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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Jessica Hendricks, Tamia Rudnicky Apr 2021

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Jessica Hendricks, Tamia Rudnicky

Reports

The vulnerability of coastal communities and the growing risks of coastal infrastructure continue largely due to past and ongoing patterns of development in high risk areas. This project is focused on increasing the use of natural and nature-based features (NNBFs) to increase resilience of coastal communities to flooding caused by extreme weather events.


Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder Apr 2021

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the Wachapreague lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for short-term research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment to educators for their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a long-term status ...


Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams 2020, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2021

Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams 2020, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry house operations and use of litter as a soil amendment in Accomack County Virginia has raised concerns for water quality impacts on both seaside and bayside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (ESVA). This ongoing investigation is examining freshwater stream water quality in Accomack Virginia to identify water quality impairments from poultry operation storm water runoff. Previous sampling data from 2019 has been integrated into this report. Sampling in 2020 followed an extended drought period (base flow) and two inch rainfall events (storm flow) in streams at road crossings in Accomack County Bayside and Seaside drainages. Dissolved ...


Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge - Final Report, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2021

Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge - Final Report, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019a). The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill upstream of the site triggered a higher resolution sampling of the stream in an attempt to isolate a source of the nitrogen loading (Snyder and Ross, 2019b). Accomack County has requested repeated sampling of this stream segment to monitor nutrient attenuation trends from the site, and stations were established for that purpose. This Final Report provides a summary of ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Jan 2021

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-third year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2020, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007, ASMFC 2020).

We also report on two fisheryindependent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 3) and the Chickahominy River (year 6; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of ...


Hog Island Shore Protection And Habitat Restoration Living Shoreline Project, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Nicholas J. Dinapoli Dec 2020

Hog Island Shore Protection And Habitat Restoration Living Shoreline Project, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Nicholas J. Dinapoli

Reports

Hog Island is an emergent estuarine marsh complex that is part of the overall Guinea marshes (Figure 1). These marshes are located at the confluence of Mobjack Bay and the York River in Gloucester County, Virginia. Hog Island is a high wave energy eroding shoreline along its south-face on the York River, and lower wave energy along its west and east flanks that occur on Monday Creek (Figure 2). The marsh consists mainly of grasses such as Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens. A higher, sandy area along the higher energy shorelines has some scrub shrub. Two small ponds and a ...


Farm Resiliency Education For At-Risk Coastal Areas In The Chesapeake Bay, Kristen Saacke Blunk, Kristen Hughes Evans, Jennifer Miller Herzog, Julie Herman, Carl Hershner, Donna Bilkovic, Kirk J. Havens Aug 2020

Farm Resiliency Education For At-Risk Coastal Areas In The Chesapeake Bay, Kristen Saacke Blunk, Kristen Hughes Evans, Jennifer Miller Herzog, Julie Herman, Carl Hershner, Donna Bilkovic, Kirk J. Havens

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) in collaboration with its partners, the Land Trust Alliance, Sustainable Chesapeake, and The Nature Conservancy, explored and refined questions critical for advising and guiding landowners who farm within coastal areas that are vulnerable to sea level rise and saltwater intrusion, and ultimately, loss of arable cropland in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. While the questions posed are those that agricultural experts across the coastal zones are struggling with, this effort focused on identifying the current state of the science and informational gaps; building current, best professional guidance for landowner conservation program choices; and developing ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2019, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2020

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2019, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2019, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 24-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Shoreline Management Handbook, Pamela Mason, Angela King, Clay Bernick Apr 2020

Shoreline Management Handbook, Pamela Mason, Angela King, Clay Bernick

Reports

Shoreline habitats and processes are impacted by the decisions we make about managing coastal development and shorelines. Shoreline Management is making choices to address the desire to protect upland property from erosion or develop property balanced with the benefits and uses of natural and nature-based shoreline features and shoreline habitat restoration. This requires a weighing of the private benefits and cots of management actions and the benefits and costs to public held common resources, also known as the public trust. The natural features along our shorelines -tidal wetlands, beaches and dunes, and riparian buffers, are economically and ecologically valuable. They ...


Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2020

Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019a). The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill upstream of the site triggered a higher resolution sampling of the stream in an attempt to isolate a source of the nitrogen loading (Snyder and Ross, 2019b). Accomack County has requested repeated sampling of this stream segment to monitor nutrient attenuation trends from the site, and stations were established for that purpose. This is the first report of that ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2019 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Jan 2020

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2019 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-second year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2019, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 2) and the Chickahominy River (year 5; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring ...


Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Jan 2020

Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry house operations and use of litter as a soil amendment in Accomack County Virginia has raised concerns for water quality impacts both seaside and bayside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (ESVA). This ongoing investigation is examining freshwater stream water quality in Accomack Virginia to identify water quality impairments from poultry operation storm water runoff. Sampling in 2019 followed two inch rainfall events covering 83 streams at road crossings in southern and northern Accomack County. Estimates of land cover in the drainages for these streams were used to determine correlations between stream water nutrient levels and the ...


Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency: Forecast And Hind-Cast Load Reductions From Living Shoreline Bmps : Project Report (Year 2 Of 3), Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky Jan 2020

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency: Forecast And Hind-Cast Load Reductions From Living Shoreline Bmps : Project Report (Year 2 Of 3), Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky

Reports

The vulnerability of coastal communities and the growing risks to coastal infrastructure continue largely due to past and ongoing patterns of development in high risk areas. This project is focused on increasing the use of natural and nature-based features (NNBFs) to increase resilience of coastal communities to flooding caused by extreme weather events. This project has proposed two efforts to increase understanding of NNBFS; 1) describe the current status, and 2) quantify role of NNBF creation/ restoration for water quality benefits in support of coastal resilience. The products of the 3-year project are intended to support informed coastal management decision-making ...


Dna Detectives: Protecting Endangered Species, Samantha Askin Jan 2020

Dna Detectives: Protecting Endangered Species, Samantha Askin

Reports

Grades: 9-12 Subjects: Biology | Environmental Science | Oceanography

For this lesson, students will be U.S. Fish and Wildlife Biologists. They will be tasked with figuring out which endangered or threatened species they have by identifying a genetic sequence unique to their species. The students will then have to research why their species in endangered or threatened and write a formal report of their findings to the U.S. Department of the Interior.


Old Macdonald Had An Aquaculture Farm, Shantelle Landry Jan 2020

Old Macdonald Had An Aquaculture Farm, Shantelle Landry

Reports

Grades: 6 Subjects: Earth Science | Natural Resources

With this activity, students will learn the importance of aquaculture and how it can be used to manage a resource.


Wave Fever: The Climate Induced Range Expansion Of The Atlantic Marsh Fiddler Crab, Kayla Martinez-Soto Jan 2020

Wave Fever: The Climate Induced Range Expansion Of The Atlantic Marsh Fiddler Crab, Kayla Martinez-Soto

Reports

Grades: 9-12 Subjects: Biology | Environmental Science | Oceanography

In 2014, scientists found that the Atlantic marsh fiddler crab had extended its northern limit by ~90 miles to New Hampshire, which is in the Gulf of Maine. Range expanding species can alter salt marsh characteristics such as biodiversity and food webs. In this lesson, students will combine sea surface temperature data from a federal database and fiddler burrow densities from field photos to determine the relationship between ocean warming and range expansions.


Shoreline Decision Support Tools Improved, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science. Jan 2020

Shoreline Decision Support Tools Improved, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science.

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay.


Feeding Time: How Nutrients Drive Phytoplankton Growth, Brianna Stanley Jan 2020

Feeding Time: How Nutrients Drive Phytoplankton Growth, Brianna Stanley

Reports

Grades: 9-12 Subjects: Biology | Environmental Science | Oceanography

This lesson plan helps students make the connection between the amount of nutrients present in an ecosystem and the resulting growth of phytoplankton in our coastal waters. This lesson takes this concept a step deeper, by exploring how the proportions of nitrogen and phosphorus in the environment create the ideal conditions for phytoplankton growth. Students will explore the concept of limiting factors and will work on both their graphing skills and their ability to compare ratios.


Isotopes In The Estuary: Conception And Application Of Stable And Radioactive Carbon, Derek Detweiler Jan 2020

Isotopes In The Estuary: Conception And Application Of Stable And Radioactive Carbon, Derek Detweiler

Reports

Grades: 9-12 Subjects: Chemistry | Environmental Science | Oceanography

In this interactive estuary-focused activity, students will examine stable and radioactive isotope data which provide information about the source and age of environmental samples such as plant and soil matter. Students will calculate average isotope ratios from five reference land types (forest, wetland, agriculture, industry, aquatic) and an unknown site within an estuary. Students will graph their calculated ratios and determine the land type that most impacts their estuary based on reference-to-unknown comparisons.


Tiny Killers, Sarah Pease Jan 2020

Tiny Killers, Sarah Pease

Reports

Grades: 9-12 Subjects: Biology | Environmental Science | Oceanography

What different methods and new technologies are used to monitor harmful algae and the toxins that they produce?

Students will learn about how harmful algae threaten human health through the processes of bioaccumulation and biomagnification. In small groups, they will design a harmful algae monitoring program based on mock harmful algae data, and then they will test their monitoring program and discover some of the challenges and limitations of any monitoring plan that attempts to measure variable, natural events.


Trees Of The Seas, Michelle Woods Jan 2020

Trees Of The Seas, Michelle Woods

Reports

Grades: 6-8 Subjects: Biology | Life Science


What are harmful algal blooms and why do they occur?

In this lesson plan, students will run their own experiments to investigate how eutrophication can cause harmful algal blooms and investigate strategies for preventing them.


What's In The Muck? Benthic Sediment Characterization And Community Structure, Cristin Wright Jan 2020

What's In The Muck? Benthic Sediment Characterization And Community Structure, Cristin Wright

Reports

Grades: 9-12 Subjects: Biology | Environmental Science | Oceanography


Sediment classification and grain size can affect the types of organisms that live in the sediment. Some organisms prefer sandier sediment, while others love the fine-grained mud.

In this activity, students will classify sediment samples by grain size and plot their findings on a ternary plot. The students will then further investigate which benthic organisms live in the different sediments and which may be more resilient to a change in sediment classification.


Living Shoreline Sea Level Resiliency: Performance And Adaptive Management Of Existing Breakwater Sites, Year 2 Summary Report, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Angela C. Milligan Nov 2019

Living Shoreline Sea Level Resiliency: Performance And Adaptive Management Of Existing Breakwater Sites, Year 2 Summary Report, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Angela C. Milligan

Reports

The Coastal Zone Management program, through NOAA grants, has funded several projects that have reviewed design considerations and monitored living shoreline systems for effectiveness at both shore protection and habitat enhancement. These studies presented data regarding the construction and performance of three living shoreline projects that were built between 1999 and 2003 in Maryland (Hardaway et al., 2007 and 2009) and were in part the basis for the “Living Shoreline Design Guidelines for Shore Protection in Virginia’s Estuarine Environments” and the contractor training classes (Hardaway et al., 2017). In addition, extensive research has been done on the design and ...


Impacts Of Sea Level Rise On Hypoxia In The Chesapeake Bay: A Model Intercomparison, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Ming Li, Wenfei Ni Oct 2019

Impacts Of Sea Level Rise On Hypoxia In The Chesapeake Bay: A Model Intercomparison, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Ming Li, Wenfei Ni

Reports

Over recent years a number of studies have examined the effects of sea level rise (SLR) on hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay. However, variations in the methodology, the years considered, and the metrics reported made comparisons between these studies difficult. To clarify the effects of SLR on the Bay’s hypoxia, we present an intercomparison between four numerical models following a common methodology. The models share the riverine fluxes, baseline period (1991–1995), and consider the same three scenarios of SLR: an increase in sea level of 0.17m, 0.50m, and 1.00m (representative of years 2025, 2050 and 2100 ...


James River Water Quality Model Refinement And Scenario Simulations, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin Oct 2019

James River Water Quality Model Refinement And Scenario Simulations, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin

Reports

This project was part of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality’s (DEQ) study to evaluate the protectiveness of chlorophyll criteria and consider potential criteria revisions, along with implications for the James River portion of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL.


Rural Shallow Water Dredging: Channel Assessment And Disposal Site Strategies, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox Sep 2019

Rural Shallow Water Dredging: Channel Assessment And Disposal Site Strategies, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

The goal of this report is to provide general considerations for localities on the dredging and disposal of material from shallow draft channels, in particular for those channels on the Middle Peninsula, Northern Neck, and Eastern Shore of Virginia (Figure 1-1). This report offers background on shallow draft channels, both federally and non-federally maintained, suggests procedures for the dredging and disposal process, and applies the process to an existing channel. Existing data on the Middle Peninsula, Northern Neck, and Eastern Shore channels are provided to assist localities with management decisions. In addition to data for most of the existing federal ...


Pamunkey Indian Reservation Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox Sep 2019

Pamunkey Indian Reservation Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

In 2015, the federal government officially recognized the Pamunkey Indian tribe. The tribe has a reservation located on the Pamunkey River in King William County (Figure 1-1) and is one of the nation's oldest, dating back to 1646 (Encyclopedia Virginia, 2015). The Reservation has about 13 miles of shoreline encompassing about 1,100 acres. According to the National Wetlands Inventory (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2016), the Reservation has about 80 acres of freshwater emergent wetland and 530 acres of freshwater forested/shrub wetland. Approximately 90 people live on the Reservation and up to 600 people visit in a ...


Virginia Stormwater Act, Tiered Approach For Rural Tidewater Localities: Generation Of Watershed Impervious Maps, Christine Tombleson Aug 2019

Virginia Stormwater Act, Tiered Approach For Rural Tidewater Localities: Generation Of Watershed Impervious Maps, Christine Tombleson

Reports

An amendment to Virginia's Stormwater Management Act was adopted to implement a tiered approach to stormwater management for rural Tidewater localities. To participate a locality is required to have a map showing the boundaries of the locality, with each watershed located partially or wholly within the locality, and the percentage of impervious cover (cover that impedes the natural infiltration of water into the soil) within each watershed. Center staff created maps indicating the initial percent of existing impervious cover present in each watershed for the Middle Peninsula Planning District (MPPDC) localities; Gloucester, Essex, King and Queen, King William, Mathews ...


Preliminary Assessment Of Benthic Macrofauna Community Within Intertidal Mudflats, Lake Rudee, Virginia Beach, Virginia, M. Lisa Kellogg Aug 2019

Preliminary Assessment Of Benthic Macrofauna Community Within Intertidal Mudflats, Lake Rudee, Virginia Beach, Virginia, M. Lisa Kellogg

Reports

The goal of this assessment was to evaluate the proposed dredging site at Lake Rudee to determine whether the natural resources within the proposed dredge area were of sufficient value that the permitting agency might require further data to be collected to aid in determining whether to grant a dredging permit or how much mitigation to require.


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2019

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2018, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 23-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).