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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2020

Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019a). The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill upstream of the site triggered a higher resolution sampling of the stream in an attempt to isolate a source of the nitrogen loading (Snyder and Ross, 2019b). Accomack County has requested repeated sampling of this stream segment to monitor nutrient attenuation trends from the site, and stations were established for that purpose. This is the first report of that ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2019 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Jan 2020

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2019 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-second year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2019, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 2) and the Chickahominy River (year 5; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring ...


Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Jan 2020

Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry house operations and use of litter as a soil amendment in Accomack County Virginia has raised concerns for water quality impacts both seaside and bayside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (ESVA). This ongoing investigation is examining freshwater stream water quality in Accomack Virginia to identify water quality impairments from poultry operation storm water runoff. Sampling in 2019 followed two inch rainfall events covering 83 streams at road crossings in southern and northern Accomack County. Estimates of land cover in the drainages for these streams were used to determine correlations between stream water nutrient levels and the ...


Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency: Forecast And Hind-Cast Load Reductions From Living Shoreline Bmps : Project Report (Year 2 Of 3), Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky Jan 2020

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency: Forecast And Hind-Cast Load Reductions From Living Shoreline Bmps : Project Report (Year 2 Of 3), Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky

Reports

The vulnerability of coastal communities and the growing risks to coastal infrastructure continue largely due to past and ongoing patterns of development in high risk areas. This project is focused on increasing the use of natural and nature-based features (NNBFs) to increase resilience of coastal communities to flooding caused by extreme weather events. This project has proposed two efforts to increase understanding of NNBFS; 1) describe the current status, and 2) quantify role of NNBF creation/ restoration for water quality benefits in support of coastal resilience. The products of the 3-year project are intended to support informed coastal management decision-making ...


Shoreline Decision Support Tools Improved, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science. Jan 2020

Shoreline Decision Support Tools Improved, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science.

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay.


Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky Nov 2019

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky

Reports

The vulnerability of coastal communities and the growing risks to coastal infrastructure continue largely due to past and ongoing patterns of development in high risk areas. This project is focused on increasing the use of natural and nature-based features (NNBFs) to increase resilience of coastal communities to flooding caused by extreme weather events. This project has proposed two efforts to increase understanding of NNBFS; 1) describe the current status, and 2) quantify role of NNBF creation/ restoration for water quality benefits in support of coastal resilience. The products of the 3-year project are intended to support informed coastal management decision-making ...


James River Water Quality Model Refinement And Scenario Simulations, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin Oct 2019

James River Water Quality Model Refinement And Scenario Simulations, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin

Reports

This project was part of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality’s (DEQ) study to evaluate the protectiveness of chlorophyll criteria and consider potential criteria revisions, along with implications for the James River portion of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL.


Pamunkey Indian Reservation Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox Sep 2019

Pamunkey Indian Reservation Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

In 2015, the federal government officially recognized the Pamunkey Indian tribe. The tribe has a reservation located on the Pamunkey River in King William County (Figure 1-1) and is one of the nation's oldest, dating back to 1646 (Encyclopedia Virginia, 2015). The Reservation has about 13 miles of shoreline encompassing about 1,100 acres. According to the National Wetlands Inventory (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2016), the Reservation has about 80 acres of freshwater emergent wetland and 530 acres of freshwater forested/shrub wetland. Approximately 90 people live on the Reservation and up to 600 people visit in a ...


Virginia Stormwater Act, Tiered Approach For Rural Tidewater Localities: Generation Of Watershed Impervious Maps, Christine Tombleson Aug 2019

Virginia Stormwater Act, Tiered Approach For Rural Tidewater Localities: Generation Of Watershed Impervious Maps, Christine Tombleson

Reports

An amendment to Virginia's Stormwater Management Act was adopted to implement a tiered approach to stormwater management for rural Tidewater localities. To participate a locality is required to have a map showing the boundaries of the locality, with each watershed located partially or wholly within the locality, and the percentage of impervious cover (cover that impedes the natural infiltration of water into the soil) within each watershed. Center staff created maps indicating the initial percent of existing impervious cover present in each watershed for the Middle Peninsula Planning District (MPPDC) localities; Gloucester, Essex, King and Queen, King William, Mathews ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2019

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2018, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 23-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2018 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Apr 2019

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2018 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-first year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2018, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 1) and the Chickahominy River (year 4; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring ...


Leesylvania State Park Living Shoreline Project Monitoring Protocol, Donna A. Milligan, Walter I. Priest, C. Scott Hardaway Jr. Apr 2019

Leesylvania State Park Living Shoreline Project Monitoring Protocol, Donna A. Milligan, Walter I. Priest, C. Scott Hardaway Jr.

Reports

Leesylvania State Park is located along the Potomac River in Prince William County, Virginia (Figure 1). It is one of the most highly used state parks in Virginia with attendance topping 600,000 (Anne, 2017). The project shoreline occurs on the southeast-facing Potomac River shore north of the marina (Figure 2). This section of coast is very low and is exposed to long fetches across and down river. Prior to the project, the shoreline had a scarped bank, exposed tree roots, and falling trees which was unsafe for park visitors (Figure 3).

In 2011, the Shoreline Studies Program at the ...


Water Quality In An Unnamed Branch Of Pungoteague Creek, Bobtown Road And Hollies Church Road, Va., Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Mar 2019

Water Quality In An Unnamed Branch Of Pungoteague Creek, Bobtown Road And Hollies Church Road, Va., Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019). During a dry period, total nitrogen was determined as 21.932 mg/L, at the end of a rain event 9.56 mg/L was recovered, and during an extended wet period without major rainfall, a value of 18.26 mg/L was found. The lower value associated with the rain event suggested dilution of a ground water source. The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill ...


Air Quality Modelling For Ireland, Aoife Donnelly, Bruce Misstear, Brian Broderick Mar 2019

Air Quality Modelling For Ireland, Aoife Donnelly, Bruce Misstear, Brian Broderick

Reports

Air pollution is the primary environmental cause of premature death in the EU (European Commission, 2013) and the most problematic pollutants across Europe have consistently been oxides of nitrogen (e.g. nitrogen dioxide (NO2)), particulate matter (e.g. PM10, PM2.5) and ozone (O3). While measurements form an important aspect of air quality assessment, on their own they are unlikely to be sufficient to provide an accurate spatial and temporal description of the pollutant concentrations for exposure assessment and moreover they cannot provide information regarding future air quality. Annex XVI of 2008/50/EC requires member ...


Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-The-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay, Spring 2018, Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Mar 2019

Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-The-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay, Spring 2018, Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a valuable commercial species along the Atlantic coast of North America from New Brunswick to Florida. In the U.S., harvests have declined, with similar patterns occurring in the Canadian Maritime Provinces (Meister and Flagg 1997). An average of 62% of the annual landings of U.S. commercial harvest since 1993 have come from the Chesapeake Bay (personal communication from the National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division, 9 February 2015). In 2013, Virginia commercial landings were approximately 100,298 lbs; since mandatory reporting began in 1993, average annual landings in Virginia have been 193 ...


Water Quality In Southern Accomack County Watersheds, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2019

Water Quality In Southern Accomack County Watersheds, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry grow out houses in Accomack County, VA has raised concerns for water quality impacts both seaside and bayside where harvesting marine resources and aquaculture operations may be affected. The dust and litter from the poultry houses are potential sources of nitrogen, phosphorous, and fecal contamination to watersheds and receiving waters. Siting regulations, storm water controls, and management of litter storage and handling are designed to limit these impacts, yet no analysis has been implemented to verify the efficacy of these protective measures. This investigation sampled watersheds after a 2 week dry period prior to a storm event ...


The Problem Of Failing Septic Systems, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science. Jan 2019

The Problem Of Failing Septic Systems, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science.

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay.


One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Whose Fish? Subjects: Life Science, Environmental Science, Marine / Ocean Science, Shelby White Jan 2019

One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Whose Fish? Subjects: Life Science, Environmental Science, Marine / Ocean Science, Shelby White

Reports

This activity invites students to assume the role of various stakeholders in fisheries management and actively discuss the influence of economics, ecology and human interactions in decision-making.

Students will demonstrate their argument for/against a certain regulation by participating as a specific stakeholder (i.e. commercial fisher, recreational fisher, scientists/researcher, environmental group, management agency, and citizen). Students will recognize that stakeholders tend to advocate based on their individual needs, often making it difficult for proposed policies to satisfy the needs of all stakeholders and achieve sustainability goals.


Trawling Through The Five Gyres: A Microplastic Research Study. Subjects: Life Science, Earth Science, Marine/Ocean Science - Grade 6, Meredith Seeley Jan 2019

Trawling Through The Five Gyres: A Microplastic Research Study. Subjects: Life Science, Earth Science, Marine/Ocean Science - Grade 6, Meredith Seeley

Reports

This activity challenges students to help researchers understand what types of plastics are polluting the oceans!

Teachers will prepare samples of microplastics that were collected in each of the 5 ocean gyres, mimicking plastic concentrations actually found in the oceans! Working as a group, students will count the items of plastic and graph their results. They will share their results with the class to compare their gyre to the other four gyres. Finally, students will understand the link between ocean microplastic pollution, and our use of single-use plastics.

This activity can be completed in 45 minutes in the class. An ...


Expedition Sediments: Mud's Journey Through The Watershed. Subjects: Earth Science / Environmental Science Grades: 9-12, Jessie Turner Jan 2019

Expedition Sediments: Mud's Journey Through The Watershed. Subjects: Earth Science / Environmental Science Grades: 9-12, Jessie Turner

Reports

Expedition Sediments is a game-in-a-lesson that allows students to explore the movement of sediments through watersheds by moving around the classroom. This lesson explores how grains of estuarine mud and sand move throughout estuaries and coastal regions, with a focus on processes surrounding a highly populated estuary such as the Chesapeake Bay. By the end of the lesson, students will be able to explain how sediments are transported through an estuary, graph sediment residence times in different locations, and compare the timescales of different sediment transport processes.


Building Capacity For Protection Of Wetland Resources In Virginia - Track One, Virginia Department Of Environmental Quality, Center For Coastal Resources Management - Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Dec 2018

Building Capacity For Protection Of Wetland Resources In Virginia - Track One, Virginia Department Of Environmental Quality, Center For Coastal Resources Management - Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

DEQ continues to make significant progress in the development of a comprehensive nontidal wetland regulatory program; refinement of our permitting/compliance database to track impacts, compliance, and compensation by watershed; and continued refinement of our wetland monitoring and assessment tools for use in management decision-making and integration within our water quality programs. This project focused on development of strategies and extension of outreach to improve understanding and protection of high ecological value aquatic resources such as headwater resources and wetlands that may provide added value in improving impaired waters in Virginia. Project activities specifically addressed three of the priority elements ...


Targeted Living Shoreline Management Planning For Virginia State Parks In Chesapeake Bay Summary Report, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox Nov 2018

Targeted Living Shoreline Management Planning For Virginia State Parks In Chesapeake Bay Summary Report, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

The Commonwealth of Virginia owns numerous tidal, waterfront properties along Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries including state parks, natural area preserves, and wildlife management areas. Many of these parks have eroding shorelines and are at risk from coastal hazards such as tidal flooding, waves, and sea level rise. These environmental threats impact the safety of park visitors and the mission of the parks.

In an effort to address these issues for the parks as well as provide education to the public on living shoreline management strategies, eleven state parks with tidal shoreline along the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries were ...


Oyster Bag Sill Construction And Monitoring At Two Sites In Chesapeake Bay, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox, Walter I. Priest Oct 2018

Oyster Bag Sill Construction And Monitoring At Two Sites In Chesapeake Bay, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox, Walter I. Priest

Reports

The use of oyster shell bags as a means of shore protection along fetchlimited shorelines in Chesapeake Bay is growing. This method is an innovative use of a byproduct of the seafood industry and can provide habitat creation, water quality improvement, and shore protection. The landowner can install the bags themselves, and with the new living shoreline general permit in Virginia, these projects are easier than ever to afford and install. However, oyster shells are a limited resource that are needed for largescale oyster reef restoration with the Chesapeake Bay watershed, so determining the effectiveness of this shore protection strategy ...


Forecasting Coastal Water Levels In Virginia, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jul 2018

Forecasting Coastal Water Levels In Virginia, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay.


An Updated Model For Estimating The Tmdl-Related Benefits Of Oyster Reef Restoration Harris Creek, Maryland, Usa, M. Lisa Kellogg, Mark J. Brush, Jeff C. Cornell Jun 2018

An Updated Model For Estimating The Tmdl-Related Benefits Of Oyster Reef Restoration Harris Creek, Maryland, Usa, M. Lisa Kellogg, Mark J. Brush, Jeff C. Cornell

Reports

In 2014, a user-friendly, web-accessible model was developed that allowed restoration practitioners and resource managers to easily estimate the TMDLrelated benefits of oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica) restoration per unit area, run restoration scenarios in Harris Creek, MD to optimize restoration planning and implementation, and calculate the benefits of the chosen plan. The model was rooted in scientifically defensible data and was readily transferrable to systems throughout the Chesapeake Bay and Eastern Shore. The model operated in five vertically well-mixed boxes along the main axis of the creek. Exchanges among creeks were computed using a tidal prism approach and were compared ...


Simple Parameterized Models For Predicting Mobility, Burial And Re-Exposure Of Underwater Munitions. Serdp Final Report Mr-2224, Carl Friedrichs, Sarah E. Rennie, Alan Brandt May 2018

Simple Parameterized Models For Predicting Mobility, Burial And Re-Exposure Of Underwater Munitions. Serdp Final Report Mr-2224, Carl Friedrichs, Sarah E. Rennie, Alan Brandt

Reports

A compilation of 761 observations of scour-induced burial and 406 observations of initiation of motion of UXO-like objects are presented. The main factors that increase the scour-induced burial-to-diameter ratio (B/D) under (i) currents and (ii) waves are the (i) Shields parameter (S) and (ii) Keulegan-Carpenter number. For cylinders under waves, B/D additionally increases as the current component parallel to wave orbitals decreases, as S increases, and as the angle between wave orbitals and a cylinder’s axis increases. Cylinders bury most, then spheres, and conical frustums bury least. Simple models dependent on these variables explain 85% of observed ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2017, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2018

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2017, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2017, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 22-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2017 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Apr 2018

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2017 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twentieth year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2017, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs, one using staked gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 2) and the other using anchor gillnets in the Chickahominy River (year 3; a major tributary of the James River),to determine relative abundance and stock structure for ...


Virginia Seafood Sustainability, Robert A. Fisher Mar 2018

Virginia Seafood Sustainability, Robert A. Fisher

Reports

Virginia’s commercial fisheries operate sustainably under a suite of management tools based upon information received from marine scientists and fishery managers who regularly conduct biological sampling of fish while tracking commercial landings and other gathering of required information. Analyses of fishing effort and overall stock conditions, as well as formulas designed to calculate threshold limits for maintaining sustainable stocks are regularly performed. Restrictions on seasons, size, days at sea, and gear are imposed as needed to achieve management supporting long-term biological sustainability.


Implementing Sustainable Shoreline Management In Virginia: Assessing The Need For An Enforceable Policy, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Karinna Nunez, Christine Tombleson Feb 2018

Implementing Sustainable Shoreline Management In Virginia: Assessing The Need For An Enforceable Policy, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Karinna Nunez, Christine Tombleson

Reports

No abstract provided.