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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Precise Ages Of Field Stars From White Dwarf Companions, M. Fouesneau, H-W. Rix, T. Von Hippel, D. W. Hogg, H. Tian Feb 2018

Precise Ages Of Field Stars From White Dwarf Companions, M. Fouesneau, H-W. Rix, T. Von Hippel, D. W. Hogg, H. Tian

Publications

Observational tests of stellar and Galactic chemical evolution call for the joint knowledge of a star’s physical parameters, detailed element abundances, and precise age. For cool main-sequence (MS) stars the abundances of many elements can be measured from spectroscopy, but ages are very hard to determine. The situation is different if the MS star has a white dwarf (WD) companion and a known distance, as the age of such a binary system can then be determined precisely from the photometric properties of the cooling WD. As a pilot study for obtaining precise age determinations of field MS stars, we ...


New Halo White Dwarf Candidates In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Kyra Dame, A. Gianninas, Mukremin Kilic, Jeffrey A. Munn, Warren R. Brown, Kurtis A. Williams, Ted Von Hippel, Hugh C. Harris Aug 2016

New Halo White Dwarf Candidates In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Kyra Dame, A. Gianninas, Mukremin Kilic, Jeffrey A. Munn, Warren R. Brown, Kurtis A. Williams, Ted Von Hippel, Hugh C. Harris

Publications

We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 57 faint (g = 19–22) high proper motion white dwarfs identified through repeat imaging of ≈3100 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint by Munn et al. We use ugriz and JHphotometry to perform a model atmosphere analysis, and identify 10 ultracool white dwarfs with Teff < 4000 K, including the coolest pure H atmosphere white dwarf currently known, J1657+2638, with Teff = 3550 ± 100 K. The majority of the objects with cooling ages larger than 9 Gyr display thick disc kinematics and constrain the age of the thick disc to ≥11 Gyr. There are four white dwarfs in our sample with large tangential ...


Completeness Of The Nearby White Dwarf Sample: Let Us Count The Ways, Terry D. Oswalt, Jay Holberg, Edward M. Sion Jul 2016

Completeness Of The Nearby White Dwarf Sample: Let Us Count The Ways, Terry D. Oswalt, Jay Holberg, Edward M. Sion

Publications

We have recently extended our ongoing survey of the local white dwarf population, effectively doubling the sample volume. Based upon the latest distance determinations, Holberg et al. (2016) estimated the present 20 pc and 25 pc samples were about 86 and 68 percent complete, respectively. Here we examine how the completeness of the 25 pc sample depends upon other observables such as apparent magnitude, proper motion, photometric color index, etc. The results may provide additional clues to why “Sirius-Like systems” are underrepresented in the extended 25 pc sample and how additional nearby single white dwarf stars may be found.


The White Dwarfs Within 25 Pc Of The Sun: Kinematics And Spectroscopic Subtypes, Edward M. Sion, J. B. Holberg, Terry D. Oswalt, George P. Mccook, Richard Wasatonic, Janine Myszka May 2014

The White Dwarfs Within 25 Pc Of The Sun: Kinematics And Spectroscopic Subtypes, Edward M. Sion, J. B. Holberg, Terry D. Oswalt, George P. Mccook, Richard Wasatonic, Janine Myszka

Publications

We present the fractional distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, range and distribution of surface temperatures, and kinematical properties of the white dwarfs (WDs) within 25 pc of the Sun. There is no convincing evidence of halo WDs in the total 25 pc sample of 224 WDs. There is also little to suggest the presence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 25 pc. It appears that the entire 25 pc sample likely belongs to the thin disk. We also find no significant kinematic differences with respect to spectroscopic subtypes. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 25 pc sample is ...


Measuring The Evolutionary Rate Of Cooling Of Zz Ceti, Anjum S. Mukadam, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al. Jul 2013

Measuring The Evolutionary Rate Of Cooling Of Zz Ceti, Anjum S. Mukadam, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We have finally measured the evolutionary rate of cooling of the pulsating hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf ZZ Ceti (Ross 548), as reflected by the drift rate of the 213.13260694 s period. Using 41 yr of time-series photometry from 1970 November to 2012 January, we determine the rate of change of this period with time to be dP/dt = (5.2 ± 1.4) × 10–15 s s–1 employing the OC method and (5.45 ± 0.79) × 10–15 s s–1 using a direct nonlinear least squares fit to the entire lightcurve. We adopt the dP/dt ...


A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis Of Cool White Dwarfs In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al. Sep 2010

A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis Of Cool White Dwarfs In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 126 cool white dwarfs (WDs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our sample includes high proper motion targets selected using the SDSS and USNO-B astrometry and a dozen previously known ultracool WD candidates. Our optical spectroscopic observations demonstrate that a clean selection of large samples of cool WDs in the SDSS (and the SkyMapper, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope data sets) is possible using a reduced proper motion diagram and a tangential velocity cut-off (depending on the proper motion accuracy) of 30 km s–1. Our near-infrared observations reveal ...


Visitors From The Halo: 11 Gyr Old White Dwarfs In The Solar Neighborhood, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al. May 2010

Visitors From The Halo: 11 Gyr Old White Dwarfs In The Solar Neighborhood, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We report the discovery of three nearby old halo white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including two stars in a common proper motion binary system. These candidates are selected from our 2800deg2 proper motion survey on the Bok and U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1.3 m telescopes, and they display proper motions of 0˝.4-0˝.5 yr¯1. Follow-up MMT spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry demonstrate that all three objects are hydrogen-dominated atmosphere WDs with T eff ≈ 3700-4100 K. For average mass WDs, these temperature estimates correspond to cooling ages of 9-10 Gyr, distances ...


A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey Of Cool White Dwarfs In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Murkremin Kilic, Piotr M. Kowalski, Ted Von Hippel Jul 2009

A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey Of Cool White Dwarfs In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Murkremin Kilic, Piotr M. Kowalski, Ted Von Hippel

Publications

We present near-infrared photometric observations of 15 and spectroscopic observations of 38 cool white dwarfs (WDs). This is the largest near-infrared spectroscopic survey of cool WDs to date. Combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and our near-infrared data, we perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. The spectral energy distributions of our objects are explained fairly well by model atmospheres with temperatures ranging from 6300 K down to 4200 K. Two WDs show significant absorption in the infrared, and are best explained with mixed H/He atmosphere models. Based on the up-to-date model atmosphere calculations by Kowalski & Saumon, we find ...


Inverting Color–Magnitude Diagrams To Access Precise Star Cluster Parameters: A New White Dwarf Age For The Hyades, Steven Degennaro, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al. May 2009

Inverting Color–Magnitude Diagrams To Access Precise Star Cluster Parameters: A New White Dwarf Age For The Hyades, Steven Degennaro, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We have extended our Bayesian modeling of stellar clusters—which uses main-sequence stellar evolution models, a mapping between initial masses and white dwarf (WD) masses, WD cooling models, and WD atmospheres—to include binary stars, field stars, and two additional main-sequence stellar evolution models. As a critical test of our Bayesian modeling technique, we apply it to Hyades UBV photometry, with membership priors based on proper motions and radial velocities, where available. Under the assumption of a particular set of WD cooling models and atmosphere models, we estimate the age of the Hyades based on cooling WDs to be 648 ...


Possible Identification Of A Metal-Rich Old Moving Group: High-Resolution Spectroscopy Of Candidate Members, Abigail R. Daane, Jeremy R. King, Simon C. Schuler Apr 2007

Possible Identification Of A Metal-Rich Old Moving Group: High-Resolution Spectroscopy Of Candidate Members, Abigail R. Daane, Jeremy R. King, Simon C. Schuler

Publications

Using new high-resolution spectroscopic observations from both the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m and Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 m telescopes, we observed four candidate members of the Ursa Major moving group previously suggested to instead belong to a significantly older kinematic assemblage. The Fe abundances we measure strongly suggest that these stars are not UMa members but form a more metal-rich group of stars (+0.10 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.18) with an age near 3 Gyr. Our [Ca/H] determinations corroborate this result. The apparent similarities in metallicity and previously discovered UVW space motions lend credence to prior suggestions ...


Infrared High-Resolution Spectroscopy Of Post-Agb Circumstellar Disks. I. Hr 4049: The Winnowing Flow Observed?, Kenneth H. Hinkle, Sean D. Brittain, David L. Lambert Apr 2007

Infrared High-Resolution Spectroscopy Of Post-Agb Circumstellar Disks. I. Hr 4049: The Winnowing Flow Observed?, Kenneth H. Hinkle, Sean D. Brittain, David L. Lambert

Publications

High-resolution infrared spectroscopy in the 2.3-4.6 micron region is reported for the peculiar A supergiant, single-lined spectroscopic binary HR 4049. Lines from the CO fundamental and first overtone, OH fundamental, and several H2O vibration-rotation transitions have been observed in the near-infrared spectrum. The spectrum of HR 4049 appears principally in emission through the 3 and 4.6 micron region and in absorption in the 2 micron region. The 4.6 micron spectrum shows a rich 'forest' of emission lines. All the spectral lines observed in the 2.3-4.6 micron spectrum are shown to be circumbinary in origin ...


Inverting Color-Magnitude Diagrams To Access Precise Star Cluster Parameters: A Bayesian Approach, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al. Jul 2006

Inverting Color-Magnitude Diagrams To Access Precise Star Cluster Parameters: A Bayesian Approach, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We demonstrate a new Bayesian technique to invert color-magnitude diagrams of main-sequence and white dwarf stars to reveal the underlying cluster properties of age, distance, metallicity, and line-of-sight absorption, as well as individual stellar masses. The advantages our technique has over traditional analyses of color-magnitude diagrams are objectivity, precision, and explicit dependence on prior knowledge of cluster parameters. Within the confines of a given set of often-used models of stellar evolution, a single mapping of initial to final masses, and white dwarf cooling, and assuming photometric errors that one could reasonably achieve with the Hubble Space Telescope, our technique yields ...


Cool White Dwarfs In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Mukremin Kilic, Jeffrey A. Munn, Hugh C. Harris, James W. Liebert, Ted Von Hippel, Kurtis A. Williams, Travis S. Metcalfe, D. E. Winget, Stephen E. Levine Jan 2006

Cool White Dwarfs In The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Mukremin Kilic, Jeffrey A. Munn, Hugh C. Harris, James W. Liebert, Ted Von Hippel, Kurtis A. Williams, Travis S. Metcalfe, D. E. Winget, Stephen E. Levine

Publications

A reduced proper motion diagram utilizing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry and astrometry and USNO-B plate astrometry is used to separate cool white dwarf candidates from metal-weak, high-velocity, mainsequence Population II stars (subdwarfs) in the SDSS Data Release 2 imaging area. Follow-up spectroscopy using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, the MMT, and the McDonald 2.7 m telescope is used to demonstrate that the white dwarf and subdwarf loci separate cleanly in the reduced proper motion diagram and that the contamination by subdwarfs is small near the cool white dwarf locus. This enables large, statistically complete samples of white dwarfs, particularly ...


Measuring The Evolution Of The Most Stable Optical Clock G 117-B15a, S. O. Kepler, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al. Dec 2005

Measuring The Evolution Of The Most Stable Optical Clock G 117-B15a, S. O. Kepler, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We report our measurement of the rate of change of period with time () for the 215 s periodicity in the pulsating white dwarf G 117-B15A, the most stable optical clock known. After 31 years of observations, we have finally obtained a 4 σ measurement observed = (4.27 ± 0.80) × 10-15 s s-1. Taking into account the proper-motion effect of proper = (7.0 ± 2.0) × 10-16s s-1, we obtain a rate of change of period with time of = (3.57 ± 0.82) × 10-15 s s-1. This value is consistent with the cooling rate in our white dwarf models only for cores ...


Faint Blue Objects In The Hubble Deep Field–South Revealed: White Dwarfs, Subdwarfs, And Quasars, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al. Nov 2005

Faint Blue Objects In The Hubble Deep Field–South Revealed: White Dwarfs, Subdwarfs, And Quasars, Mukremin Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

We explore the nature of the faint blue objects in the Hubble Deep Field–South. We have derived proper motions for the point sources in the Hubble Deep Field–South using a 3 yr baseline. Combining our proper-motion measurements with spectral energy distribution fitting enabled us to identify four quasars and 42 stars, including three white dwarf candidates. Two of these white dwarf candidates, HDF-S 1444 and 895, are found to display significant proper motion, 21:1±7:9 and 34:9 ± 8:0 mas yr -1, and are consistent with being thick-disk or halo white dwarfs located at ̴2 ...


Beryllium Enhancement As Evidence For Accretion In A Lithium-Rich F Dwarf, Johanna F. Ashwell, R D. Jeffries, Barry Smalley, C P. Deliyannis, Aaron Steinhauer, Jeremy R. King Aug 2005

Beryllium Enhancement As Evidence For Accretion In A Lithium-Rich F Dwarf, Johanna F. Ashwell, R D. Jeffries, Barry Smalley, C P. Deliyannis, Aaron Steinhauer, Jeremy R. King

Publications

The early F dwarf star ``J37'' in the open cluster NGC6633 shows an unusual pattern of photospheric abundances, including an order of magnitude enhancement of lithium and iron-peak elements, but an under-abundance of carbon. As a consequence of its thin convection zone these anomalies have been attributed to either radiative diffusion or the accretion of hydrogen-depleted material. By comparing high resolution VLT/UVES spectra of J37 (and other F stars in NGC 6633) with syntheses of the Be ii doublet region at 3131 Ang, we establish that J37 also has a Be abundance (A(Be)=3.0+/-0.5) that ...


From Young And Hot To Old And Cold: Comparing White Dwarf Cooling Theory To Main-Sequence Stellar Evolution In Open Clusters, Ted Von Hippel Mar 2005

From Young And Hot To Old And Cold: Comparing White Dwarf Cooling Theory To Main-Sequence Stellar Evolution In Open Clusters, Ted Von Hippel

Publications

I explore the current ability of both white dwarf cooling theory and main-sequence stellar evolution theory to accurately determine stellar population ages by comparing ages derived using both techniques for open clusters ranging from 0.1 to 4 Gyr. I find good agreement between white dwarf and main-sequence evolutionary ages over the entire age range currently available for study. I also find that directly comparing main-sequence turnoff ages to white dwarf ages is only weakly sensitive to realistic levels of errors in cluster distance, metallicity, and reddening. Additional detailed comparisons between white dwarf and main-sequence ages have tremendous potential to ...


The Correlation Of Lithium And Beryllium In F And G Cluster Dwarf Stars, Ann Merchant Boesgaard, Eric Armengaud, Constantine P. Deliyannis, Alex Stephens, Jeremy R. King Oct 2004

The Correlation Of Lithium And Beryllium In F And G Cluster Dwarf Stars, Ann Merchant Boesgaard, Eric Armengaud, Constantine P. Deliyannis, Alex Stephens, Jeremy R. King

Publications

Although Li has been extensively observed in main-sequence field and cluster stars, there are relatively fewer observations of Be. We have obtained Keck HIRES spectra of 36 late F and early G dwarfs in order to study the Li-Be correlation we found previously in the temperature regime of 5900–6650 K. The sample size for this temperature range with detectable and (usually) depleted Li and Be is now 88, including Li and Be abundances in both cluster and field stars. Therefore we can now investigate the influence of other parameters such as age, temperature, and metallicity on the correlation. The ...


Photometric Identification Of Cool White Dwarfs, M. Kilic, D. E. Winget, Ted Von Hippel, C. F. Claver Oct 2004

Photometric Identification Of Cool White Dwarfs, M. Kilic, D. E. Winget, Ted Von Hippel, C. F. Claver

Publications

We investigate the use of a narrowband DDO51 filter for photometric identification of cool white dwarfs. We report photometric observations of 30 known cool white dwarfs with temperatures ranging from 10,000 K down to very cool temperatures (3500 K). Follow-up spectroscopic observations of a sample of objects selected using this filter and our photometric observations show that DDO51 filter photometry can help select cool white dwarf candidates for follow-up multiobject spectroscopy by rejecting 65% of main-sequence stars with the same broadband colors as the cool white dwarfs. This technique is not selective enough to efficiently feed single-object spectrographs. We ...


Proper Motion Objects In The Hubble Deep Field, M. Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al. Jul 2004

Proper Motion Objects In The Hubble Deep Field, M. Kilic, Ted Von Hippel, Et Al.

Publications

Using the deepest and finest resolution images of the universe acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope and a similar image taken 7 yr later for the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, we have derived proper motions for the point sources in the Hubble Deep Field–North. Two faint blue objects, HDF 2234 and HDF 3072, are found to display significant proper motion, 10:0 ± 2:5 and 15:5 ± 3:8 mas yr¯1. Photometric distances and tangential velocities for these stars are consistent with disk white dwarfs located at ~500 pc. The faint blue objects analyzed by Ibata et ...


Constraining The Evolution Of Zz Ceti, Anjum S. Mukadam, S. O. Kepler, D. E. Nather, M. Kilic, F. Mullally, T. Von Hippel, S. J. Kleinman, A. Nitta, J. A. Guzik, P. A. Bradley, J. Matthews, K. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sullivan, R. R. Shobbrook, P. Birch, X. J. Jiang, D. W. Xu, S. Joshi, B. N. Ashoka, P. Ibbetson, E. Leibowitz, E. O. Ofek, E. G. Meištas, R. Janulis, R. D. Ališauskas, R. Kalytis, G. Handler, D. Kilkenny, D. O'Donoghue, D. W. Kurtz, M. Müller, P. Moskalik, W. Ogloza, S. Zola, J. Krzesiński, F. Johnannessen, J. M. Gonzalez-Perez, J. E. Solheim, R. Silvotti, S. Bernabei, G. Vauclair, N. Dolez, J. N. Fu, M. Chevreton, M. Manteiga, O. Suárez, A. Ulla, M. S. Cunha, T. S. Metcalfe, A. Kanaan, L. Fraga, A. F. M. Costa, O. Giovannini, G. Fontaine, P. Bergeron, M. S. O'Brien, D. Sanwal, M. A. Wood, T. J. Ahrens, N. Silvestri, E. W. Klumpe, S. D. Kawaler, R. Riddle, M. D. Reed, T. K. Watson Sep 2003

Constraining The Evolution Of Zz Ceti, Anjum S. Mukadam, S. O. Kepler, D. E. Nather, M. Kilic, F. Mullally, T. Von Hippel, S. J. Kleinman, A. Nitta, J. A. Guzik, P. A. Bradley, J. Matthews, K. Sekiguchi, D. J. Sullivan, T. Sullivan, R. R. Shobbrook, P. Birch, X. J. Jiang, D. W. Xu, S. Joshi, B. N. Ashoka, P. Ibbetson, E. Leibowitz, E. O. Ofek, E. G. Meištas, R. Janulis, R. D. Ališauskas, R. Kalytis, G. Handler, D. Kilkenny, D. O'Donoghue, D. W. Kurtz, M. Müller, P. Moskalik, W. Ogloza, S. Zola, J. Krzesiński, F. Johnannessen, J. M. Gonzalez-Perez, J. E. Solheim, R. Silvotti, S. Bernabei, G. Vauclair, N. Dolez, J. N. Fu, M. Chevreton, M. Manteiga, O. Suárez, A. Ulla, M. S. Cunha, T. S. Metcalfe, A. Kanaan, L. Fraga, A. F. M. Costa, O. Giovannini, G. Fontaine, P. Bergeron, M. S. O'Brien, D. Sanwal, M. A. Wood, T. J. Ahrens, N. Silvestri, E. W. Klumpe, S. D. Kawaler, R. Riddle, M. D. Reed, T. K. Watson

Publications

We report our analysis of the stability of pulsation periods in the DAV star (pulsating hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf) ZZ Ceti, also called R548. On the basis of observations that span 31 years, we conclude that the period 213.13 s observed in ZZ Ceti drifts at a rate dP/dt (5:5 ± 1:9) x 10-15 s s-1, after correcting for proper motion. Our results are consistent with previous values for this mode and an improvement over them because of the larger time base. The characteristic stability timescale implied for the pulsation period is ⎸P / Ṗ ...