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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Prediction Of Drug-Drug Interaction Potential Using Machine Learning Approaches, Joseph Scavetta May 2020

Prediction Of Drug-Drug Interaction Potential Using Machine Learning Approaches, Joseph Scavetta

Theses and Dissertations

Drug discovery is a long, expensive, and complex, yet crucial process for the benefit of society. Selecting potential drug candidates requires an understanding of how well a compound will perform at its task, and more importantly, how safe the compound will act in patients. A key safety insight is understanding a molecule's potential for drug-drug interactions. The metabolism of many drugs is mediated by members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, notably, the CYP3A4 enzyme. Inhibition of these enzymes can alter the bioavailability of other drugs, potentially increasing their levels to toxic amounts. Four models were developed to predict CYP3A4 ...


Design Of Submicron Structured Guided-Mode-Resonance Near-Infrared Polarizer, Marzia Zaman May 2020

Design Of Submicron Structured Guided-Mode-Resonance Near-Infrared Polarizer, Marzia Zaman

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to design a larger submicron linear polarizer in the near-infrared wavelength range with a wide bandwidth which can be fabricated using the conventional thin-film microfabrication technology to reduce cost. For this purpose, a gold (Au) wire-grid transmission-type transverse-magnetic (TM) polarizer and a silicon (Si) wire-grid reflection-type TM polarizer, were designed using the guided-mode-resonance filter. The Au wire-grid TM polarizer of 700nm grating width and 1200nm grating period has 95% transmittance at 2400nm, more than 1000nm resonance peak bandwidth, and an extinction ratio (ER) of around 300 with a moderated level of sidebands. The 700nm ...


Growing Complex Networks For Better Learning Of Chaotic Dynamical Systems, David Joseph Passey Jr. Apr 2020

Growing Complex Networks For Better Learning Of Chaotic Dynamical Systems, David Joseph Passey Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis advances the theory of network specialization by characterizing the effect of network specialization on the eigenvectors of a network. We prove and provide explicit formulas for the eigenvectors of specialized graphs based on the eigenvectors of their parent graphs. The second portion of this thesis applies network specialization to learning problems. Our work focuses on training reservoir computers to mimic the Lorentz equations. We experiment with random graph, preferential attachment and small world topologies and demonstrate that the random removal of directed edges increases predictive capability of a reservoir topology. We then create a new network model by ...


One-Dimensional Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Using Astronomical Data For Spatially Separable Objects, Marc R. Brown Mar 2020

One-Dimensional Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution Using Astronomical Data For Spatially Separable Objects, Marc R. Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Blind deconvolution is used to complete missions to detect adversary assets in space and to defend the nation's assets. A new algorithm was developed to perform blind deconvolution for objects that are spatially separable using multiple frames of data. This new one-dimensional approach uses the expectation-maximization algorithm to blindly deconvolve spatially separable objects. This object separation reduces the size of the object matrix from an NxN matrix to two singular vectors of length N. With limited knowledge of the object and point spread function the one-dimensional algorithm successfully deconvolved the objects in both simulated and laboratory data.


Developing A Serious Game To Explore Joint All Domain Command And Control, Nathaniel W. Flack Mar 2020

Developing A Serious Game To Explore Joint All Domain Command And Control, Nathaniel W. Flack

Theses and Dissertations

Changes in the geopolitical landscape and increasing technological complexity have prompted the U.S. Military to coin Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) and Joint All-Domain Command and Control as terms to describe an over-arching strategy that frames the complexity of warfare across both traditional and emerging warfighting domains. Teaching new and advanced concepts associated with these terms requires both innovation as well as distinct education and training tools in order to realize the cultural change advocated by senior military leaders. BSN, a Collectible Card Game, was developed to teach concepts integral to MDO and initiate discussion on military strategy.


Object Detection With Deep Learning To Accelerate Pose Estimation For Automated Aerial Refueling, Andrew T. Lee Mar 2020

Object Detection With Deep Learning To Accelerate Pose Estimation For Automated Aerial Refueling, Andrew T. Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) cannot currently refuel during flight because the latency between the pilot and the aircraft is too great to safely perform aerial refueling maneuvers. However, an AAR system removes this limitation by allowing the tanker to directly control the RP A. The tanker quickly finding the relative position and orientation (pose) of the approaching aircraft is the first step to create an AAR system. Previous work at AFIT demonstrates that stereo camera systems provide robust pose estimation capability. This thesis first extends that work by examining the effects of the cameras' resolution on the quality of pose ...


Ground Weather Radar Signal Characterization Through Application Of Convolutional Neural Networks, Stephen M. Lee Mar 2020

Ground Weather Radar Signal Characterization Through Application Of Convolutional Neural Networks, Stephen M. Lee

Theses and Dissertations

The 45th Weather Squadron supports the space launch efforts out of the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station for the Department of Defense, NASA, and commercial customers through weather assessments. Their assessment of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for avoidance of natural and rocket triggered lightning to launch vehicles is critical in approving space shuttle and rocket launches. The LLCC includes standards for cloud formations, which requires proper cloud identification and characterization methods. Accurate reflectivity measurements for ground weather radar are important to meet the LLCC for rocket triggered lightning. Current linear interpolation methods for ground ...


Sliver: Simulation-Based Logic Bomb Identification/Verification For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Jake M. Magness Mar 2020

Sliver: Simulation-Based Logic Bomb Identification/Verification For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Jake M. Magness

Theses and Dissertations

This research introduces SLIVer, a Simulation-based Logic Bomb Identification/Verification methodology, for finding logic bombs hidden within Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autopilot code without having access to the device source code. Effectiveness is demonstrated by executing a series of test missions within a high-fidelity software-in-the-loop (SITL) simulator. In the event that a logic bomb is not detected, this methodology defines safe operating areas for UAVs to ensure to a high degree of confidence the UAV operates normally on the defined flight plan. SLIVer uses preplanned flight paths as the baseline input space, greatly reducing the input space that must be ...


Comparison Of Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping Methods For Fixed-Wing Aircraft Using Slambench2, Patrick R. Latcham Mar 2020

Comparison Of Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping Methods For Fixed-Wing Aircraft Using Slambench2, Patrick R. Latcham

Theses and Dissertations

Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM) algorithms have evolved rapidly in the last few years, however there has been little research evaluating current algorithm's effectiveness and limitations when applied to tracking the position of a fixed-wing aerial vehicle. This research looks to evaluate current monocular VSLAM algorithms' performance on aerial vehicle datasets using the SLAMBench2 benchmarking suite. The algorithms tested are MonoSLAM, PTAM, OKVIS, LSDSLAM, ORB-SLAM2, and SVO, all of which are built into the SLAMBench2 software. The algorithms' performance is evaluated using simulated datasets generated in the AftrBurner Engine. The datasets were designed to test the quality of ...


Event-Based Visual-Inertial Odometry Using Smart Features, Zachary P. Friedel Mar 2020

Event-Based Visual-Inertial Odometry Using Smart Features, Zachary P. Friedel

Theses and Dissertations

Event-based cameras are a novel type of visual sensor that operate under a unique paradigm, providing asynchronous data on the log-level changes in light intensity for individual pixels. This hardware-level approach to change detection allows these cameras to achieve ultra-wide dynamic range and high temporal resolution. Furthermore, the advent of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has led to state-of-the-art navigation solutions that now rival or even surpass human engineered algorithms. The advantages offered by event cameras and CNNs make them excellent tools for visual odometry (VO). This document presents the implementation of a CNN trained to detect and describe features within ...


Applying Data Organizational Techniques To Enhance Air Force Learning, Jacob A. Orner Mar 2020

Applying Data Organizational Techniques To Enhance Air Force Learning, Jacob A. Orner

Theses and Dissertations

The USAF and the DoD use traditional schoolhouses to educate and train personnel. The physical aspects of these schoolhouses limit throughput. A method to increase throughput is to shift towards an asynchronous learning environment where students move through content at individually. This research introduces a methodology for transforming a set of unstructured documents into an organized TM students can use to orient themselves in a domain. The research identifies learning paths within the TM to create a directed KSAT. We apply this methodology in four case studies, each an education or training course. Using a graph comparison metric and the ...


Modeling Nonlinear Heat Transfer For A Pin-On-Disc Sliding System, Brian A. Boardman Mar 2020

Modeling Nonlinear Heat Transfer For A Pin-On-Disc Sliding System, Brian A. Boardman

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to develop a numerical method to characterize heat transfer and wear rates for samples of Vascomax® 300, or Maraging 300, steel. A pin-on-disc experiment was conducted in which samples were exposed to a high-pressure, high-speed, sliding contact environment. This sliding contact generates frictional heating that influences the temperature distribution and wear characteristics of the test samples. A two-dimensional nonlinear heat transfer equation is discretized and solved via a second-order explicit finite difference scheme to predict the transient temperature distribution of the pin. This schematic is used to predict the removal of material from the ...


Newhope: A Mobile Implementation Of A Post-Quantum Crytographic Key Encapsulation Mechanism, Jessica A. Switzler Mar 2020

Newhope: A Mobile Implementation Of A Post-Quantum Crytographic Key Encapsulation Mechanism, Jessica A. Switzler

Theses and Dissertations

NIST anticipates the appearance of large-scale quantum computers by 2036 [34], which will threaten widely used asymmetric algorithms, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) launched a Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization Project to find quantum-secure alternatives. NewHope post-quantum cryptography (PQC) key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) is the only Round 2 candidate to simultaneously achieve small key values through the use of a security problem with sufficient confidence its security, while mitigating any known vulnerabilities. This research contributes to NIST project’s overall goal by assessing the platform flexibility and resource requirements of NewHope KEMs on an Android mobile device. The resource requirements ...


Conceptualization And Application Of Deep Learning And Applied Statistics For Flight Plan Recommendation, Nicholas C. Forrest Mar 2020

Conceptualization And Application Of Deep Learning And Applied Statistics For Flight Plan Recommendation, Nicholas C. Forrest

Theses and Dissertations

The Air Forces Pilot Training Next (PTN) program seeks a more efficient pilot training environment emphasizing the use of virtual reality flight simulators alongside periodic real aircraft experience. The PTN program wants to accelerate the training pace and progress in undergraduate pilot training compared to traditional undergraduate pilot training. Currently, instructor pilots spend excessive time planning and scheduling flights. This research focuses on methods to auto-generate the planning of in-flight events using hybrid filtering and deep learning techniques. The resulting approach captures temporal trends of user-specific and program-wide student performance to recommend a feasible set of graded flight events for ...


Honeyhive - A Network Intrusion Detection System Framework Utilizing Distributed Internet Of Things Honeypot Sensors, Zachary D. Madison Mar 2020

Honeyhive - A Network Intrusion Detection System Framework Utilizing Distributed Internet Of Things Honeypot Sensors, Zachary D. Madison

Theses and Dissertations

Exploding over the past decade, the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices connected to the Internet jumped from 3.8 billion in 2015 to 17.8 billion in 2018. Because so many IoT devices remain upatched, unmonitored, and left on, they have become a tantalizing target for attackers to gain network access or add another device to their botnet. HoneyHive is a framework that uses distributed IoT honeypots as Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) sensors that beacon back to a centralized Command and Control (C2) server. The tests in this experiment involve four types of scans and four levels ...


Relational Database Design And Multi-Objective Database Queries For Position Navigation And Timing Data, Sean A. Mochocki Mar 2020

Relational Database Design And Multi-Objective Database Queries For Position Navigation And Timing Data, Sean A. Mochocki

Theses and Dissertations

Performing flight tests is a natural part of researching cutting edge sensors and filters for sensor integration. Unfortunately, tests are expensive, and typically take many months of planning. A sensible goal would be to make previously collected data readily available to researchers for future development. The Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) has hundreds of data logs potentially available to aid in facilitating further research in the area of navigation. A database would provide a common location where older and newer data sets are available. Such a database must be able to store the sensor data, metadata about the sensors ...


An Analysis Of A Lighting Prediction Threshold For 45th Weather Squadron Electric Field Mill Data, Charles A. Skrovan Mar 2020

An Analysis Of A Lighting Prediction Threshold For 45th Weather Squadron Electric Field Mill Data, Charles A. Skrovan

Theses and Dissertations

The mission of the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is to “exploit the weather to assure safe access to air and space” for Patrick Air Force Base, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in support of various operations (United States Air Force, n.d.). To support that mission the 45 WS hosts a suite of weather detection instruments that include a lightning warning system that consists of an array of 31 electric field mills (EFM) and a lightning detection and ranging system (Department of the Air Force, 1976). Electric field mills at Cape Canaveral continuously ...


Use Of Lidar In Automated Aerial Refueling To Improve Stereo Vision Systems, Michael R. Crowl Mar 2020

Use Of Lidar In Automated Aerial Refueling To Improve Stereo Vision Systems, Michael R. Crowl

Theses and Dissertations

The United States Air Force (USAF) executes five Core Missions, four of which depend on increased aircraft range. To better achieve global strike and reconnaissance, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) require aerial refueling for extended missions. However, current aerial refueling capabilities are limited to manned aircraft due to technical difficulties to refuel UAVs mid-flight. The latency between a UAV operator and the UAV is too large to adequately respond for such an operation. To overcome this limitation, the USAF wants to create a capability to guide the refueling boom into the refueling receptacle. This research explores the use of light detection ...


Cyber-Physical System Intrusion: A Case Study Of Automobile Identification Vulnerabilities And Automated Approaches For Intrusion Detection, David R. Crow Mar 2020

Cyber-Physical System Intrusion: A Case Study Of Automobile Identification Vulnerabilities And Automated Approaches For Intrusion Detection, David R. Crow

Theses and Dissertations

Today's vehicle manufacturers do not tend to publish proprietary packet formats for the controller area network (CAN), a network protocol regularly used in automobiles and manufacturing. This is a form of security through obscurity -it makes reverse engineering efforts more difficult for would-be intruders -but obfuscating the CAN data in this way does not adequately hide the vehicle's unique signature, even if these data are unprocessed or limited in scope. To prove this, we train two distinct deep learning models on data from 11 different vehicles. Our results clearly indicate that one can determine which vehicle generated a ...


A General Methodology To Optimize And Benchmark Edge Devices, Kyle J. Smathers Mar 2020

A General Methodology To Optimize And Benchmark Edge Devices, Kyle J. Smathers

Theses and Dissertations

The explosion of Internet Of Things (IoT), embedded and “smart” devices has also seen the addition of “general purpose” single board computers also referred to as “edge devices.” Determining if one of these generic devices meets the need of a new given task however can be challenging. Software generically written to be portable or plug and play may be too bloated to work properly without significant modification due to much tighter hardware resources. Previous work in this area has been focused on micro or chip-level benchmarking which is mainly useful for chip designers or low level system integrators. A higher ...


Near Real-Time Zigbee Device Discrimination Using Cb-Dna Features, Yousuke Z. Matsui Mar 2020

Near Real-Time Zigbee Device Discrimination Using Cb-Dna Features, Yousuke Z. Matsui

Theses and Dissertations

Currently, Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.15.4 standard are at risk due to open-source tools which allow bad actors to exploit unauthorized network access through various cyberattacks by falsifying bit-level credentials. This research investigates implementing a Radio Frequency (RF) air monitor to perform Near RealTime (NRT) discrimination of Zigbee devices using the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The air monitor employed a Multiple Discriminant Analysis/Euclidean Distance classifier to discriminate Zigbee devices based upon Constellation-Based Distinct Native Attribute (CB-DNA) fingerprints. Through the use of CB-DNA fingerprints, Physical ...


Extracting Range Data From Images Using Focus Error, Erik M. Madden Mar 2020

Extracting Range Data From Images Using Focus Error, Erik M. Madden

Theses and Dissertations

Air-to-air refueling (AAR) has become a staple when performing long missions with aircraft. With modern technology, however, people have begun to research how to perform this task autonomously. Automated air-to-air refueling (A3R) is this exact concept. Combining many different systems, the idea is to allow computers on the aircraft to link up via the refueling boom, refuel, and detach before resuming pilot control. This document lays out one of the systems that is needed to perform A3R, namely, the system that extracts range data. While stereo cameras perform such tasks, there is interest in finding other ways of accomplishing the ...


Validation Technique For Modeled Bottomside Ionospheres Via Ray Tracing, Kevin S. Burg Mar 2020

Validation Technique For Modeled Bottomside Ionospheres Via Ray Tracing, Kevin S. Burg

Theses and Dissertations

A new method for validating ionosphere models using High Frequency (HF) angle of arrival (AoA) data is presented. AoA measurements from a field campaign held at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA in January 2014 provide the actual elevation angle, azimuth and group delay results from 10 transmitter-receiver circuits. Simulated AoAs are calculated by ray tracing through the electron density profiles predicted from the ionosphere models hosted by NASA's Community Coordinated Modeling Center: IRI-2016, USU-GAIM, GITM, CTIPe, TIE-GCM, and SAMI3. Through the implementation of metrics including Mean Absolute Error, Prediction Efficiency, Correlation Coefficient, and others, we are able ...


Retiming Smoke Simulation Using Machine Learning, Samuel Charles Gérard Giraud Carrier Mar 2020

Retiming Smoke Simulation Using Machine Learning, Samuel Charles Gérard Giraud Carrier

Theses and Dissertations

Art-directability is a crucial aspect of creating aesthetically pleasing visual effects that help tell stories. A particularly common method of art direction is the retiming of a simulation. Unfortunately, the means of retiming an existing simulation sequence which preserves the desired shapes is an ill-defined problem. Naively interpolating values between frames leads to visual artifacts such as choppy frames or jittering intensities. Due to the difficulty in formulating a proper interpolation method we elect to use a machine learning approach to approximate this function. Our model is based on the ODE-net structure and reproduces a set of desired time samples ...


Mobile Data Analysis Using Dynamic Binary Instrumentation And Static Analysis, Christopher Dukarm Mar 2020

Mobile Data Analysis Using Dynamic Binary Instrumentation And Static Analysis, Christopher Dukarm

Theses and Dissertations

Mobile classified data leakage poses a threat to the DoD programs and missions. Security experts must know the format of application data, in order to properly classify mobile applications. This research presents the DBIMAFIA methodology to identify stored data formats. DBIMAFIA uses DBI and static analysis to uncover the structure of mobile application data and validate the results with traditional reverse engineering methods. DBIMAFIA was applied to fifteen popular Android applications and revealed the format of stored data. Notably, user PII leakage is identified in the Rago Games application. The application's messaging service exposes the full name, birthday, and ...


Interoperable Ads-B Confidentiality, Brandon C. Burfeind Mar 2020

Interoperable Ads-B Confidentiality, Brandon C. Burfeind

Theses and Dissertations

The worldwide air traffic infrastructure is in the late stages of transition from legacy transponder systems to Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) based systems. ADS-B relies on position information from GNSS and requires aircraft to transmit their identification, state, and position. ADS-B promises the availability of high-fidelity air traffic information; however, position and identification data are not secured via authentication or encryption. This lack of security for ADS-B allows non-participants to observe and collect data on both government and private flight activity. This is a proposal for a lightweight, interoperable ADS-B confidentiality protocol which uses existing format preserving encryption and ...


Automated Detection And Mitigation Of Inefficient Visual Searching Using Electroencephalography And Machine Learning, Joshua P. Gallaher Mar 2020

Automated Detection And Mitigation Of Inefficient Visual Searching Using Electroencephalography And Machine Learning, Joshua P. Gallaher

Theses and Dissertations

Decisions made during the high-stress and fast-paced operations of the military are extremely prone to cognitive biases. A commonly known cognitive bias is a confirmation bias, or the inappropriate bolstering of an unknown hypothesis. One such critical military operation that can fall prey to a confirmation bias is a visual search. During a visual search, a military operator must perform a visual scan of an environment for a specific target. However, the visual search process can fall prey to the same confirmation bias which can cause inefficient searches. This study elicits inefficient visual search patterns and applies various mitigation techniques ...


Zernike Piston Statistics In Turbulent Multi-Aperture Optical Systems, Joshua J. Garretson Mar 2020

Zernike Piston Statistics In Turbulent Multi-Aperture Optical Systems, Joshua J. Garretson

Theses and Dissertations

There is currently a lack of research into how the atmosphere effects Zernike piston. This Zernike piston is a coefficient related to the average phase delay of a wave. Usually Zernike piston can be ignored over a single aperture because it is merely a delay added to the entire wavefront. For multi-aperture interferometers though piston cannot be ignored. The statistics of Zernike piston could supplement and improve atmospheric monitoring, adaptive optics, stellar interferometers, and fringe tracking. This research will focus on developing a statistical model for Zernike piston introduced by atmospheric turbulence.


Robust And Efficient Activity Recognition From Videos, Xin Li Jan 2020

Robust And Efficient Activity Recognition From Videos, Xin Li

Theses and Dissertations

With technological advancement in embedded system design, powerful cameras have been embedded within smart phones, and wireless cameras can be easily deployed at street corners, traffic lights, big stadiums, train stations, etc. Besides, the growth of online media, surveillance, and mobile cameras have resulted in an explosion of videos being uploaded to social media sites such as Facebook and YouTube. The availability of such a vast volume of videos has attracted the computer vision community to conduct much research on human activity recognition since people are arguably the most interesting subjects of such videos. Automatic human activity recognition allows engineers ...


Mass Grave Localization Prediction With Geographical Information Systems In Guatemala And Future Impacts, Perla Santillan Jan 2020

Mass Grave Localization Prediction With Geographical Information Systems In Guatemala And Future Impacts, Perla Santillan

Theses and Dissertations

Conducting physical searches for mass grave locations based on anecdotal evidence is a time consuming and resource intensive endeavor in circumstances that often pose a threat to personal safety. The development of tools and procedures to speed such searches can greatly reduce the risk involved, increase the number of individuals whose remains are recovered and identified; and, more importantly, reunite these remains with their loved ones to provide them with a proper burial. Geographic information systems (GIS) software, which can analyze and manipulate the spatial characteristics of known mass grave data, represents a powerful tool that can be used to ...