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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Simulation-Optimization For Conjunctive Water Resources Management And Optimal Crop Planning In Kushabhadra-Bhargavi River Delta Of Eastern India, Madan K. Jha, Richard C. Peralta, Sasmita Sahoo May 2020

Simulation-Optimization For Conjunctive Water Resources Management And Optimal Crop Planning In Kushabhadra-Bhargavi River Delta Of Eastern India, Madan K. Jha, Richard C. Peralta, Sasmita Sahoo

Publications

Water resources sustainability is a worldwide concern because of climate variability, growing population, and excessive groundwater exploitation in order to meet freshwater demand. Addressing these conflicting challenges sometimes can be aided by using both simulation and mathematical optimization tools. This study combines a groundwater-flow simulation model and two optimization models to develop optimal reconnaissance-level water management strategies. For a given set of hydrologic and management constraints, both of the optimization models are applied to part of the Mahanadi River basin groundwater system, which is an important source of water supply in Odisha State, India. The first optimization model employs a ...


Expanding Beyond Carnivores To Improve Livestock Protection And Conservation, Shari L. Rodriguez, Christie Sampson Aug 2019

Expanding Beyond Carnivores To Improve Livestock Protection And Conservation, Shari L. Rodriguez, Christie Sampson

Publications

Promoting human–wildlife coexistence is critical to the long-term conservation of many wild animal species that come into conflict with humans. Loss of livestock to carnivore species (e.g., lions, tigers, wolves) is a well-documented occurrence and the focus of mitigation strategies around the world. One area that has received little research is the impact of noncarnivores on livestock. Both African and Asian elephant species are known to cause livestock injuries and deaths. Livestock owners within elephant ranges perceive elephants as a risk to their livestock, which may reduce their tolerance towards elephants and jeopardize conservation efforts in the area ...


A Performance Comparison Of Machine Learning Algorithms For Arced Labyrinth Spillways, Fernando Salazar, Brian M. Crookston Mar 2019

A Performance Comparison Of Machine Learning Algorithms For Arced Labyrinth Spillways, Fernando Salazar, Brian M. Crookston

Publications

Labyrinth weirs provide an economic option for flow control structures in a variety of applications, including as spillways at dams. The cycles of labyrinth weirs are typically placed in a linear configuration. However, numerous projects place labyrinth cycles along an arc to take advantage of reservoir conditions and dam alignment, and to reduce construction costs such as narrowing the spillway chute. Practitioners must optimize more than 10 geometric variables when developing a head–discharge relationship. This is typically done using the following tools: empirical relationships, numerical modeling, and physical modeling. This study applied a new tool, machine learning, to the ...


Long Reach Lane At Long Marsh, Harpswell, 2018 Post-Project Monitoring Report; Year 5 Of 5, Matthew Craig Mar 2019

Long Reach Lane At Long Marsh, Harpswell, 2018 Post-Project Monitoring Report; Year 5 Of 5, Matthew Craig

Publications

No abstract provided.


Cape Elizabeth Culvert And Habitat Assessment Study, Steve Harding, Jake Aman, Matthew Craig, Robert Malley, Maureen O'Meara Jan 2019

Cape Elizabeth Culvert And Habitat Assessment Study, Steve Harding, Jake Aman, Matthew Craig, Robert Malley, Maureen O'Meara

Publications

Executive Summary:

In early 2017, Jake Aman, representing the Wells National Estuary Research Reserve (WNERR), met with the Cape Elizabeth Public Works Director and Town Planner to talk about culverts. Jake shared aerial photos of culverts located in the Spurwink Marsh where scouring of adjacent habitat areas was evident. He inquired if the town was considering any culvert replacements, in which case WNERR and The Nature Conservancy might be able to partner with the town to promote a habitat sensitive replacement. The outcome of the meeting was a jointly sponsored assessment of major town culverts, including those located in the ...


Stem And Sustainability: Creating Aviation Professional Change Agents, P. Clark, Doreen Mcgunagle, L. Zizka Jan 2019

Stem And Sustainability: Creating Aviation Professional Change Agents, P. Clark, Doreen Mcgunagle, L. Zizka

Publications

With the evolution of the workforce and the growing needs of the aviation industry, a clear need for concrete sustainability initiatives and actions have emerged. Sustainability in this sense becomes a matter of survival. For this reason, in this chapter, we will attempt to close three gaps in current sustainability studies: Theory vs practice, intention vs behavior, and education vs workplace.

Our purpose is to develop a ‘simple’ strategy for integrating all three pillars of sustainability into STEM HE programs that create authentic engagement and real buy-in from the students that are then replicated in the workplace. Based on the ...


Rapid Screening Of Ellagitannins In Natural Sources Via Targeted Reporter Ion Triggered Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Jeremiah J. Bowers, Harsha P. Gunawardena, Anaëlle Cornu, Ashwini S. Narvekar, Antoine Richieu, Denis Deffieux, Stéphane Quideau, Nishanth Tharayil Jul 2018

Rapid Screening Of Ellagitannins In Natural Sources Via Targeted Reporter Ion Triggered Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Jeremiah J. Bowers, Harsha P. Gunawardena, Anaëlle Cornu, Ashwini S. Narvekar, Antoine Richieu, Denis Deffieux, Stéphane Quideau, Nishanth Tharayil

Publications

Complex biomolecules present in their natural sources have been difficult to analyze using traditional analytical approaches. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-MS/MS) methods have the potential to enhance the discovery of a less well characterized and challenging class of biomolecules in plants, the ellagitannins. We present an approach that allows for the screening of ellagitannins by employing higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) to generate reporter ions for classification and collision-induced dissociation (CID) to generate unique fragmentation spectra for isomeric variants of previously unreported species. Ellagitannin anions efficiently form three characteristic reporter ions after HCD fragmentation that allows for the classification of ...


Algal Biofuel: The Future Of Green Jet Fuel In Air Transportation, Rajee Olaganathan Apr 2018

Algal Biofuel: The Future Of Green Jet Fuel In Air Transportation, Rajee Olaganathan

Publications

The aviation industry is one of the major contributors for the greenhouse gases. As air travel has become inevitable in this modern era, and fossil fuel usage is not sustainable, it is essential to produce renewable fuel and commercialize it to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to produce an alternate aviation biofuel a lot of industrial and academic collaborations have been developed worldwide. The main concern of this collaborative research is to produce aviation biofuel from renewable resources with low environmental impacts, and which is sustainable at an economically viable price. This mini-review briefly discusses the biotechnological approaches ...


Estimating Discharge In Low-Order Rivers With High-Resolution Aerial Imagery, Tyler V. King, Bethany T. Neilson, Mitchell T. Rasmussen Feb 2018

Estimating Discharge In Low-Order Rivers With High-Resolution Aerial Imagery, Tyler V. King, Bethany T. Neilson, Mitchell T. Rasmussen

Publications

Remote sensing of river discharge promises to augment in situ gauging stations, but the majority of research in this field focuses on large rivers (>50 m wide). We present a method for estimating volumetric river discharge in low-order (wide) rivers from remotely sensed data by coupling high-resolution imagery with one-dimensional hydraulic modeling at so-called virtual gauging stations. These locations were identified as locations where the river contracted under low flows, exposing a substantial portion of the river bed. Topography of the exposed river bed was photogrammetrically extracted from high-resolution aerial imagery while the geometry of the remaining inundated portion of ...


Annual Report 2018, Casco Bay Estuary Partnership Jan 2018

Annual Report 2018, Casco Bay Estuary Partnership

Publications

CBEP has been collaborating for over 25 years with a multitude of partners working hard to protect Casco Bay. 2018 brought us new and exciting collaborations.

The Casco Bay Nutrient Council, convened by CBEP, met for almost two years and produced a report that laid a path forward for all partners to tackle nutrient pollution.

CBEP worked closely with the EPA to establish the Casco Bay Monitoring Network, made up of over 20 member organizations, aimed at coordinating and upgrading monitoring in the Bay. The Network is currently updating the Casco Bay Monitoring Plan.

CBEP is an active participant in ...


Research Of Sustainable Jet Fuel Production Using Microbes, Rajee Olaganathan Jan 2018

Research Of Sustainable Jet Fuel Production Using Microbes, Rajee Olaganathan

Publications

Global climate change, coupled with rapidly increasing oil prices and energy demand around the world, has paved a way for intense research in the biofuel sector. Stakeholders in the aviation industry have started to focus on bio-jet fuel. Bio-jet fuel is regarded as a sustainable solution to greenhouse gas emissions and energy demand. This paper provides a brief review of the biofuel production technologies, the role of bacteria in producing hydrocarbons and the recent advancements in microbial engineering to enhance the biofuel production. Finally, this paper concludes by highlighting the challenges and future research implications in bio-jet fuel production.


Correlation Of Trichome Density And Length And Polyphenol Fluorescence With Susceptibility Of Five Cucurbits To Didymella Bryoniae, Gabriel Rennberger, A. P. Keinath, M. Hess Aug 2017

Correlation Of Trichome Density And Length And Polyphenol Fluorescence With Susceptibility Of Five Cucurbits To Didymella Bryoniae, Gabriel Rennberger, A. P. Keinath, M. Hess

Publications

The fungal pathogen Didymella bryoniae causes gummy stem blight and black rot on a broad spectrum of cucurbits. However the substantial differences in susceptibility among Cucurbitaceae are not well studied. Susceptibility was characterized with muskmelon (Cucumis melo), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), and zucchini (C. pepo). Lesion diameters on leaf disks inoculated with agar plugs were measured 7 days after inoculation, and the necrotized areas of leaf disks inoculated with conidial suspensions were measured 48 h after inoculation (hai). For each species, the number of trichomes was counted on 16 leaf pieces using a stereomicroscope. Lengths ...


A Revision Of Prespelea Park (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), Michael S. Caterino, Laura M. Vásquez-Vélez Jul 2017

A Revision Of Prespelea Park (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae), Michael S. Caterino, Laura M. Vásquez-Vélez

Publications

We revise the genus Prespelea Park, redefining and redescribing the two previously known species, P.copelandi Park and P. quirsfeldi Park, and adding ten new species: P. parki Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P.minima Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. morsei Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. divergens Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. carltoni Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. myersae Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. georgiensis Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. enigma Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., P. wagneriCaterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n., and P. basalis Caterino & Vásquez-Vélez, sp. n.. The genus is still only known from a relatively small area in the ...


Exchange Of Polar Lipids From Adults To Neonates In Daphnia Magna: Perturbations In Sphingomyelin Allocation By Dietary Lipids And Environmental Toxicants, Namrata Sengupta, Delaney C. Reardon, Patrick D. Gerard, William S. Baldwin May 2017

Exchange Of Polar Lipids From Adults To Neonates In Daphnia Magna: Perturbations In Sphingomyelin Allocation By Dietary Lipids And Environmental Toxicants, Namrata Sengupta, Delaney C. Reardon, Patrick D. Gerard, William S. Baldwin

Publications

Because xenosensing nuclear receptors are also lipid sensors that regulate lipid allocation, we hypothesized that toxicant-induced modulation of HR96 activity would alter lipid profiles and the balance between adult survival and neonate production following exposure in Daphnia magna. Adult daphnids were exposed to unsaturated fatty acid- and toxicant- activators or inhibitors of HR96 and later starved to test whether chemical exposure altered allocation toward survival or reproduction. The HR96 activators, linoleic acid and atrazine, decreased reproduction as expected with concomitant changes in the expression of HR96 regulated genes such as magro. The HR96 inhibitors, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and triclosan, increased ...


Turning Contention Into Collaboration: Engaging Power, Trust, And Learning In Collaborative Networks, Vanessa Levesque, Aram J K Calhoun, Kathleen P. Bell, Teresa R. Johnson Feb 2017

Turning Contention Into Collaboration: Engaging Power, Trust, And Learning In Collaborative Networks, Vanessa Levesque, Aram J K Calhoun, Kathleen P. Bell, Teresa R. Johnson

Publications

Given the complexity and multiplicity of goals in natural resource governance, it is not surprising that policy debates are often characterized by contention and competition. Yet at times adversaries join together to collaborate to find creative solutions not easily achieved in polarizing forums. We employed qualitative interviews and a quantitative network analysis to investigate a collaborative network that formed to develop a resolution to a challenging natural resource management problem, the conservation of vernal pools. We found that power had become distributed among members, trust had formed across core interests, and social learning had resulted in shared understanding and joint ...


Green Building Business Is Booming, Richard Snow, Mary Snow Jan 2017

Green Building Business Is Booming, Richard Snow, Mary Snow

Publications

Shelter is one of life’s basic necessities. However, according to the U.S. Department of Energy, residential and commercial buildings account for nearly 40% of the total carbon dioxide (CO2) released in the United States annually [1]. The percentage is even higher in China, which leads the world in CO2 emissions from buildings. Most of this CO2 comes from burning fossil fuels to provide the energy necessary to cool, heat, and light homes, office buildings, and retail space. CO2 emissions from residential and commercials buildings are forecast to increase more than emissions from any other sector over the next ...


Information Technology Approaches To Forest Management, Mary Snow, Richard Snow Jan 2017

Information Technology Approaches To Forest Management, Mary Snow, Richard Snow

Publications

The majority of the world’s forests occur where there is a dry season long enough to affect a seasonal change in the forest community. The seasonal forest may include evergreen, semi-deciduous, deciduous trees, or some combination of these. Local differences in soil or other site characteristics often determine which community persists. Since the seasonal forests exist where there is seasonal precipitation, the character of the forest is closely associated with the length of the rainy season. As the length of the rainy season decreases, the density of the canopy decreases. If the global climate system warms and prolonged drought ...


Assessing The Efficiency Of Different Sustainable Farming Practices In Reducing The Environmental Impacts Caused By Aquaculture, Rajee Olaganathan, Alicia Tang Kar Mun Jan 2017

Assessing The Efficiency Of Different Sustainable Farming Practices In Reducing The Environmental Impacts Caused By Aquaculture, Rajee Olaganathan, Alicia Tang Kar Mun

Publications

Sustainability of aquaculture is achieved when aquaculture farming systems are capable of preserving the natural resource base and involves an institutional change to the environment by the attainment and continued satisfaction for present and future generations. Sustainable farming practices produce sufficient aquaculture output to satisfy the seafood demand while not burdening the environment more. The potentiality and efficiency of different sustainable aqua farming practices in reducing anthropogenic impacts to the environment by aquaculture are assessed in this paper. Polyculture is mostly adopted by small-scale rural farmers as it requires low entry barrier and help in income diversification. The input of ...


Technological Modernization And Its Impact On Agriculture, Fisheries And Fossil Fuel Utilization In The Asia Pacific Countries With Emphasis On Sustainability Perspective, Rajee Olaganathan, Kathleen Quigley Jan 2017

Technological Modernization And Its Impact On Agriculture, Fisheries And Fossil Fuel Utilization In The Asia Pacific Countries With Emphasis On Sustainability Perspective, Rajee Olaganathan, Kathleen Quigley

Publications

Modernization is a process that moves towards efficiency. This affects most of the fields such as agriculture, fisheries, forestry, urban planning, policy, fossil fuel usage, manufacturing, technology, economic growth etc. This process plays a major role in moving forward making things faster, better and basically more efficient. The effects of modernization on all these fields bring about the major changes to aspects such as social, economic and the environment. The level of operation has increased from a domestic level; small family scale business to large commercial levels. As the level of operation increased, the utilization of natural resources increased gradually ...


Measuring The Impact Of Pollution Closures On Commercial Shellfish Harvest: The Case Of Soft-Shell Clams In Machias Bay, Maine, Keith S. Evans, Kevin Athearn, Xuan Chen, Kathleen P. Bell, Tora Johnson Oct 2016

Measuring The Impact Of Pollution Closures On Commercial Shellfish Harvest: The Case Of Soft-Shell Clams In Machias Bay, Maine, Keith S. Evans, Kevin Athearn, Xuan Chen, Kathleen P. Bell, Tora Johnson

Publications

Temporary closures of polluted coastal waters to shellfish harvesting protect human health but also generate broad socioeconomic impacts on rural, fishing-dependent communities. Improved understanding of these impacts could help coastal managers prioritize investments to protect water quality and mitigate the effects of coastal pollution. Using a regression model of monthly landings, we explore the impact of temporary closures on the commercial harvest of soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) in the Machias Bay region of Maine (USA). We find that economic losses are significant and depend heavily on tidal activity, and the size, frequency and timing of closures. Over the nine-year sample ...


The Wrecks Of Lake Champlain, Gary C. Kessler Oct 2016

The Wrecks Of Lake Champlain, Gary C. Kessler

Publications

Despite the dozens of historically significant wrecks in the lake, only nine are open for diving as part of the Lake Champlain Underwater Historic Preserve. For visitors to the area, five of the wrecks are easily accessible from Burlington, with four being in the immediate vicinity of Burlington Bay. This article will focus on these five wrecks.


Systems Modeling To Improve The Hydro-Ecological Performance Of Diked Wetlands, Omar Alminagorta, David E. Rosenberg, Karin M. Kettenring Sep 2016

Systems Modeling To Improve The Hydro-Ecological Performance Of Diked Wetlands, Omar Alminagorta, David E. Rosenberg, Karin M. Kettenring

Publications

Water scarcity and invasive vegetation threaten arid-region wetlands and wetland managers seek ways to enhance wetland ecosystem services with limited water, labor, and financial resources. While prior systems modeling efforts have focused on water management to improve flow-based ecosystem and habitat objectives, here we consider water allocation and invasive vegetation management that jointly target the concurrent hydrologic and vegetation habitat needs of priority wetland bird species. We formulate a composite weighted usable area for wetlands (WU) objective function that represents the wetland surface area that provides suitable water level and vegetation cover conditions for priority bird species. Maximizing the WU ...


Leveraging The Power Of Place In Citizen Science For Effective Conservation Decision Making, Gregory Newman, M. Chandler, M. Clyde, B. Mcgreavy, M. Haklay, H. Ballard, S. Gray, R. Scarpino, D. Mellor, J. Gallo Aug 2016

Leveraging The Power Of Place In Citizen Science For Effective Conservation Decision Making, Gregory Newman, M. Chandler, M. Clyde, B. Mcgreavy, M. Haklay, H. Ballard, S. Gray, R. Scarpino, D. Mellor, J. Gallo

Publications

Many citizen science projects are place-based - built on in-person participation and motivated by local conservation. When done thoughtfully, this approach to citizen science can transform humans and their environment. Despite such possibilities, many projects struggle to meet decision-maker needs, generate useful data to inform decisions, and improve social-ecological resilience. Here, we define leveraging the ‘power of place’ in citizen science, and posit that doing this improves conservation decision making, increases participation, and improves community resilience. First, we explore ‘place’ and identify five place dimensions: social-ecological, narrative and name-based, knowledge-based, emotional and affective, and performative. We then thematically analyze 134 case ...


Planning For Sustainability In Small Municipalities: The Influence Of Interest Groups, Growth Patterns, And Institutional Characteristics, Vanessa R. Levesque, Kathleen P. Bell, Aram J K Calhoun Jul 2016

Planning For Sustainability In Small Municipalities: The Influence Of Interest Groups, Growth Patterns, And Institutional Characteristics, Vanessa R. Levesque, Kathleen P. Bell, Aram J K Calhoun

Publications

How and why small municipalities promote sustainability through planning efforts is poorly understood. We analyzed ordinances in 451 Maine municipalities and tested theories of policy adoption using regression analysis.We found that smaller communities do adopt programs that contribute to sustainability relevant to their scale and context. In line with the political market theory, we found that municipalities with strong environmental interests, higher growth, and more formal governments were more likely to adopt these policies. Consideration of context and capacity in planning for sustainability will help planners better identify and benefit from collaboration, training, and outreach opportunities.


Transdisciplinary Research Partnerships In Sustainability Science: An Examination Of Stakeholder Participation Preferences, Karen H. Beiluch, Kathleen P. Bell, Mario F. Teisl, Laura Lindenfeld, Jessica Leahy, Linda Silka Mar 2016

Transdisciplinary Research Partnerships In Sustainability Science: An Examination Of Stakeholder Participation Preferences, Karen H. Beiluch, Kathleen P. Bell, Mario F. Teisl, Laura Lindenfeld, Jessica Leahy, Linda Silka

Publications

Sustaining coupled natural and human systems requires multiple forms of knowledge, experiences, values, and resources be brought into conversation to address sustainability challenges. Transdisciplinary research partnerships provide the opportunity to meet this requirement by bringing together interdisciplinary scientists with stakeholders in some or all stages of the knowledge production process. However, building partnerships to produce sustainability outcomes is a complex process requiring an understanding of the social psychological and contextual variables impacting partnerships. Here, we explore local government officials’ (LGOs’) preferences for participation in these partnerships. Using data from a statewide survey, we develop a theoretically and empirically derived model ...


Modeling Spatiotemporal Variability Of The Bioclimate Envelope Of Homarus Americanus In The Coastal Waters Of Maine And New Hampshire, Kisei Tananka, Yong Chen Feb 2016

Modeling Spatiotemporal Variability Of The Bioclimate Envelope Of Homarus Americanus In The Coastal Waters Of Maine And New Hampshire, Kisei Tananka, Yong Chen

Publications

A bioclimate envelope model was developed to evaluate the potential impacts of climate variability on American lobster (Homarus americanus). Bioclimate envelopes were defined by season-, sex-, and stage- specific Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI) based on (1) bottom temperature, (2) bottom salinity, and (3) depth. The species’ association to each of these three environmental attributes was expressed using Suitability Indices (SIs) calibrated by standardized lobster abundance derived from 14 years of fishery independent survey. A regional ocean model (Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model) was integrated with the HSI to hindcast spatiotemporal variability of bioclimate envelopes for American lobster in coastal waters of ...


Resilience As Discourse, Bridie Mcgreavy Jan 2016

Resilience As Discourse, Bridie Mcgreavy

Publications

Resilience as a frame is increasingly appearing in grant funding, news stories, academic journals, and organization missions. Across these sites, resilience is positioned as an ability to cope, characterized by bouncing back, regaining control, and reducing vulnerability to change. How did resilience come to be understood in these terms? What are the problems with resilience’s frames and the practices that produce them? How might we become resilient differently? Using a Foucaultian archaeology, I examine sites and practices that produce resilience as discourse. I analyze resilience’s origins in biophysical sciences, systems perspectives that define ways of knowing, visual models ...


Moving Up The Waste Hierarchy In Maine: Learning From “Best Practice” State-Level Policy For Waste Reduction And Recovery, Cindy Isenhour, Travis Blackmer, Travis Wagner, Linda Silka, John Peckenham Jan 2016

Moving Up The Waste Hierarchy In Maine: Learning From “Best Practice” State-Level Policy For Waste Reduction And Recovery, Cindy Isenhour, Travis Blackmer, Travis Wagner, Linda Silka, John Peckenham

Publications

As Maine residents look toward the future, it is increasingly clear that more sustainable waste and materials management solutions will be necessary. A recent stakeholder engagement process involving nearly 200 industry professionals, municipal representatives and citizen groups confirmed this point. As we move together toward a more sustainable waste management system, participants in the engagement process identified an outstanding need to learn more about policies options. This article responds to that need with a review of state level policies designed to reduce waste generation and increase material recovery rates. We find there are a wide variety of state-level policy tools ...


A Revision Of Megalocraerus Lewis, 1902 (Coleoptera, Histeridae: Exosternini), Michael S. Caterino, Alexey K. Tishechkin Jan 2016

A Revision Of Megalocraerus Lewis, 1902 (Coleoptera, Histeridae: Exosternini), Michael S. Caterino, Alexey K. Tishechkin

Publications

The formely monotypic Neotropical genus Megalocraerus Lewis is revised to include five species, known from southeastern Brazil to Costa Rica: M. rubricatus Lewis, M. mandibularis sp. n., M. chico sp. n., M. madrededios sp. n., and M. tiputini sp. n. We describe the species, map their distributions, and provide a key for their identification. Their subcylindrical body form and emarginate mesosternum have previously hindered placement to tribe, although their curent assignment to Exosternini now appears well supported by morphological evidence. Nothing is known of the natural history of the species.


Until We Meet Again, Richard Snow, Mary Snow Jan 2016

Until We Meet Again, Richard Snow, Mary Snow

Publications

As long ago as 1896, Svanti Arrenius conducted a scientific analysis of the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) and atmospheric temperatures. Several decades later, GS Callender collected and compiled temperature data from around the world and found there had been an increase in global temperatures. He hypothesized that the rising temperatures were resulting from increasing levels of CO2. These early studies piqued the interest of Gilbert Plass in the mid-20th century who endeavored to determine how CO2 affects temperature. In his effort to determine the possible effects that higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere were having on the energy ...