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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Extratropical Transition Of Tropical Cyclones. Part I: Cyclonic Evolution And Direct Impacts, Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Et Al. Nov 2017

The Extratropical Transition Of Tropical Cyclones. Part I: Cyclonic Evolution And Direct Impacts, Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Et Al.

Publications

Extratropical transition (ET) is the process by which a tropical cyclone, upon encountering a baroclinic environment and reduced sea surface temperature at higher latitudes, transforms into an extratropical cyclone. This process is influenced by, and influences, phenomena from the tropics to the midlatitudes and from the meso- to the planetary scales to extents that vary between individual events. Motivated in part by recent high-impact and/or extensively observed events such as North Atlantic Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and western North Pacific Typhoon Sinlaku in 2008, this review details advances in understanding and predicting ET since the publication of an earlier ...


Mobile Radar As An Undergraduate Education And Research Tool: The Erau C-Breese Field Experience With The Doppler On Wheels, Shawn M. Milrad, Christopher G. Herbster Sep 2017

Mobile Radar As An Undergraduate Education And Research Tool: The Erau C-Breese Field Experience With The Doppler On Wheels, Shawn M. Milrad, Christopher G. Herbster

Publications

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Convective-Boundary Research Engaging Educational Student Experiences (ERAU C-BREESE) was an 18-day National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded educational Doppler on Wheels (DOW) deployment through the Center for Severe Weather Research in May 2015. ERAU C-BREESE had three primary areas of focus: meteorological field observations and research, undergraduate experiential learning, and local community outreach. ERAU undergraduate meteorology students had the unique opportunity to forecast for, collect, and analyze field measurements of sea-breeze processes and convection. The scientific objectives of ERAU C-BREESE were to forecast, observe, and analyze central Florida sea-breeze processes and thunderstorms by combining a DOW with more ...


Investigation Of The 2013 Alberta Flood From Weather And Climate Perspectives, Bernardo Teufel, G. T. Diro, K. Whan, S. M. Milrad, Et Al. May 2017

Investigation Of The 2013 Alberta Flood From Weather And Climate Perspectives, Bernardo Teufel, G. T. Diro, K. Whan, S. M. Milrad, Et Al.

Publications

During 19–21 June 2013 a heavy precipitation event affected southern Alberta and adjoining regions, leading to severe flood damage in numerous communities and resulting in the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. This flood was caused by a combination of meteorological and hydrological factors, which are investigated from weather and climate perspectives with the fifth generation Canadian Regional Climate Model. Results show that the contribution of orographic ascent to precipitation was important, exceeding 30% over the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Another contributing factor was evapotranspiration from the land surface, which is found to have acted as an important ...


Cirrus Cloud Microphysics Over Darwin, Australia, Dorothea Ivanova, Matthew Johnson Apr 2017

Cirrus Cloud Microphysics Over Darwin, Australia, Dorothea Ivanova, Matthew Johnson

Publications

Ice clouds, crucial to the understanding of both short - and long - term climate trends, are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). Cirrus clouds, one of the largest uncertainties in the global radiation budget, have been inadequately studied at low latitudes. Parameterizations exist for mid - latitude and tropical cirrus ( Ivanova et al. 2001; McFarquhar et al. 1997). Due to climate sensitivity in the GCM with respect to cloud input, without robust parameterizations of cirrus clouds, the GCM is inaccurate over most output fields, including radiative forcing, temperature, albedo, and heat flux (Yao and Del Genio 1999).

Studies of the microphysical ...


Wiggle 3d Displays Of Weather Data, Frederick R. Mosher Jan 2017

Wiggle 3d Displays Of Weather Data, Frederick R. Mosher

Publications

Weather is a time varying 3-dimensional phenomena, but the displays of weather data are inherently 2-dimensional. Since weather phenomena at one level can impact the weather at another level, it would be desirable to view weather on a 3D volume type of display. Initially weather displays were on paper and currently weather information is displayed on computer screens. The human mind can interpret 3D volume information in a number of ways. Having two eyes, the brain can detect the parallax differences between the images for the left eye being slightly different from the right eye. Objects that are closer to ...


New Metric For Defining The Time Of Extratropical Transition Of Tropical Cyclones, Ajay Raghavendra, Shawn M. Milrad Jan 2016

New Metric For Defining The Time Of Extratropical Transition Of Tropical Cyclones, Ajay Raghavendra, Shawn M. Milrad

Publications

Almost half of all tropical cyclones (TCs) in the Atlantic basin undergo extratropical transition (ET). During an ET event, wind fields often expand dramatically, resulting in more widely-felt impacts. Moreover, the heaviest precipitation typically shifts to the left-of-center (LOC), which can result in inland flash flooding hundreds of kilometers from the cyclone center. While several objective metrics to track and predict ET have been developed, they rely at least partially on internal tropical cyclone structure, for which numerical models show less skill. Further, these metrics fail to account for static stability, which plays a vital role in determining precipitation amounts ...


A Meteorological Analysis Of The 2013 Alberta Flood: Antecendent Large-Scale Flow Pattern And Synoptic-Dynamic Characteristics, Shawn M. Milrad, John R. Gyakum, Eyad H. Atallah Jul 2015

A Meteorological Analysis Of The 2013 Alberta Flood: Antecendent Large-Scale Flow Pattern And Synoptic-Dynamic Characteristics, Shawn M. Milrad, John R. Gyakum, Eyad H. Atallah

Publications

The 19–21 June 2013 Alberta flood was the costliest (CAD $6 billion) natural disaster in Canadian history. The flood was caused by a combination of above-normal spring snowmelt in the Canadian Rockies, large antecedent precipitation, and an extreme rainfall event on 19–21 June that produced rainfall totals of 76 mm in Calgary and 91 mm in the foothills. As is typical of flash floods along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, rapidly rising streamflow proceeded to move downhill (eastward) into Calgary.

A meteorological analysis traces an antecedent Rossby wave train across the North Pacific Ocean, starting with ...


A Swirl In The Clouds Near Santa Cruz Island (Images Of Note), Bradley M. Muller, Christopher G. Herbster Jan 2015

A Swirl In The Clouds Near Santa Cruz Island (Images Of Note), Bradley M. Muller, Christopher G. Herbster

Publications

The authors discuss a rare photograph of an atmospheric eddy produced by marine boundary layer flow past terrain.


Editorial: Special Issue: Safety & Efficiency Of Civil Aviation: Selected Papers From The World Conferences Of The Air Transport Research Society And The World Conference On Transport Society - 2013, Paul Hooper, Ian Douglas, Chunyan Yu, Stefano Paleari Jan 2015

Editorial: Special Issue: Safety & Efficiency Of Civil Aviation: Selected Papers From The World Conferences Of The Air Transport Research Society And The World Conference On Transport Society - 2013, Paul Hooper, Ian Douglas, Chunyan Yu, Stefano Paleari

Publications

The Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) is a Special Interest Group (SIG) of the World Conference on Transport Research Society (WCTRS). The ATRS annual World Conference was held at the University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy on 26-29 June 2013 and it attracted 266 papers from 37 countries. Also, the WCTRS triennial World Conference was held on 15- 18 July at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during which the ATRS organised several sessions devoted to air transport topics. This special issue of the Journal of Air Transport Studies has drawn upon all of this material to present four papers that promote improvements ...


On The Dynamics, Thermodynamics, And Forecast Model Evaluation Of Two Snow-Burst Events In Southern Alberta, Shawn M. Milrad, John R. Gyakum, Kelly Lombardo, Eyad H. Atallah Jun 2014

On The Dynamics, Thermodynamics, And Forecast Model Evaluation Of Two Snow-Burst Events In Southern Alberta, Shawn M. Milrad, John R. Gyakum, Kelly Lombardo, Eyad H. Atallah

Publications

Two high-impact convective snowband events (‘‘snow bursts’’) that affected Calgary, Alberta, Canada, are examined to better understand the dynamics and thermodynamics of heavy snowbands not associated with lake effects or the cold conveyor belt of synoptic-scale cyclones. Such events are typically characterized by brief, but heavy, periods of snow; low visibilities; and substantial hazards to automobile and aviation interests. Previous literature on these events has been limited to a few case studies across North America, including near the leeside foothills of the U.S. Rockies. The large-scale dynamics and thermodynamics are investigated using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP ...


Synoptic Typing And Precursors Of Heavy Warm-Season Precipitation Events At Montreal, Québec, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum, Giselle Dookhie Apr 2014

Synoptic Typing And Precursors Of Heavy Warm-Season Precipitation Events At Montreal, Québec, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum, Giselle Dookhie

Publications

A precipitation climatology is compiled for warm-season events at Montreal, Québec, Canada, using 6-h precipitation data. A total of 1663 events are recorded and partitioned into three intensity categories (heavy, moderate, and light), based on percentile ranges. Heavy (top 10%) precipitation events (n = 166) are partitioned into four types, using a unique manual synoptic typing based on the divergence of Q-vector components. Type A is related to cyclones and strong synoptic-scale quasigeostrophic (QG) forcing for ascent, with high-θe air being advected into the Montreal region from the south. Types B and C are dominated by frontogenesis (mesoscale QG forcing for ...


A Meteorological Analysis Of Important Contributions To The 1999-2005 Canadian Prairie Drought, Lisa M. Hryciw, Eyad H. Atallah, Shawn M. Milrad, John R. Gyakum Oct 2013

A Meteorological Analysis Of Important Contributions To The 1999-2005 Canadian Prairie Drought, Lisa M. Hryciw, Eyad H. Atallah, Shawn M. Milrad, John R. Gyakum

Publications

Drought is a complex natural hazard that is endemic to the Canadian prairies. The 1999–2005 Canadian prairie drought, which had great socioeconomic impacts, was meteorologically unique in that it did not conform to the traditional persistent positive Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern and west coast ridging paradigm normally associated with prairie drought. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the unique synoptic-scale mechanisms responsible for modulating subsidence during this drought. Using 30-day running means of the percent of normal precipitation from station data, key severe dry periods during 1999–2005 are identified. Analysis of the mean fields from ...


Synoptic-Scale Precursors, Characteristics And Typing Of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Complexes In The Great Plains, Shawn M. Milrad, Cailee M. Kelly Sep 2013

Synoptic-Scale Precursors, Characteristics And Typing Of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Complexes In The Great Plains, Shawn M. Milrad, Cailee M. Kelly

Publications

Mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) occur frequently during the warm season in the central U.S. and can produce flooding rains, hail and tornadoes. Previous work has found that the synoptic-scale environment can greatly affect, and be affected by, the development and maintenance of MCCs. Ninetytwo MCC cases from 2006–2011 are manually identified using infrared satellite imagery and partitioned into three types (upstream trough, zonal and ridge) using a unique manual synoptic typing based on 500- hPa height patterns. Upstream trough cases feature an amplified longwave 500-hPa trough upstream of the MCC genesis region (GR), while the 500-hPa flow is ...


Tips From The Board Of Broadcast Meteorology For Gaining The Certified Broadcast Meteorologist (Cbm) Designation, Rob Eicher Jun 2013

Tips From The Board Of Broadcast Meteorology For Gaining The Certified Broadcast Meteorologist (Cbm) Designation, Rob Eicher

Publications

These notes are intended to maximize the likelihood that you will pass the AMS CBM evaluation on your first attempt. Typically half of first-time applicants pass the evaluation.


Precipitation Modulation By The Saint Lawrence River Valley In Association With Transitioning Tropical Cyclones, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum Apr 2013

Precipitation Modulation By The Saint Lawrence River Valley In Association With Transitioning Tropical Cyclones, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum

Publications

The St. Lawrence River valley (SLRV) is an important orographic feature in eastern Canada that can affect surface wind patterns and contribute to locally higher amounts of precipitation. The impact of the SLRV on precipitation distributions associated with transitioning, or transitioned, tropical cyclones that approached the region is assessed. Such cases can result in heavy precipitation during the warm season, as during the transition of Hurricane Ike (2008). Thirty-eight tropical cyclones tracked within 500 km of the SLRV from 1979 to 2011. Utilizing the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), 19 of the 38 cases ...


A Thermodynamic Analysis Of An Intense North American Arctic Air Mass, Jessica K. Turner, John Gyakum, Shawn M. Milrad Jan 2013

A Thermodynamic Analysis Of An Intense North American Arctic Air Mass, Jessica K. Turner, John Gyakum, Shawn M. Milrad

Publications

Northwestern Canada is a genesis region of arctic air masses often considered to be formed primarily through radiative processes. However, the details of their life cycle are poorly understood. This paper examines the formation, maintenance, and dissipation of an intense and long-lived arctic air mass, using a thermodynamic budget analysis.

The airmass formation is characterized by a deep-layer, multistage process that begins with snow falling into a nascent air mass. Radiative cooling from cloud tops begins the process. After the snow abates and clear skies are observed, the surface temperature drops rapidly, aided by the high emissivity of fresh snow ...


Synoptic-Scale Analysis Of Freezing Rain Events In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Gina M. Ressler, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum Apr 2012

Synoptic-Scale Analysis Of Freezing Rain Events In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Gina M. Ressler, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum

Publications

Freezing rain is a major environmental hazard that is especially common along the St. Lawrence River valley (SLRV) in southern Quebec, Canada. For large cities such as Montreal, severe events can have a devastating effect on people, property, and commerce. In this study, a composite analysis of 46 long-duration events for the period 1979–2008 is presented to identify key synoptic-scale structures and precursors of Montreal freezing rain events. Based on the observed structures of the 500-hPa heights, these events are manually partitioned into three types—west, central, and east—depending on the location and tilt of the 500-hPa trough ...


Synoptic-Scale Environments Conducive To Orographic Impacts On Cold-Season Surface Wind Regimes At Montreal, Quebec, Alissa Razy, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H, Atallah, John R. Gyakum Mar 2012

Synoptic-Scale Environments Conducive To Orographic Impacts On Cold-Season Surface Wind Regimes At Montreal, Quebec, Alissa Razy, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H, Atallah, John R. Gyakum

Publications

Orographic wind channeling, defined as dynamically and thermally induced processes that force wind to blow along the axis of a valley, is a common occurrence along the St. Lawrence River Valley (SLRV) in Quebec, Canada, and produces substantial observed weather impacts at stations along the valley, including Montreal (CYUL). Cold-season observed north-northeast (n = 55) and south-southeast (n = 16) surface wind events at CYUL are identified from 1979 to 2002. The authors partition the north-northeast wind events into four groups using manual synoptic typing. Types A and D (“inland cyclone” and “northwestern cyclone”) are associated with strong lower-tropospheric geostrophic warm-air advection ...


A Diagnostic Examination Of The Eastern Ontario And Western Quebec Wintertime Convection Event Of 28 January 2010, Shawn M. Milrad, John R. Gyakum, Eyad H. Atallah, Jennifer F. Smith Jun 2011

A Diagnostic Examination Of The Eastern Ontario And Western Quebec Wintertime Convection Event Of 28 January 2010, Shawn M. Milrad, John R. Gyakum, Eyad H. Atallah, Jennifer F. Smith

Publications

The priority of an operational forecast center is to issue watches, warnings, and advisories to notify the public about the inherent risks and dangers of a particular event. Occasionally, events occur that do not meet advisory or warning criteria, but still have a substantial impact on human life and property. Short-lived snow bursts are a prime example of such a phenomenon. While these events are typically characterized by small snow accumulations, they often cause very low visibilities and rapidly deteriorating road conditions, both of which are a major hazard to motorists. On the afternoon of 28 January 2010, two such ...


A Diagnostic Examination Of Consecutive Extreme Cool-Season Precipitation Events At St. John's, Newfoundland, In December 2008, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum Aug 2010

A Diagnostic Examination Of Consecutive Extreme Cool-Season Precipitation Events At St. John's, Newfoundland, In December 2008, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum

Publications

St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada (CYYT), is frequently affected by extreme precipitation events, particularly in the cool season (October–April). Previous work classified precipitation events at CYYT into categories by precipitation amount and a manual synoptic typing was performed on the 50 median extreme precipitation events, using two separate methods. Here, consecutive extreme precipitation events in December 2008 are analyzed. These events occurred over a 6-day period and produced over 125 mm of precipitation at CYYT. The first manual typing method, using a backward-trajectory analysis, results in both events being classified as “southwest,” which were previously defined as the majority ...


Synoptic Typing Of Extreme Cool-Season Precipitation Events At St. John's, Newfoundland, 1979-2005, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum Apr 2010

Synoptic Typing Of Extreme Cool-Season Precipitation Events At St. John's, Newfoundland, 1979-2005, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum

Publications

Quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) continues to be a significant challenge in operational forecasting, particularly in regions susceptible to extreme precipitation events. St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada (CYYT), is affected frequently by such events, particularly in the cool season (October–April).

The 50 median events in the extreme (>33.78 mm during a 48-h period) precipitation event category are selected for further analysis. A manual synoptic typing is performed on these 50 events, using two separate methodologies to partition events. The first method utilizes a Lagrangian backward air parcel trajectory analysis and the second method utilizes the evolution of dynamically relevant ...


Analysis And Modeling Of Ducted And Evanescent Gravity Waves Observed In The Hawaiian Airglow, D. B. Simkhada, J. B. Snively, M. J. Taylor, S. J. Franke Aug 2009

Analysis And Modeling Of Ducted And Evanescent Gravity Waves Observed In The Hawaiian Airglow, D. B. Simkhada, J. B. Snively, M. J. Taylor, S. J. Franke

Publications

Short-period gravity waves of especially-small horizontal scale have been observed in the Maui, Hawaii airglow. Typical small-scale gravity wave events have been investigated, and intrinsic wave propagation characteristics have been calculated from simultaneous meteor radar wind measurements. Here we report specific cases where wave structure is significantly determined by the local wind structure, and where wave characteristics are consistent with ducted or evanescent waves throughout the mesopause region. Two of the documented events, exhibiting similar airglow signatures but dramatically different propagation conditions, are selected for simple numerical modeling case studies. First, a Doppler-ducted wave trapped within relatively weak wind flow ...


Synoptic-Scale Characteristics And Precursors Of Cool-Season Precipitation Events At St. John's, Newfoundland, 1979-2005, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum Jun 2009

Synoptic-Scale Characteristics And Precursors Of Cool-Season Precipitation Events At St. John's, Newfoundland, 1979-2005, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum

Publications

The issue of quantitative precipitation forecasting continues to be a significant challenge in operational forecasting, particularly in regions susceptible to frequent and extreme precipitation events. St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, is one location affected frequently by such events, particularly in the cool season (October–April). These events can include flooding rains, paralyzing snowfall, and damaging winds.

A precipitation climatology is developed at St. John’s for 1979–2005, based on discrete precipitation events occurring over a time period of up to 48 h. Threshold amounts for three categories of precipitation events (extreme, moderate, and light) are statistically derived and utilized ...


Dynamical And Precipitation Structures Of Poleward-Moving Tropical Cyclones In Eastern Canada, 1979-2005, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum Mar 2009

Dynamical And Precipitation Structures Of Poleward-Moving Tropical Cyclones In Eastern Canada, 1979-2005, Shawn M. Milrad, Eyad H. Atallah, John R. Gyakum

Publications

Tropical cyclones in the western North Atlantic basin are a persistent threat to human interests along the east coast of North America. Occurring mainly during the late summer and early autumn, these storms often cause strong winds and extreme rainfall and can have a large impact on the weather of eastern Canada. From 1979 to 2005, 40 named (by the National Hurricane Center) tropical cyclones tracked over eastern Canada. Based on the time tendency of the low-level (850–700 hPa) vorticity, the storms are partitioned into two groups: ‘‘intensifying’’ and ‘‘decaying.’’ The 16 intensifying and 12 decaying cases are then ...


Simulations Of The Effects Of Water Vapor, Cloud Liquid Water, And Ice On Amsu Moisture Channel Brightness Temperatures, Bradley M. Muller, Henry E. Fuelberg, Xuwu Xiang Oct 1994

Simulations Of The Effects Of Water Vapor, Cloud Liquid Water, And Ice On Amsu Moisture Channel Brightness Temperatures, Bradley M. Muller, Henry E. Fuelberg, Xuwu Xiang

Publications

Radiative transfer simulations are performed to determine how water vapor and nonprecipitating cloud liquid water and ice particles within typical midlatitude atmospheres affect brightness temperatures T-B's of moisture sounding channels used in the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and AMSU-like instruments. The purpose is to promote a general understanding of passive top-of-atmosphere T-B's for window frequencies at 23.8, 89.0, and 157.0 GHz, and water vapor frequencies at 176.31, 180.31, and 182.31 GHz by documenting specific examples. This is accomplished through detailed analyses of T-B's for idealized atmospheres, mostly representing temperate conditions ...


An Alternative Representation Of The Ice Canopy For Calculating Microwave Brightness Temperatures Over A Thunderstorm, Bradley M. Muller, Henry E. Fuelberg, Eric A. Smith May 1993

An Alternative Representation Of The Ice Canopy For Calculating Microwave Brightness Temperatures Over A Thunderstorm, Bradley M. Muller, Henry E. Fuelberg, Eric A. Smith

Publications

Passive microwave brightness temperatures (T(B)'s) at 92 and 183 GHz from an aircraft thunderstorm overflight are compared with values calculated from radar-derived hydrometeor profiles and a modified proximity sounding. Two methods for modeling particles in the ice canopy are contrasted. The first is a ''traditional'' approach employing Marshall-Palmer ice spheres. The second, or ''alternative,'' method partitions 20% of the ice water content into a Marshall-Palmer component for graupel and hail, and 80% into a modified gamma spherical particle size distribution function representing ice crystals.

Results from the alternative approach are superior to those from the traditional method in ...


A Simulation And Diagnostic Study Of Water Vapor Image Dry Bands, Bradley M. Muller, Henry E. Fuelberg Mar 1990

A Simulation And Diagnostic Study Of Water Vapor Image Dry Bands, Bradley M. Muller, Henry E. Fuelberg

Publications

A Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System (LAMPS) model simulation and special 3-hour radiosonde dataset are used to investigate warm (dry) bands in 6,7 μm water vapor satellite imagery on 6–7 March 1982. The purpose is to reveal processes resulting in the formation and evolution of the dry features that appear as curving dark streaks in the imagery. Model soundings are input to a radiative transfer algorithm to generate synthetic 6.7 μm equivalent blackbody temperatures (TB) which are compared with those from the Visible infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. Simulated and ...


Earth Observing System, Volume Iia: Data And Information System, Report Of The Eos Data Panel, Raymond Arvidson, Frederick Billingsley, Robert Chase, Pat Chavez Jr., Michael Devirian, Frederick Mosher, Et Al. Jan 1986

Earth Observing System, Volume Iia: Data And Information System, Report Of The Eos Data Panel, Raymond Arvidson, Frederick Billingsley, Robert Chase, Pat Chavez Jr., Michael Devirian, Frederick Mosher, Et Al.

Publications

The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with a rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an Earth Observing System data and information system that can evolve to meet the Earth Observing System's needs in the 1990s. The Earth Observing System (EOS), defined by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, consists of a suite of instruments in low Earth orbit acquiring measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior; an information system to support scientific research; and a vigorous program of scientific research, stressing study of global-scale processes that shape and influence the ...


The Frontal Hydraulic Head: A Micro-Α Scale (~1 Km) Triggering Mechanism For Mesoconvective Weather Systems, M. A. Shapiro, Tamara Hampel, Doris Rotzoll, F. Mosher Jul 1985

The Frontal Hydraulic Head: A Micro-Α Scale (~1 Km) Triggering Mechanism For Mesoconvective Weather Systems, M. A. Shapiro, Tamara Hampel, Doris Rotzoll, F. Mosher

Publications

Measurements from the NOAA Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) 300 m tower, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Sabreliner aircraft, and the NOAA GOES-5 satellite, give evidence for the cross-front scale collapse of nonprecipitating surface cold-frontal zones to horizontal distances of ∼1 km or less. The leading edges of these frosts possess the characteristic structure of density current flows: an elevated hydraulic head followed by a turbulent wake. Vertical motions at the frontal heads exceed 5 m s−1 at 300 m (AGL). The ascent at the frontal head may act as a (∼1 km-scale) triggering mechanism for the release ...


Impacts Of Interactive Processing Systems On The Forecasting Ability Of The National Severe Storms Forecast Center (Appendix E), Frederick R. Mosher Apr 1985

Impacts Of Interactive Processing Systems On The Forecasting Ability Of The National Severe Storms Forecast Center (Appendix E), Frederick R. Mosher

Publications

The National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in Kansas City has the most modern interactive processing equipment of any operational forecast office in the United States. As such, the experiences of the NSSFC serve as the indication of some of the benefits which will be derived from interactive technology when it is applied in other forecast situations. The forecast products issued by the NSSFC have become more accurate and more timely. The forecaster's efficiency and productivity has noticeably improved. These improvements have been made without the introduction of any new data sources, any major advances in meteorology, or any ...