occurred at night, but incident rates were greatest (P 0.001) at ...


Vulture Flight Behavior And Implications For Aircraft Safety, Michael L. Avery, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Justin W. Fischer, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, William E. Bruce, W. David Walter Jan 2011

Vulture Flight Behavior And Implications For Aircraft Safety, Michael L. Avery, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Justin W. Fischer, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, William E. Bruce, W. David Walter

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Growing vulture populations represent increasing hazards to civil and military aircraft. To assess vulture flight behavior and activity patterns at the Marine Corps Air Station in Beaufort, South Carolina, we equipped 11 black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and 11 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with solarpowered Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite transmitters during a 2-year study (1 Oct 2006–30 Sep 2008). Turkey vultures had larger seasonal home ranges than did black vultures, and 2 turkey vultures made round-trips to Florida. Black vultures consistently spent less time in flight (8.4%) than did turkey vultures (18.9%), and black vultures flew at ...


Acetaminophen And Zinc Phosphide For Lethal Management Of Invasive Lizards Ctenosaura Similis , Michael L. Avery, John D. Eisemann, Kandy L. Keacher, Peter J. Savarie Jan 2011

Acetaminophen And Zinc Phosphide For Lethal Management Of Invasive Lizards Ctenosaura Similis , Michael L. Avery, John D. Eisemann, Kandy L. Keacher, Peter J. Savarie

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reducing populations of invasive lizards through trapping and shooting is feasible in many cases but effective integrated management relies on a variety of tools, including toxicants. In Florida, using wild-caught non-native black spiny-tailed iguanas Ctenosaura similis, we screened acetaminophen and zinc phosphide to determine their suitability for effective population management of this prolific invasive species. Of the animals that received acetaminophen, none died except at the highest test dose, 240 mg per lizard, which is not practical for field use. Zinc phosphide produced 100% mortality at dose levels as little as 25 mg per lizard, equivalent to about 0.5 ...


Modeling Connectivity Of Black Bears In A Desert Sky Island Archipelago, Todd C. Atwood, Julie K. Young, Jon P. Beckmann, Stewart W. Breck, Jennifer A. Fike, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Kirby D. Bristow Jan 2011

Modeling Connectivity Of Black Bears In A Desert Sky Island Archipelago, Todd C. Atwood, Julie K. Young, Jon P. Beckmann, Stewart W. Breck, Jennifer A. Fike, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Kirby D. Bristow

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Landscape features such as rivers, mountains, desert basins, roads, and impermeable man-made structures may influence dispersal and gene flow among populations, thereby creating spatial structure across the landscape. In the US–Mexico borderland, urbanization and construction of the border fence have the potential to increase genetic subdivision and vulnerability to isolation in large mammal populations by bisecting movement corridors that have enabled dispersal between adjacent Sky Island mountain ranges. We examined genetic variation in black bears (Ursus americanus) from three regions in central and southern Arizona, US, to assess genetic and landscape connectivity in the US–Mexico border Sky Islands ...


Partitioning Of Anthropogenic Watering Sites By Desert Carnivores., Todd C. Atwood, Tricia L. Fry, Bruce Leland Jan 2011

Partitioning Of Anthropogenic Watering Sites By Desert Carnivores., Todd C. Atwood, Tricia L. Fry, Bruce Leland

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We investigated the role of water features as focal attractors for gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and bobcats (Felis rufus) in west Texas to determine if they were foci for interspecific interaction. Mixed effects models indicated that species partitioned use of water features spatially and temporally. Linear models indicated factors influencing relative activity at water features varied by species. For coyotes and bobcats, the water availability model, containing days since last rainfall and nearest-neighbor distance to water was best supported by the data, with relative activity increasing with time between rainfall and distance between waters. For gray foxes ...


Wild Dogma Ii: The Role And Implications Of Wild Dogma For Wild Dog Management In Australia., Benjamin L. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Lee R. Allen Jan 2011

Wild Dogma Ii: The Role And Implications Of Wild Dogma For Wild Dog Management In Australia., Benjamin L. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Lee R. Allen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The studies of Allen (2011) and Allen et al. (2011) recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management


Wild Dogma: An Examination Of Recent "Evidence" For Dingo Regulation Of Invasive Mesopredator Release In Australia., Benjamin L. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Lee R. Allen Jan 2011

Wild Dogma: An Examination Of Recent "Evidence" For Dingo Regulation Of Invasive Mesopredator Release In Australia., Benjamin L. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Lee R. Allen

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

There is growing interest in the role that apex predators play in shaping terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining trophic cascades. In line with the mesopredator release hypothesis, Australian dingoes (Canis lupus dingo and hybrids) are assumed by many to regulate the abundance of invasive mesopredators, such as red foxes Vulpes vulpes and feral cats Felis catus, thereby providing indirect benefits to various threatened vertebrates. Several recent papers have claimed to provide evidence for the biodiversity benefits of dingoes in this way. Nevertheless, in this paper we highlight several critical weaknesses in the methodological approaches used in many of these reports, including ...


Efficacy Of European Starling Control To Reduce Salmonella Enterica Contamination In A Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation In The Texas Panhandle, James C. Carlson, Richard M. Engeman, Doreene R. Hyatt, Rickey L. Gilliland, Thomas J. Deliberto, Larry Clark, Michael J. Bodenchuck, George M. Linz Jan 2011

Efficacy Of European Starling Control To Reduce Salmonella Enterica Contamination In A Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation In The Texas Panhandle, James C. Carlson, Richard M. Engeman, Doreene R. Hyatt, Rickey L. Gilliland, Thomas J. Deliberto, Larry Clark, Michael J. Bodenchuck, George M. Linz

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Background: European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational ...


Rock Pigeon Use Of Livestock Facilities In Northern Colorado: Implications For Improving Farm Bio-Security., James C. Carlson, Larry Clark, Michael F. Antolin, M. D. Salman Jan 2011

Rock Pigeon Use Of Livestock Facilities In Northern Colorado: Implications For Improving Farm Bio-Security., James C. Carlson, Larry Clark, Michael F. Antolin, M. D. Salman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Rock pigeons (Columba livia) have been implicated in the spread of pathogens within commercial livestock facilities. Currently, there is no data characterizing pigeon habitat use and movement patterns within and among commercial livestock facilities. To better understand the capacity for pigeons to spread pathogens, we used radio-telemetry techniques to estimate the home-range, travel distance, activity, and habitat use of pigeons roosting on and off dairies and feedlots in western Weld County, Colorado. Our observations suggest that pigeons roosting on (resident) and off (nonresident) livestock facilities use habitat differently. Nonresident pigeons used larger home-range areas than did resident pigeons. Nonresident pigeons ...


Nilgai Antelope In Northern Mexico As A Possible Carrier For Cattle Fever Ticks And Babesia Bovis And Babesia Bigemina., E M. Cardenas-Canales, J. Alfonso Ortega-Santos, Tyler A. Campbell, Zeferino Garcia-Vaquez, Antonio Cantu-Covarrubias, Julio V. Figueroa-Millian, Randy W. Deyoung, David G. Hewitt, Fred C. Bryant Jan 2011

Nilgai Antelope In Northern Mexico As A Possible Carrier For Cattle Fever Ticks And Babesia Bovis And Babesia Bigemina., E M. Cardenas-Canales, J. Alfonso Ortega-Santos, Tyler A. Campbell, Zeferino Garcia-Vaquez, Antonio Cantu-Covarrubias, Julio V. Figueroa-Millian, Randy W. Deyoung, David G. Hewitt, Fred C. Bryant

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Of 20 blood samples from nilgais from Me´ xico, five were polymerase chain reaction-positive for Babesia bigemina and one for Babesia bovis. Positive samples had the expected 170 (B. bigemina) and 291 (B. bovis) base pairs and were identical to Gen-Bank B. bigemina accession S45366 and B. bovis M38218.


Absence Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) From The Southern Texas Border Region., Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Luiz R. Bazan, Bruce V. Thomsen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Ronald B. Davey, Liza A. Soliz, Seth Swafford, Kurt C. Vercauteren Jan 2011

Absence Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) From The Southern Texas Border Region., Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Luiz R. Bazan, Bruce V. Thomsen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Ronald B. Davey, Liza A. Soliz, Seth Swafford, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Free-ranging wildlife, such as feral swine (Sus scrofa), harbor a variety of diseases that are transmissible to livestock and could negatively impact agricultural production. Information is needed regarding the exposure and infection rates of Mycobacterium bovis and many other diseases and parasites in feral swine occurring in the Texas border region. Our main objective was to determine exposure rates and possible infection rates of M. bovis in feral swine by opportunistically sampling animals from the Texas border region. From June to September 2010, we obtained samples from 396 feral swine and tested 98 samples for M. bovis by histopathology and ...


Natal Colony Site Fidelity Of Herring Gulls At Sandusky Bay, Ohio., Bruce N. Buckingham, Benjamin Bacak Jan 2011

Natal Colony Site Fidelity Of Herring Gulls At Sandusky Bay, Ohio., Bruce N. Buckingham, Benjamin Bacak

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We studied three Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) colonies in the Sandusky Bay area, Sandusky, OH, between 1981 and 2006. During this period, we banded 24,000 nestlings and received reports of 347 recovered bands. Forty-nine of these band recoveries were as adults recovered during the nesting season as far as 890 km from their natal colony. Gulls were also captured at five other colonies located in the Great Lakes. Gulls recovered outside the original 10-min block of banding accounted for 47 percent of the returns. We hypothesize that half of the recoveries of adult Herring Gulls during the nesting season ...


Domestic Calf Mortality And Producer Detection Rates In The Mexican Wolf Recovery Area: Implications For Livestock Management And Carnivore Compensation Schemes., Stewart W. Breck, Bryan M. Kluever, Michael Panasci, John Oakleaf, Terry Johnson, Warren B. Ballard, Larry Howery, David L. Bergman Jan 2011

Domestic Calf Mortality And Producer Detection Rates In The Mexican Wolf Recovery Area: Implications For Livestock Management And Carnivore Compensation Schemes., Stewart W. Breck, Bryan M. Kluever, Michael Panasci, John Oakleaf, Terry Johnson, Warren B. Ballard, Larry Howery, David L. Bergman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Conserving large carnivores throughout the world will often require that they share the landscape with livestock. Minimizing depredations and increasing tolerance by livestock producers will be critical for conservation efforts. To investigate factors influencing calf mortality and producer detection rates (i.e., number of livestock killed by predators, found by producers, and correctly classified as to cause of death), we monitored radio-tagged domestic calves at two sites in the Mexican wolf recovery area (East Eagle [EE] and Adobe Ranch [AR]). Study areas differed in grazing practices, density of predators (mountain lions, black bears, coyotes, and Mexican wolves), and amount of ...


A Review And Synthesis Of Bird And Rodent Damage Estimates To Select California Crops, Karen Gebhardt, Aaron M. Anderson, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Stephanie A. Shwiff Jan 2011

A Review And Synthesis Of Bird And Rodent Damage Estimates To Select California Crops, Karen Gebhardt, Aaron M. Anderson, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the magnitude of bird and rodent damage to 19 economically important crops in California. Interviews with agriculture experts provided additional information about damages. Monte Carlo simulations were used to derive summary estimates of damages to each crop. A meta-analysis indicated that summary damage estimates from expert interviews were higher than estimates from field studies and surveys. It was also found that there has been a downward trend over time in damages to almonds and grapes. The results of our study indicate that damages from bird and rodents remain high for many crops ...


Determinants Of Local And Migratory Movements Of Great Lakes Double-Crested Cormorants, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S, Dorr, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor Ii, Richard B. Chipman, Heidi Scherr, Jeff Bowman, Kenneth F. Abraham, Terry J. Doyle, Elizabeth Cranker Jan 2011

Determinants Of Local And Migratory Movements Of Great Lakes Double-Crested Cormorants, Alban Guillaumet, Brian S, Dorr, Guiming Wang, Jimmy D. Taylor Ii, Richard B. Chipman, Heidi Scherr, Jeff Bowman, Kenneth F. Abraham, Terry J. Doyle, Elizabeth Cranker

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We investigated how individual strategies combine with demographic and ecological factors to determine local and migratory movements in the double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). One hundred and forty-five cormorants were captured from 14 nesting colonies across the Great Lakes area and fitted with satellite transmitters. We first tested the hypotheses that sexual segregation, density-dependent effects, and the intensity of management operations influenced home range size during the breeding season. The influence of these factors appeared to be limited in part due to random variability in foraging and dispersal decisions at individual and colony levels. We also designed a statistical framework to ...


The Effect Of Cooking On Diphacinone Residues Related To Human Consumption Of Feral Pig Tissues, William C. Pitt, Michelle Higashi, Thomas M. Primus Jan 2011

The Effect Of Cooking On Diphacinone Residues Related To Human Consumption Of Feral Pig Tissues, William C. Pitt, Michelle Higashi, Thomas M. Primus

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We examined feral pig tissues to determine whether the potential hazard of consuming meat from pigs previously exposed to diphacinone rodenticide baits was reduced by cooking. Residue levels were measured in cooked and uncooked tissues of feral pigs exposed to sub-lethal quantities of the anticoagulant rodenticide. Pigs were provided large amounts of baits or untreated food to consume, then euthanized prior to the onset of symptoms indicative of rodenticide poisoning or sickness. For analysis, we grouped pigs into three levels of mean diphacinone consumption: 0, 3.5, and 7.4 mg/kg. None of the pigs displayed obvious signs of ...


Reconciling Sensory Cues And Varied Consequences Of Avian Repellents, Scott J. Werner, Frederick D. Provenza Jan 2011

Reconciling Sensory Cues And Varied Consequences Of Avian Repellents, Scott J. Werner, Frederick D. Provenza

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We learned previously that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) use affective processes to shift flavor preference, and cognitive associations (colors) to avoid food, subsequent to avoidance conditioning. We conducted three experiments with captive red-winged blackbirds to reconcile varied consequences of treated food with conditioned sensory cues. In Experiment 1, we compared food avoidance conditioned with lithium chloride (LiCl) or naloxone hydrochloride (NHCl) to evaluate cue–consequence specificity. All blackbirds conditioned with LiCl (gastrointestinal toxin) avoided the color (red) and flavor (NaCl) of food experienced during conditioning; birds conditioned with NHCl (opioid antagonist) avoided only the color (not the flavor) of food ...


Refinement Of Biomarker Pentosidine Methodology For Use On Aging Birds, Crissa K. Cooey, Jesse A. Fallon, Michael L. Avery, James T. Anderson, Elizabeth A. Falkenstein, Hillar Klandorf Oct 2010

Refinement Of Biomarker Pentosidine Methodology For Use On Aging Birds, Crissa K. Cooey, Jesse A. Fallon, Michael L. Avery, James T. Anderson, Elizabeth A. Falkenstein, Hillar Klandorf

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

There is no reliable method for determining age for most species of long-lived birds. Recent success using the skin chemical pentosidine as a biomarker has shown promise as an aging tool for birds. Pentosidine levels have been determined only from the breast tissue of carcasses, and we sought to refine the procedure with respect to biopsy size and location for safe and effective use on living birds. We compared pentosidine concentrations in 4 skin-size samples (4, 6, 8, and 20-mm diameter biopsies) from the breast of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) carcasses. We also compared pentosidine levels from breast and patagial ...


Evaluation Of Rhodamine B As A Biomarker For Raccoons, Tricia L. Fry, Todd C. Atwood, Mike R. Dunbar Oct 2010

Evaluation Of Rhodamine B As A Biomarker For Raccoons, Tricia L. Fry, Todd C. Atwood, Mike R. Dunbar

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The USDA/APHIS/Wildlife Services (WS) oral rabies vaccination program uses tetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic and relatively reliable biomarker, to quantify vaccinebait uptake by raccoons (Procyon lotor). However, obtaining samples (e.g., bone or teeth) to assess tetracycline uptake is highly invasive, and sample preparation can be expensive. By contrast, rhodamine B, a commercially available dye, is absorbed systemically in growing tissues, including hair and whiskers, and can be observed under ultraviolet (UV) light as fluorescent orange bands. Our goal was to evaluate whether rhodamine B can be used as a biomarker to monitor bait uptake by raccoons. We began ...