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Utah State University

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A Low-Cost, Open Source Monitoring System For Collecting High Temporal Resolution Water Use Data On Magnetically Driven Residential Water Meters, Camilo J. Bastidas Pacheco, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Robb J. Tracy Jun 2020

A Low-Cost, Open Source Monitoring System For Collecting High Temporal Resolution Water Use Data On Magnetically Driven Residential Water Meters, Camilo J. Bastidas Pacheco, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Robb J. Tracy

Publications

We present a low-cost (≈$150) monitoring system for collecting high temporal resolution residential water use data without disrupting the operation of commonly available water meters. This system was designed for installation on top of analog, magnetically driven, positive displacement, residential water meters and can collect data at a variable time resolution interval. The system couples an Arduino Pro microcontroller board, a datalogging shield customized for this specific application, and a magnetometer sensor. The system was developed and calibrated at the Utah Water Research Laboratory and was deployed for testing on five single family residences in Logan and Providence, Utah, for ...


Simulation-Optimization For Conjunctive Water Resources Management And Optimal Crop Planning In Kushabhadra-Bhargavi River Delta Of Eastern India, Madan K. Jha, Richard C. Peralta, Sasmita Sahoo May 2020

Simulation-Optimization For Conjunctive Water Resources Management And Optimal Crop Planning In Kushabhadra-Bhargavi River Delta Of Eastern India, Madan K. Jha, Richard C. Peralta, Sasmita Sahoo

Publications

Water resources sustainability is a worldwide concern because of climate variability, growing population, and excessive groundwater exploitation in order to meet freshwater demand. Addressing these conflicting challenges sometimes can be aided by using both simulation and mathematical optimization tools. This study combines a groundwater-flow simulation model and two optimization models to develop optimal reconnaissance-level water management strategies. For a given set of hydrologic and management constraints, both of the optimization models are applied to part of the Mahanadi River basin groundwater system, which is an important source of water supply in Odisha State, India. The first optimization model employs a ...


Retrieval Of Intrinsic Mesospheric Gravity Wave Parameters Using Lidar And Airglow Temperature And Meteor Radar Wind Data, Robert Reichert, Bernd Kaifler, Natalie Kaifler, Markus Rapp, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Alexander Kozlovsky, Mark Lester, Rigel Kivi Nov 2019

Retrieval Of Intrinsic Mesospheric Gravity Wave Parameters Using Lidar And Airglow Temperature And Meteor Radar Wind Data, Robert Reichert, Bernd Kaifler, Natalie Kaifler, Markus Rapp, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Alexander Kozlovsky, Mark Lester, Rigel Kivi

Publications

We analyse gravity waves in the upper-mesosphere, lower-thermosphere region from high-resolution temperature variations measured by the Rayleigh lidar and OH temperature mapper. From this combination of instruments, aided by meteor radar wind data, the full set of ground-relative and intrinsic gravity wave parameters are derived by means of the novel WAPITI (Wavelet Analysis and Phase line IdenTIfication) method. This WAPITI tool decomposes the gravity wave field into its spectral component while preserving the temporal resolution, allowing us to identify and study the evolution of gravity wave packets in the varying backgrounds. We describe WAPITI and demonstrate its capabilities for the ...


Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting Using An Energy Balance Snowmelt Model Coupled To A Distributed Hydrologic Model With Assimilation Of Snow And Streamflow Observations, Tseganeh Zekiewos Gichamo, David G. Tarboton Oct 2019

Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting Using An Energy Balance Snowmelt Model Coupled To A Distributed Hydrologic Model With Assimilation Of Snow And Streamflow Observations, Tseganeh Zekiewos Gichamo, David G. Tarboton

Publications

In many river basins across the world, snowmelt is an important source of streamflow. However, detailed snowmelt modeling is hampered by limited input data and uncertainty arising from inadequate model structure and parametrization. Data assimilation that updates model states based on observations, reduces uncertainty and improves streamflow forecasts. In this study, we evaluated the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) snowmelt model coupled to the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC‐SMA) and rutpix7 stream routing models, integrated within the Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM) framework for streamflow forecasting. We implemented an ensemble Kalman filter for assimilation of snow water equivalent (SWE) observations ...


Student Insights Report, Fall 2019, The Center For Student Analytics Sep 2019

Student Insights Report, Fall 2019, The Center For Student Analytics

Publications

For the past three years, the staff of the Center for Student Analytics have worked to discover and expose meaningful, data-informed insights into what helps students succeed at Utah State University. The following pages highlight 20 of the most useful insights we found provided here in small sets that will be useful to students, faculty, staff, university leadership, parents, and even prospective students. As you explore this report, we encourage you to see the student data as a window into USU itself. While big data helps us understand how individual students are performing, it tells us a great deal more ...


Simultaneous In Situ Measurements Of Small-Scale Structures In Neutral, Plasma, And Atomic Oxygen Densities During The Wadis Sounding Rocket Project, Boris Strelnikov, Martin Eberhart, Martin Friedrich, Jonas Hedin, Mikhail Khaplanov, Gerd Baumgarten, Bifford P. Williams, Tristan Staszak, Heiner Asmus, Irina Strelnikova, Ralph Latteck, Mykhaylo Grygalashvyly, Franz-Josef Lübken, Josef Höffner, Raimund Wörl, Jörg Gumbel, Stefan Löhle, Stefanos Fasoulas, Markus Rapp, Aroh Barjatya, Michael J. Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet Sep 2019

Simultaneous In Situ Measurements Of Small-Scale Structures In Neutral, Plasma, And Atomic Oxygen Densities During The Wadis Sounding Rocket Project, Boris Strelnikov, Martin Eberhart, Martin Friedrich, Jonas Hedin, Mikhail Khaplanov, Gerd Baumgarten, Bifford P. Williams, Tristan Staszak, Heiner Asmus, Irina Strelnikova, Ralph Latteck, Mykhaylo Grygalashvyly, Franz-Josef Lübken, Josef Höffner, Raimund Wörl, Jörg Gumbel, Stefan Löhle, Stefanos Fasoulas, Markus Rapp, Aroh Barjatya, Michael J. Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet

Publications

In this paper we present an overview of measurements conducted during the WADIS-2 rocket campaign. We investigate the effect of small-scale processes like gravity waves and turbulence on the distribution of atomic oxygen and other species in the mesosphere–lower thermosphere (MLT) region. Our analysis suggests that density fluctuations of atomic oxygen are coupled to fluctuations of other constituents, i.e., plasma and neutrals. Our measurements show that all measured quantities, including winds, densities, and temperatures, reveal signatures of both waves and turbulence. We show observations of gravity wave saturation and breakdown together with simultaneous measurements of generated turbulence. Atomic ...


Large‐Amplitude Mountain Waves In The Mesosphere Observed On 21 June 2014 During Deepwave: 1.Wave Development, Scales, Momentum Fluxes, And Environmental Sensitivity, Michael J. Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, David C. Fritts, Bernd Kaifler, Steven M. Smith, Yucheng Zhao, Neal R. Criddle, Pattilyn Mclaughlin, William R. Pendleton Jr., Michael P. Mccarthy, Gonzalo Hernandez, Stephen D. Eckermann, James Doyle, Markus Rapp, Ben Liley, James M. Russell Iii Sep 2019

Large‐Amplitude Mountain Waves In The Mesosphere Observed On 21 June 2014 During Deepwave: 1.Wave Development, Scales, Momentum Fluxes, And Environmental Sensitivity, Michael J. Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, David C. Fritts, Bernd Kaifler, Steven M. Smith, Yucheng Zhao, Neal R. Criddle, Pattilyn Mclaughlin, William R. Pendleton Jr., Michael P. Mccarthy, Gonzalo Hernandez, Stephen D. Eckermann, James Doyle, Markus Rapp, Ben Liley, James M. Russell Iii

Publications

A remarkable, large‐amplitude, mountain wave (MW) breaking event was observed on the night of 21 June 2014 by ground‐based optical instruments operated on the New Zealand South Island during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE). Concurrent measurements of the MW structures, amplitudes, and background environment were made using an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper, a Rayleigh Lidar, an All‐Sky Imager, and a Fabry‐Perot Interferometer. The MW event was observed primarily in the OH airglow emission layer at an altitude of ~82 km, over an ~2‐hr interval (~10:30–12:30 UT), during strong eastward winds ...


Large‐Amplitude Mountain Waves In The Mesosphere Observed On 21 June 2014 During Deepwave: 2. Nonlinear Dynamics, Wave Breaking, And Instabilities, David C. Fritts, Ling Wang, Michael J. Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Neal R. Criddle, Bernd Kaifler, Stephen D. Eckermann, Ben Liley Aug 2019

Large‐Amplitude Mountain Waves In The Mesosphere Observed On 21 June 2014 During Deepwave: 2. Nonlinear Dynamics, Wave Breaking, And Instabilities, David C. Fritts, Ling Wang, Michael J. Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Neal R. Criddle, Bernd Kaifler, Stephen D. Eckermann, Ben Liley

Publications

Weak cross‐mountain flow over the New Zealand South Island on 21 June 2014 during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) led to large‐amplitude mountain waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere responses were observed by ground‐based instruments in the lee of the Southern Alps supporting DEEPWAVE, including an Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper, a Rayleigh lidar, an All‐Sky Imager, and a Fabry‐Perot Interferometer. The character of the mountain wave responses at horizontal scales of ~30–90 km reveals strong “sawtooth” variations in the temperature field suggesting large vertical and horizontal ...


Regional Distribution Of Mesospheric Small‐Scale Gravity Waves During Deepwave, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, S. D. Eckermann, Neal R. Criddle Jul 2019

Regional Distribution Of Mesospheric Small‐Scale Gravity Waves During Deepwave, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, S. D. Eckermann, Neal R. Criddle

Publications

The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment project took place in June and July 2014 in New Zealand. Its overarching goal was to study gravity waves (GWs) as they propagate from the ground up to ~100 km, with a large number of ground‐based, airborne, and satellite instruments, combined with numerical forecast models. A suite of three mesospheric airglow imagers operated onboard the NSF Gulfstream V (GV) aircraft during 25 nighttime flights, recording the GW activity at OH altitude over a large region (>7,000,000 km2). Analysis of this data set reveals the distribution of the small‐scale GW ...


A Performance Comparison Of Machine Learning Algorithms For Arced Labyrinth Spillways, Fernando Salazar, Brian M. Crookston Mar 2019

A Performance Comparison Of Machine Learning Algorithms For Arced Labyrinth Spillways, Fernando Salazar, Brian M. Crookston

Publications

Labyrinth weirs provide an economic option for flow control structures in a variety of applications, including as spillways at dams. The cycles of labyrinth weirs are typically placed in a linear configuration. However, numerous projects place labyrinth cycles along an arc to take advantage of reservoir conditions and dam alignment, and to reduce construction costs such as narrowing the spillway chute. Practitioners must optimize more than 10 geometric variables when developing a head–discharge relationship. This is typically done using the following tools: empirical relationships, numerical modeling, and physical modeling. This study applied a new tool, machine learning, to the ...


Thermal Structure Of The Mesopause Region During The Wadis-2 Rocket Campaign, Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Franz-Josef Lübken Jan 2019

Thermal Structure Of The Mesopause Region During The Wadis-2 Rocket Campaign, Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Franz-Josef Lübken

Publications

This paper presents simultaneous temperature measurements by three independent instruments during the WADIS-2 rocket campaign in northern Norway (69 N, 14 E) on 5 March 2015. Vertical profiles were measured in situ with the CONE instrument. Continuous mobile IAP Fe lidar (Fe lidar) measurements during a period of 24 h, as well as horizontally resolved temperature maps by the Utah State University (USU) Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) in the mesopause region, are analysed. Vertical and horizontal temperature profiles by all three instruments are in good agreement. A harmonic analysis of the Fe lidar measurements shows the presence of waves ...


Spacetime Groups, Ian M. Anderson, Charles G. Torre Jan 2019

Spacetime Groups, Ian M. Anderson, Charles G. Torre

Publications

A spacetime group is a connected 4-dimensional Lie group G endowed with a left invariant Lorentz metric h and such that the connected component of the isometry group of h is G itself. The Newman-Penrose formalism is used to give an algebraic classification of spacetime groups, that is, we determine a complete list of inequivalent spacetime Lie algebras, which are pairs (g,η), with g being a 4-dimensional Lie algebra and η being a Lorentzian inner product on g. A full analysis of the equivalence problem for spacetime Lie algebras is given which leads to a completely algorithmic solution to ...


Mountain-Wave Propagation Under Transient Tropospheric Forcing: A Deepwave Case Study, Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Markus Rapp Jun 2018

Mountain-Wave Propagation Under Transient Tropospheric Forcing: A Deepwave Case Study, Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Markus Rapp

Publications

The impact of transient tropospheric forcing on the deep vertical mountain-wave propagation is investigated by a unique combination of in situ and remote sensing observations and numerical modeling. The temporal evolution of the upstream low-level wind follows approximately a cos2 shape and was controlled by a migrating trough and connected fronts. Our case study reveals the importance of the time-varying propagation conditions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). Upper-tropospheric stability, the wind profile, and the tropopause strength affected the observed and simulated wave response in the UTLS. Leg-integrated along-track momentum fluxes (-MFtrack) and amplitudes of vertical ...


Seasonal Propagation Characteristics Of Mstids Observed At High Latitudes Over Central Alaska Using The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, Michael R. Negale, Michael J. Taylor, M. J. Nicolls, Sharon L. Vadas, Kim Nielsen, Craig J. Heinselman May 2018

Seasonal Propagation Characteristics Of Mstids Observed At High Latitudes Over Central Alaska Using The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, Michael R. Negale, Michael J. Taylor, M. J. Nicolls, Sharon L. Vadas, Kim Nielsen, Craig J. Heinselman

Publications

Near‐continuous electron density measurements obtained over a ∼3 year period, 2010–2013, using the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) in central Alaska (69°N, 147°W) have been analyzed to quantify the properties of over 650 high‐latitude medium‐scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Our analysis focused on the altitude range 100–300 km encompassing the lower ionosphere/thermosphere and yielded first full seasonal day/night distributions of MSTIDs at high northern latitudes with mean values: horizontal wavelength 446 km, horizontal phase speed 187 m/s, and period 41 min. These year‐round measurements fill an important summertime ...


Estimating Discharge In Low-Order Rivers With High-Resolution Aerial Imagery, Tyler V. King, Bethany T. Neilson, Mitchell T. Rasmussen Feb 2018

Estimating Discharge In Low-Order Rivers With High-Resolution Aerial Imagery, Tyler V. King, Bethany T. Neilson, Mitchell T. Rasmussen

Publications

Remote sensing of river discharge promises to augment in situ gauging stations, but the majority of research in this field focuses on large rivers (>50 m wide). We present a method for estimating volumetric river discharge in low-order (wide) rivers from remotely sensed data by coupling high-resolution imagery with one-dimensional hydraulic modeling at so-called virtual gauging stations. These locations were identified as locations where the river contracted under low flows, exposing a substantial portion of the river bed. Topography of the exposed river bed was photogrammetrically extracted from high-resolution aerial imagery while the geometry of the remaining inundated portion of ...


Monthly Paleostreamflow Reconstruction From Annual Tree-Ring Chronologies, James H. Stagge, David E. Rosenberg, R. J. Derose, Tammy M. Rittenour Feb 2018

Monthly Paleostreamflow Reconstruction From Annual Tree-Ring Chronologies, James H. Stagge, David E. Rosenberg, R. J. Derose, Tammy M. Rittenour

Publications

Paleoclimate reconstructions are increasingly used to characterize annual climate variability prior to the instrumental record, to improve estimates of climate extremes, and to provide a baseline for climate-change projections. To date, paleoclimate records have seen limited engineering use to estimate hydrologic risks because water systems models and managers usually require streamflow input at the monthly scale. This study explores the hypothesis that monthly streamflows can be adequately modeled by statistically decomposing annual flow reconstructions. To test this hypothesis, a multiple linear regression model for monthly streamflow reconstruction is presented that expands the set of predictors to include annual streamflow reconstructions ...


Unexpected Occurrence Of Mesospheric Frontal Gravity Wave Events Over South Pole (90°S), Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, J. B. Snively, Christina Solorio Jan 2018

Unexpected Occurrence Of Mesospheric Frontal Gravity Wave Events Over South Pole (90°S), Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, J. B. Snively, Christina Solorio

Publications

Since 2010, Utah State University has operated an infrared Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole station to investigate the upper atmosphere dynamics and temperature deep within the vortex. A surprising number of “frontal” gravity wave events (86) were recorded in the mesospheric OH(3,1) band intensity and rotational temperature images (typical altitude of ~87 km) during four austral winters (2012–2015). These events are gravity waves (GWs) characterized by a sharp leading wave front followed by a quasi-monochromatic wave train that grows with time. A particular subset of frontal gravity wave events has been identified ...


Investigating Gravity Waves In Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions Of Aim Satellite Imagery, V. P. Hart, M. J. Taylor, T. E. Doyle, Yucheng Zhao, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, B. L. Carruth, D. W. Rusch, J. M. Russell Iii Jan 2018

Investigating Gravity Waves In Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions Of Aim Satellite Imagery, V. P. Hart, M. J. Taylor, T. E. Doyle, Yucheng Zhao, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, B. L. Carruth, D. W. Rusch, J. M. Russell Iii

Publications

This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3‐D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed “fanning” technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude ~83 km) was sampled with a ~2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2‐D ...


Does Strong Tropospheric Forcing Cause Large-Amplitude Mesospheric Gravity Waves? A Deepwave Case Study, Martina Bramberger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Katrina Bossert, Benedikt Ehard, David C. Fritts, Bernd Kaifler, Christian Mallaun, Andrew Orr, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Markus Rapp, Michael J. Taylor, Simon Vosper, Bifford P. Williams, Benjamin Witschas Nov 2017

Does Strong Tropospheric Forcing Cause Large-Amplitude Mesospheric Gravity Waves? A Deepwave Case Study, Martina Bramberger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Katrina Bossert, Benedikt Ehard, David C. Fritts, Bernd Kaifler, Christian Mallaun, Andrew Orr, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Markus Rapp, Michael J. Taylor, Simon Vosper, Bifford P. Williams, Benjamin Witschas

Publications

On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong low-level horizontal winds of up to 35 m s−1 over the Southern Alps, New Zealand, caused the excitation of gravity waves having the largest vertical energy fluxes of the whole campaign (38 W m−2). At the same time, large-amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located at Lauder (45.0°S, 169.7°E), New Zealand. The coincidence of these two events leads to the question of whether the mesospheric gravity waves were generated by the strong ...


Characteristics Of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Over Antarctica Observed By Angwin (Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network) Imagers Using 3-D Spectral Analyses, Takashi S. Matsuda, Takuji Nakamura, Mitsumu K. Ejiri, Masaki Tsutsumi, Yoshihiro Tomikawa, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Damian J. Murphy, Tracy Moffat-Griffin Sep 2017

Characteristics Of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Over Antarctica Observed By Angwin (Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network) Imagers Using 3-D Spectral Analyses, Takashi S. Matsuda, Takuji Nakamura, Mitsumu K. Ejiri, Masaki Tsutsumi, Yoshihiro Tomikawa, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Damian J. Murphy, Tracy Moffat-Griffin

Publications

We have obtained horizontal phase velocity distributions of the gravity waves around 90 km from four Antarctic airglow imagers, which belong to an international airglow imager/instrument network known as ANGWIN (Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network). Results from the airglow imagers at Syowa (69°S, 40°E), Halley (76°S, 27°W), Davis (69°S, 78°E), and McMurdo (78°S, 167°E) were compared, using a new statistical analysis method based on 3-D Fourier transform (Matsuda et al., 2014) for the observation period between 7 April and 21 May 2013. Significant day-to-day and site-to-site differences were found. The averaged ...


Quantifying Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes With Mesosphere Temperature Mappers And Correlative Instrumentation, David C. Fritts, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Michael J. Taylor, Bifford P. Williams, Hiroyuki Iimura, Tao Yuan, Nicholas J. Mitchell, Gunter Stober Dec 2016

Quantifying Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes With Mesosphere Temperature Mappers And Correlative Instrumentation, David C. Fritts, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Michael J. Taylor, Bifford P. Williams, Hiroyuki Iimura, Tao Yuan, Nicholas J. Mitchell, Gunter Stober

Publications

An Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper and other instruments at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research in Norway (69.3°N) and at Logan and Bear Lake Observatory in Utah (42°N) are used to demonstrate a new method for quantifying gravity wave (GW) pseudo-momentum fluxes accompanying spatially and temporally localized GW packets. The method improves on previous airglow techniques by employing direct characterization of the GW temperature perturbations averaged over the OH airglow layer and correlative wind and temperature measurements to define the intrinsic GW properties with high confidence. These methods are applied to two events, each of ...


Dynamics Of Orographic Gravity Waves Observed In The Mesosphere Over Auckland Islands During The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (Deepwave), Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith Sep 2016

Dynamics Of Orographic Gravity Waves Observed In The Mesosphere Over Auckland Islands During The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (Deepwave), Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith

Publications

On 14 July 2014 during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), aircraft remote sensing instruments detected large-amplitude gravity wave oscillations within mesospheric airglow and sodium layers at altitudes z ~ 78–83 km downstream of the Auckland Islands, located ~1000 km south of Christchurch, New Zealand. A high-altitude reanalysis and a three-dimensional Fourier gravity wave model are used to investigate the dynamics of this event. At 0700 UTC when the first observations were made, surface flow across the islands’ terrain generated linear three-dimensional wave fields that propagated rapidly to z ~ 78 km, where intense breaking occurred in a narrow layer ...


Systems Modeling To Improve The Hydro-Ecological Performance Of Diked Wetlands, Omar Alminagorta, David E. Rosenberg, Karin M. Kettenring Sep 2016

Systems Modeling To Improve The Hydro-Ecological Performance Of Diked Wetlands, Omar Alminagorta, David E. Rosenberg, Karin M. Kettenring

Publications

Water scarcity and invasive vegetation threaten arid-region wetlands and wetland managers seek ways to enhance wetland ecosystem services with limited water, labor, and financial resources. While prior systems modeling efforts have focused on water management to improve flow-based ecosystem and habitat objectives, here we consider water allocation and invasive vegetation management that jointly target the concurrent hydrologic and vegetation habitat needs of priority wetland bird species. We formulate a composite weighted usable area for wetlands (WU) objective function that represents the wetland surface area that provides suitable water level and vegetation cover conditions for priority bird species. Maximizing the WU ...


The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (Deepwave): An Airborne And Ground-Based Exploration Of Gravity Wave Propagation And Effects From Their Sources Throughout The Lower And Middle Atmosphere, David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reineke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Et Al. Et Al. Apr 2016

The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (Deepwave): An Airborne And Ground-Based Exploration Of Gravity Wave Propagation And Effects From Their Sources Throughout The Lower And Middle Atmosphere, David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reineke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Et Al. Et Al.

Publications

The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) was designed to quantify gravity wave (GW) dynamics and effects from orographic and other sources to regions of dissipation at high altitudes. The core DEEPWAVE field phase took place from May through July 2014 using a comprehensive suite of airborne and ground-based instruments providing measurements from Earth’s surface to ∼100 km. Austral winter was chosen to observe deep GW propagation to high altitudes. DEEPWAVE was based on South Island, New Zealand, to provide access to the New Zealand and Tasmanian “hotspots” of GW activity and additional GW sources over the Southern Ocean ...


Evidence Of Dispersion And Refraction Of A Spectrally Broad Gravity Wave Packet In The Mesopause Region Observed By The Na Lidar And Mesospheric Temperature Mapper Above Logan, Utah, Tao Yuan, Christopher J. Heale, Jonathan B. Snively, Xuguang Cai, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, C. Fish, Yucheng Zhao, Michael J. Taylor, William R. Pendleton Jr., V. Wickwar, Nicholas John Mitchell Jan 2016

Evidence Of Dispersion And Refraction Of A Spectrally Broad Gravity Wave Packet In The Mesopause Region Observed By The Na Lidar And Mesospheric Temperature Mapper Above Logan, Utah, Tao Yuan, Christopher J. Heale, Jonathan B. Snively, Xuguang Cai, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, C. Fish, Yucheng Zhao, Michael J. Taylor, William R. Pendleton Jr., V. Wickwar, Nicholas John Mitchell

Publications

Gravity wave packets excited by a source of finite duration and size possess a broad frequency and wave number spectrum and thus span a range of temporal and spatial scales. Observing at a single location relatively close to the source, the wave components with higher frequency and larger vertical wavelength dominate at earlier times and at higher altitudes, while the lower frequency components, with shorter vertical wavelength, dominate during the latter part of the propagation. Utilizing observations from the Na lidar at Utah State University and the nearby Mesospheric Temperature Mapper at Bear Lake Observatory (41.9°N, 111.4 ...


How Uncertainty In The Neutral Wind Limits The Accuracy Of Ionospheric Modeling And Forecasting, Michael David, Jan J. Sojka, Robert W. Schunk Jan 2016

How Uncertainty In The Neutral Wind Limits The Accuracy Of Ionospheric Modeling And Forecasting, Michael David, Jan J. Sojka, Robert W. Schunk

Publications

One of the most important input fields for an ionospheric model is the horizontal neutral wind. The primary mechanism by which the neutral wind affects ionospheric densities is the inducement of an upward or downward ion drift along the magnetic field lines; this affects the rate at which ions are lost through recombination. The magnitude of this effect depends upon the dip angle of the magnetic field; for this reason, the impact of the neutral wind is somewhat less in polar regions than at mid-latitudes. It is unfortunate that observations of the neutral wind are relatively scarce, as compared for ...


A Coordinated Study Of 1-H Mesoscale Gravity Waves Propagating From Logan To Boulder With Crrl Na Doppler Lidars And Temperature Mapper, Xian Liu, Cao Chen, Wentao Huang, John A. Smith, Xinzhao Chu, Tao Yuan, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Jie Gong, Chihoko Y. Cullens Oct 2015

A Coordinated Study Of 1-H Mesoscale Gravity Waves Propagating From Logan To Boulder With Crrl Na Doppler Lidars And Temperature Mapper, Xian Liu, Cao Chen, Wentao Huang, John A. Smith, Xinzhao Chu, Tao Yuan, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Jie Gong, Chihoko Y. Cullens

Publications

We present the first coordinated study using two lidars at two separate locations to characterize a 1 h mesoscale gravity wave event in the mesopause region. The simultaneous observations were made with the Student Training and Atmospheric Research (STAR) Na Doppler lidar at Boulder, CO, and the Utah State University Na Doppler lidar and temperature mapper at Logan, UT, on 27 November 2013. The high precision possessed by the STAR lidar enabled these waves to be detected in vertical wind. The mean wave amplitudes are ~0.44 m/s in vertical wind and ~1% in relative temperature at altitudes of ...


Momentum Flux Estimates Accompanying Multi-Scale Gravity Waves Over Mt. Cook, New Zealand On 13 July 2014 During The Deepwave Campaign, Katrina Bossert, David C. Fritts, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Bifford P. Williams, Michael J. Taylor, Bernd Kaifler, Andrea Dornbrack, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew J. Spargo, Andrew D. Mackinnon Sep 2015

Momentum Flux Estimates Accompanying Multi-Scale Gravity Waves Over Mt. Cook, New Zealand On 13 July 2014 During The Deepwave Campaign, Katrina Bossert, David C. Fritts, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Bifford P. Williams, Michael J. Taylor, Bernd Kaifler, Andrea Dornbrack, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew J. Spargo, Andrew D. Mackinnon

Publications

Observations performed with a Rayleigh lidar and an Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper aboard the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V research aircraft on 13 July 2014 during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) measurement program revealed a large-amplitude, multiscale gravity wave (GW) environment extending from ~20 to 90 km on flight tracks over Mount Cook, New Zealand. Data from four successive flight tracks are employed here to assess the characteristics and variability of the larger- and smaller-scale GWs, including their spatial scales, amplitudes, phase speeds, and momentum fluxes. On each flight, a large-scale mountain wave ...


Recent Progress In Mesospheric Gravity Wave Studies Using Nigthglow Imaging System, Michael J. Taylor, William R. Pendleton Jr., Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Yucheng Zhao, Chris Olsen, Hema Karnam Surendra Babu, Amauri F. Medeiros, Hisao Takahashi Feb 2015

Recent Progress In Mesospheric Gravity Wave Studies Using Nigthglow Imaging System, Michael J. Taylor, William R. Pendleton Jr., Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Yucheng Zhao, Chris Olsen, Hema Karnam Surendra Babu, Amauri F. Medeiros, Hisao Takahashi

Publications

A variety of optical remote sensing techniques have now revealed a rich spectrum of wave activity in the upper atmosphere. Many of these perturbations, with periodicities ranging from ~ 5 min to many hours and horizontal scales of a few tens of km to several thousands km, are due to freely propagating atmospheric gravity waves and forced tidal oscillations. Passive optical observations of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region ( ~ 80-100 km) are facilitated by several naturally occurring, vertically distinct nightglow layers. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art ground-based CCD imaging ...


Coordinated Investigation Of Mid-Latitude Upper Mesospheric Temperature Inversion Layers And The Associated Gravity Wave Forcing By Na Lidar And Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper At Logan, Utah (42°N), Tao Yuan, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Yucheng Zhao, Xuguang Cai, Neal R. Criddle, Michael J. Taylor, William R. Pendleton Jr. Feb 2015

Coordinated Investigation Of Mid-Latitude Upper Mesospheric Temperature Inversion Layers And The Associated Gravity Wave Forcing By Na Lidar And Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper At Logan, Utah (42°N), Tao Yuan, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Yucheng Zhao, Xuguang Cai, Neal R. Criddle, Michael J. Taylor, William R. Pendleton Jr.

Publications

Mesospheric inversion layers (MIL) are well studied in the literature but their relationship to the dynamic feature associated with the breaking of atmospheric waves in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region are not well understood. Two strong MIL events (ΔT ~30 K) were observed above 90 km during a 6 day full diurnal cycle Na lidar campaign conducted from 6 August to 13 August Logan, Utah (42°N, 112°W). Colocated Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper observations provided key information on concurrent gravity wave (GW) events and their characteristics during the nighttime observations. The study found both MILs were well correlated ...