Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Publications

Middle atmosphere dynamics

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Numerical Modeling Of A Gravity Wave Packet Ducted By The Thermal Structure Of The Atmosphere, Yonghui Yu, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D. Jun 2007

Numerical Modeling Of A Gravity Wave Packet Ducted By The Thermal Structure Of The Atmosphere, Yonghui Yu, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D.

Publications

A time-dependent and fully nonlinear numerical model is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in two spatial dimensions and to describe the propagation of a Gaussian gravity wave packet generated in the troposphere. A Fourier spectral analysis is used to analyze the frequency power spectra of the wave packet, which propagates through and dwells within several thermal ducting regions. The frequency power spectra of the wave packet are derived at several discrete altitudes, which allow us to determine the evolution of the packet. This spectral analysis also clearly reveals the existence of a stratospheric duct, a mesospheric and lower thermospheric ...


Simulated Ducting Of High-Frequency Atmospheric Gravity Waves In The Presence Of Background Winds, Yonghui Yu, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D. Jun 2007

Simulated Ducting Of High-Frequency Atmospheric Gravity Waves In The Presence Of Background Winds, Yonghui Yu, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D.

Publications

A new nonlinear and time-dependent model is used to derive the total perturbation energy flux of two gravity wave packets propagating from the troposphere to the lower thermosphere. They are excited by a heat source and respectively propagate in an eastward and westward direction in the presence of a zonal wind. Analysis of the refractive index, the power spectra and the total perturbation energy flux allows us to correctly interpret the ducting characteristics of these two wave packets. In our study the wind acts as a directional filter to the wave propagations and causes noticeable spectral variations at higher altitudes ...


Time-Resolved Ducting Of Atmospheric Acoustic-Gravity Waves By Analysis Of The Vertical Energy Flux, Yonghui Yu, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D. Jan 2007

Time-Resolved Ducting Of Atmospheric Acoustic-Gravity Waves By Analysis Of The Vertical Energy Flux, Yonghui Yu, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D.

Publications

A new 2-D time-dependent model is used to simulate the propagation of an acoustic-gravity wave packet in the atmosphere. A Gaussian tropospheric heat source is assumed with a forcing period of 6.276 minutes. The atmospheric thermal structure creates three discrete wave ducts in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere, respectively. The horizontally averaged vertical energy flux is derived over altitude and time in order to examine the time-resolved ducting. This ducting is characterized by alternating upward and downward energy fluxes within a particular duct, which clearly show the reflections occurring from the duct boundaries. These ducting simulations are the ...


A Full-Wave Investigation Of The Use Of A ‘‘Cancellation Factor’’ In Gravity Wave–Oh Airglow Interaction Studies, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., Yonghui Yu Jan 2005

A Full-Wave Investigation Of The Use Of A ‘‘Cancellation Factor’’ In Gravity Wave–Oh Airglow Interaction Studies, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., Yonghui Yu

Publications

Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) perturb minor species involved in the chemical reactions of airglow emissions in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. In order to determine gravity wave fluxes and the forcing effects of gravity waves on the mean state (which are proportional to the square of the wave amplitude), it is essential that the amplitude of airglow brightness fluctuation be related to the amplitude of major gas density fluctuation in a deterministic way. This has been achieved through detailed modeling combining gravity wave dynamics described using a full-wave model with the chemistry relevant to the airglow emission of interest ...


Climatology And Modeling Of Quasi-Monochromatic Atmospheric Gravity Waves Observed Over Urbana Illinois, J. H. Hecht, R. L. Walterscheid, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., S. J. Franke Mar 2001

Climatology And Modeling Of Quasi-Monochromatic Atmospheric Gravity Waves Observed Over Urbana Illinois, J. H. Hecht, R. L. Walterscheid, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., S. J. Franke

Publications

From analyzing nine months of airglow imaging observations of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) over Adelaide, Australia (35°S) [Walterscheid et al., 1999] have proposed that many of the quasi-monochromatic waves seen in the images were primarily thermally ducted. Here are presented 15 months of observations, from February 1996 to May 1997, for AGW frequency and propagation direction from a northern latitude site, Urbana Illinois (40°N). As Adelaide, Urbana is geographically distant from large orographic features. Similar to what was found in Adelaide, the AGWs seem to originate from a preferred location during the time period around summer solstice. In ...


Secular Variations Of Atomic Oxygen In The Mesopause Region Induced By Transient Gravity Wave Packets, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., R. L. Walterscheid, Philip G. Richards Nov 2000

Secular Variations Of Atomic Oxygen In The Mesopause Region Induced By Transient Gravity Wave Packets, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., R. L. Walterscheid, Philip G. Richards

Publications

We employ a 2-dimensional, time-dependent, fully nonlinear model of minor species in the mesopause region and our Spectral Full-Wave Model to simulate the response of atomic oxygen (O) to a gravity wave packet in the mesopause region. We demonstrate that gravity waves affect the time-averaged distribution of O in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region through the constituent fluxes the waves induce. Our conclusions are based on simulations of two wave packets that violate the non-acceleration conditions through transience and dissipation. The net cycle-averaged effect of the waves is to significantly increase (by as much as 50%) the O ...


Full-Wave Modeling Of Small-Scale Gravity Waves Using Airborne Lidar And Observations Of The Hawaiian Airglow (Aloha-93) O(¹S) Images And Coincident Na Wind/Temperature Lidar Measurements, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., Michael J. Taylor, Chester S. Gardner, Christian R. Gibbons Mar 1998

Full-Wave Modeling Of Small-Scale Gravity Waves Using Airborne Lidar And Observations Of The Hawaiian Airglow (Aloha-93) O(¹S) Images And Coincident Na Wind/Temperature Lidar Measurements, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., Michael J. Taylor, Chester S. Gardner, Christian R. Gibbons

Publications

Measurements were made of mesospheric gravity waves in the OI (5577 Å) nightglow observed from Maui, Hawaii, during the Airborne Lidar and Observations of Hawaiian Airglow (ALOHA-93) campaign. Clear, monochromatic gravity waves were observed on several nights. By using a full-wave model that realistically includes the major physical processes in this region, we have simulated the propagation of four waves through the mesopause region and calculated the O(¹S) nightglow response to the waves. Mean winds derived from Na wind/temperature lidar observations were employed in the computations. Wave amplitudes were calculated based on the requirement that the observed ...


Numerical Simulations Of Gravity Waves Imaged Over Arecibo During The 10-Day January 1993 Campaign, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., R. L. Walterscheid, Michael J. Taylor, William Ward, G. Schubert, Qihou Zhou, Francisco Garcia, Michael C. Kelly, G. G. Shepherd Jun 1997

Numerical Simulations Of Gravity Waves Imaged Over Arecibo During The 10-Day January 1993 Campaign, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., R. L. Walterscheid, Michael J. Taylor, William Ward, G. Schubert, Qihou Zhou, Francisco Garcia, Michael C. Kelly, G. G. Shepherd

Publications

Recently, measurements were made of mesospheric gravity waves in the OI (5577 Å) nightglow observed from Arecibo, Puerto Rico, during January 1993 as part of a special 10-day campaign. Clear, monochromatic gravity waves were observed on several nights. By using a full-wave model that realistically includes the major physical processes in this region, we have simulated the propagation of two waves through the mesopause region and calculated the O(¹S) nightglow response to the waves. Mean winds derived from both UARS wind imaging interferometer (WINDII) and Arecibo incoherent scatter radar observations were employed in the computations as were the ...


A Chemical-Dynamical Model Of Wave-Driven Sodium Fluctuations, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., John M.C. Plane Oct 1995

A Chemical-Dynamical Model Of Wave-Driven Sodium Fluctuations, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., John M.C. Plane

Publications

A comprehensive chemical-dynamical model is used to investigate the interaction of gravity waves with twenty minor species involved in the atomic sodium chemistry in the mesopause region. We find that chemistry becomes important on the underside of the sodium layer, primarily below 85 km altitude, where the relative importance of chemistry in wave-driven sodium fluctuations increases with increasing wave period and increasing horizontal wavelength. We also find that for altitudes below 80 km an adequate determination of the effects of chemistry in these fluctuations requires the inclusion of several reactions related to ozone chemistry. However, the atomic Na density is ...


Wave-Modified Mean Exothermic Heating In The Mesopause Region, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., R. L. Walterscheid Nov 1994

Wave-Modified Mean Exothermic Heating In The Mesopause Region, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., R. L. Walterscheid

Publications

We employ a model of wave-driven OH nightglow fluctuations to calculate the effects of gravity waves on the chemical exothermic heating due to reactions involving odd hydrogen and odd oxygen species in the mesopause region. Using a model based on time means and deviations from those means, it is demonstrated that gravity waves contribute to the time-average exothermic heating. The effect can be significant because the fractional fluctuations in minor species density can be substantially greater than the fractional fluctuation of the major gas density. Our calculations reveal that the waves mitigate the exothermic heating, demonstrating their potential importance in ...


Seasonal And Latitudinal Variations Of Gravity Wave-Driven Fluctuations In Oh Nightglow, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., R. L. Walterscheid, G. Schubert Oct 1992

Seasonal And Latitudinal Variations Of Gravity Wave-Driven Fluctuations In Oh Nightglow, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D., R. L. Walterscheid, G. Schubert

Publications

The seasonal and latitudinal variations of the gravity wave-driven fluctuations in the OH nightglow are investigated theoretically using a model that accounts for emission from an extended OH layer and includes the effects of eddy diffusivities in the gravity wave dynamics. The mean (unperturbed) state is obtained from a two-dimensional, nighttime model so that mean-state number densities, temperatures and eddy diffusivities are all self-consistent. Seasonal and latitudinal variations in the background OH nightglow emission and in the propagation and dissipation characteristics of the gravity waves influence how the OH nightglow modulations due to gravity waves depend on season and latitude ...


Effects Of Eddy Viscosity And Thermal Conduction And Coriolis Force In The Dynamics Of Gravity Wave Driven Fluctuations In The Oh Nightglow, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D. May 1988

Effects Of Eddy Viscosity And Thermal Conduction And Coriolis Force In The Dynamics Of Gravity Wave Driven Fluctuations In The Oh Nightglow, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D.

Publications

Recently, Walterscheid et al. (1987) have described a dynamical-chemical model of wave-driven fluctuations in the OH nightglow which incorporated a five-reaction photochemical scheme and the dynamics of linearized acoustic-gravity waves in an isothermal, motionless atmosphere. The intensity oscillation (δI) about the time-averaged intensity (I0) and the temperature oscillation (δT) about the time-averaged temperature (T0) were related by means of the complex ratio η ≡ (δI/I0)/(δT/T0). One of the main conclusions of their work was that the inclusion of dynamical effects is absolutely essential for a valid assessment of η at ...


Wavelength Dependence Of Eddy Dissipation And Coriolis Force In The Dynamics Of Gravity Wave Driven Fluctuations In The Oh Nightglow, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D. May 1988

Wavelength Dependence Of Eddy Dissipation And Coriolis Force In The Dynamics Of Gravity Wave Driven Fluctuations In The Oh Nightglow, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D.

Publications

The theory of Walterscheid et al. (1987) to explain internal gravity wave induced oscillations in the emission intensity I and rotational temperature T of the OH nightglow was modified by Hickey (1988) to include the effects of eddy dissipation and Coriolis force. In the theory of Walterscheid et al. (1987) the ratio η = (δI/I0)/(δT/T0) (δ refers to a perturbation quantity, and a zero subscript refers to an average) was found to be independent of horizontal wavelength at long periods, while in the extended theory of Hickey (1988) some such dependence was inferred. In ...