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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Testing The Gravitational Weak Equivalence Principle In The Standard-Model Extension With Binary Pulsars, Lijing Shao, Quentin G. Bailey Apr 2019

Testing The Gravitational Weak Equivalence Principle In The Standard-Model Extension With Binary Pulsars, Lijing Shao, Quentin G. Bailey

Publications

The standard model extension provides a framework to systematically investigate possible violation of the Lorentz symmetry. Concerning gravity, the linearized version was extensively examined. We here cast the first set of experimental bounds on the nonlinear terms in the field equation from the anisotropic cubic curvature couplings. These terms introduce body-dependent accelerations for self-gravitating objects, thus violating the gravitational weak equivalence principle (GWEP). Novel phenomena, which are absent in the linearized gravity, remain experimentally unexplored. We constrain them with precise binary-orbit measurements from pulsar timing, wherein the high density and large compactness of neutron stars are crucial for the test ...


Testing Velocity-Dependent Cpt-Violating Gravitational Forces With Radio Pulsars, Lijing Shao, Quentin G. Bailey Oct 2018

Testing Velocity-Dependent Cpt-Violating Gravitational Forces With Radio Pulsars, Lijing Shao, Quentin G. Bailey

Publications

In the spirit of effective field theory, the standard-model extension (SME) provides a comprehensive framework to systematically probe the possibility of Lorentz/CPT violation. In the pure gravity sector, operators with mass dimension larger than 4, while in general being advantageous to short-range experiments, are hard to investigate with systems of astronomical size. However, there is exception if the leading-order effects are CPT-violating and velocity-dependent. Here we study the lowest-order operators in the pure gravity sector that violate the CPT symmetry with carefully chosen relativistic binary pulsar systems. Applying the existing analytical results to the dynamics of a binary orbit ...


Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Gravitational Waves Generated By Neutron Stars, Preston Jones, Andri Gretarsson, Douglas Singleton Dec 2017

Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation From Gravitational Waves Generated By Neutron Stars, Preston Jones, Andri Gretarsson, Douglas Singleton

Publications

We investigate the possibility of observing very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic radiation produced from the vacuum by gravitational waves. We review the calculations leading to the possibility of vacuum conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic waves and show how this process evades the well-known prohibition against particle production from gravitational waves. Using Newman-Penrose scalars, we estimate the luminosity of this proposed electromagnetic counterpart radiation coming from gravitational waves produced by neutron star oscillations. The detection of electromagnetic counterpart radiation would provide an indirect way of observing gravitational radiation with future spacecraft missions, especially lunar orbiting probes.


Gw170817: Observation Of Gravitational Waves From A Binary Neutron Star Inspiral, B. P. Abbott, K. Aultoneal, S. Gaudio, K. Gill, E. M. Gretarsson, B. Hughey, M. Muratore, J. W. W. Pratt, S. G. Schwalbe, K. Staats, M. J. Szczepańczyk, M. Zanolin, Et Al. Oct 2017

Gw170817: Observation Of Gravitational Waves From A Binary Neutron Star Inspiral, B. P. Abbott, K. Aultoneal, S. Gaudio, K. Gill, E. M. Gretarsson, B. Hughey, M. Muratore, J. W. W. Pratt, S. G. Schwalbe, K. Staats, M. J. Szczepańczyk, M. Zanolin, Et Al.

Publications

On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0 × 104 years. We infer the component masses of the binary to be between 0.86 and 2.26 M⊙, in agreement with masses of known neutron stars. Restricting the component spins to the range inferred in binary neutron stars, we find the component masses to be in the range ...


Lorentz-Symmetry Test At Planck-Scale Suppression With Nucleons In A Spin-Polarized 133 Cs Cold Atom Clock, H. Pihan-Le Bars, C. Guerlin, R.-D. Lasseri, J.-P. Ebran, Q. G. Bailey, S. Bize, E. Khan, P. Wolf Apr 2017

Lorentz-Symmetry Test At Planck-Scale Suppression With Nucleons In A Spin-Polarized 133 Cs Cold Atom Clock, H. Pihan-Le Bars, C. Guerlin, R.-D. Lasseri, J.-P. Ebran, Q. G. Bailey, S. Bize, E. Khan, P. Wolf

Publications

The authors introduce an improved model that links the frequency of the 133 Cs hyperfine Zeeman transitions.


Particle Production In A Gravitational Wave Background, Preston Jones, Patrick Mcdougall, Douglas Singleton Mar 2017

Particle Production In A Gravitational Wave Background, Preston Jones, Patrick Mcdougall, Douglas Singleton

Publications

In this article, the authors study the possibility that massless particles, such as photons, are produced by a gravitational wave. That such a process should occur is implied by tree-level Feynman diagrams such as two gravitons turning into two photons, i.e., g + g → γ + γ. Here we calculate the rate at which a gravitational wave creates a massless scalar field. This is done by placing the scalar field in the background of a plane gravitational wave and calculating the 4-current of the scalar field. Even in the vacuum limit of the scalar field it has a nonzero vacuum expectation ...


Anisotropic Cubic Curvature Couplings, Quentin G. Bailey Sep 2016

Anisotropic Cubic Curvature Couplings, Quentin G. Bailey

Publications

To complement recent work on tests of spacetime symmetry in gravity, cubic curvature couplings are studied using an effective field theory description of spacetime-symmetry breaking. The associated mass-dimension-eight coefficients for Lorentz violation studied do not result in any linearized gravity modifications and instead are revealed in the first nonlinear terms in an expansion of spacetime around a flat background. We consider effects on gravitational radiation through the energy loss of a binary system and we study two-body orbital perturbations using the post-Newtonian metric. Some effects depend on the internal structure of the source and test bodies, thereby breaking the weak ...


Combined Search For Lorentz Violation In Short-Range Gravity, Cheng-Gang Shao, Yu-Jie Tan, Wen-Hai Tan, Shan-Qing Yang, Jun Luo, Michael Edmund Tobar, Quentin G. Bailey, Et Al. Aug 2016

Combined Search For Lorentz Violation In Short-Range Gravity, Cheng-Gang Shao, Yu-Jie Tan, Wen-Hai Tan, Shan-Qing Yang, Jun Luo, Michael Edmund Tobar, Quentin G. Bailey, Et Al.

Publications

Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. (See article for remainder of abstract.)


Constraints On Violations Of Lorentz Symmetry From Gravity Probe B, James M. Overduin, Ryan D. Everett, Quentin G. Bailey Mar 2014

Constraints On Violations Of Lorentz Symmetry From Gravity Probe B, James M. Overduin, Ryan D. Everett, Quentin G. Bailey

Publications

We use the final results from Gravity Probe B to set new upper limits on the gravitational sector of the Standard-Model Extension, including for the first time the coefficient associated with the time-time component of the new field responsible for inducing local Lorentz violation in the theory.


Local Lorentz-Symmetry Breaking And Gravity, Q. G. Bailey Mar 2014

Local Lorentz-Symmetry Breaking And Gravity, Q. G. Bailey

Publications

The lagrangian-based Standard-Model Extension framework offers a broad description of possible gravitational effects from local Lorentz violation. In this talk, I review the status of the theoretical and phenomenological work in this area. The extension of previous results in linearized gravity to the nonlinear regime is discussed.


Gravity Couplings In The Standard-Model Extension, Quentin G. Bailey Dec 2010

Gravity Couplings In The Standard-Model Extension, Quentin G. Bailey

Publications

The Standard-Model Extension (SME) is an action-based expansion describing general Lorentz violation for known matter and fields, including gravity. In this talk, I will discuss the Lorentz-violating gravity couplings in the SME. Toy models that match the SME expansion, including vector and two-tensor models, are reviewed. Finally I discuss the status of experiments and observations probing gravity coefficients for Lorentz violation.


Lorentz Violation And Gravity, Quentin G. Bailey Apr 2010

Lorentz Violation And Gravity, Quentin G. Bailey

Publications

In the last decade, a variety of high-precision experiments have searched for miniscule violations of Lorentz symmetry. These searches are largely motivated by the possibility of uncovering experimental signatures from a fundamental unified theory. Experimental results are reported in the framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME), which describes general Lorentz violation for each particle species in terms of its coefficients for Lorentz violation. Recently, the role of gravitational experiments in probing the SME has been explored in the literature. In this talk, I will summarize theoretical and experimental aspects of these works. I will also discuss recent lunar laser ranging ...


Main Sequence Masses And Radii From Gravitational Redshifts, Ted Von Hippel Feb 1996

Main Sequence Masses And Radii From Gravitational Redshifts, Ted Von Hippel

Publications

Modern instrumentation makes it possible to measure the mass to radius ratio for main sequence stars in open clusters from gravitational redshifts. For stars where independent information is available for either the mass or the radius, this application of general relativity directly determines the other quantity. Applicable examples are: 1) measuring the radii of solar metallicity main sequence stars for which the mass - luminosity relation is well known, 2) measuring the radii for stars where model atmospheres can be used to determine the surface gravity (the mass to radius squared ratio), 3) refining the mass - radius relation for main sequence ...