Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 80

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

A Low-Cost, Open Source Monitoring System For Collecting High Temporal Resolution Water Use Data On Magnetically Driven Residential Water Meters, Camilo J. Bastidas Pacheco, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Robb J. Tracy Jun 2020

A Low-Cost, Open Source Monitoring System For Collecting High Temporal Resolution Water Use Data On Magnetically Driven Residential Water Meters, Camilo J. Bastidas Pacheco, Jeffery S. Horsburgh, Robb J. Tracy

Publications

We present a low-cost (≈$150) monitoring system for collecting high temporal resolution residential water use data without disrupting the operation of commonly available water meters. This system was designed for installation on top of analog, magnetically driven, positive displacement, residential water meters and can collect data at a variable time resolution interval. The system couples an Arduino Pro microcontroller board, a datalogging shield customized for this specific application, and a magnetometer sensor. The system was developed and calibrated at the Utah Water Research Laboratory and was deployed for testing on five single family residences in Logan and Providence, Utah, for ...


Infusing Humanities In Stem Education: Student Opinions Of Disciplinary Connections In An Introductory Chemistry Course, Emily K. Faulconer, Beverly Wood, John C. Griffith Mar 2020

Infusing Humanities In Stem Education: Student Opinions Of Disciplinary Connections In An Introductory Chemistry Course, Emily K. Faulconer, Beverly Wood, John C. Griffith

Publications

The Next Generation Science Standards and other educational reforms support the formation of deep connections across the STEM disciplines. Integrated STEM is considered as a best practice by the educational communities of the disparate disciplines. However, the integration of non-STEM disciplines is understudied and generally limited to the integration of art (STEAM). Humanistic STEM blends the study of STEM with interest in and concern for human affairs, welfare, values, or culture. This study looks at an infusion of the humanities into an online chemistry course to see if there is an influence on student connection between course content and cross-disciplinary ...


W-Gun: Whale Optimization For Energy And Delay-Centric Green Underwater Networks, Rajkumar Singh Rathore, Houbing Song, Suman Sangwan, Sukriti Mazumdar, Omprakash Kaiwartya, Kabita Adhikari, Rupak Kharel Mar 2020

W-Gun: Whale Optimization For Energy And Delay-Centric Green Underwater Networks, Rajkumar Singh Rathore, Houbing Song, Suman Sangwan, Sukriti Mazumdar, Omprakash Kaiwartya, Kabita Adhikari, Rupak Kharel

Publications

Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) have witnessed significant R&D attention in both academia and industry due to their growing application domains, such as border security, freight via sea or river, natural petroleum production and the fishing industry. Considering the deep underwater-oriented access constraints, energy-centric communication for the lifetime maximization of tiny sensor nodes in UWSNs is one of the key research themes in this domain. Existing literature on green UWSNs are majorly adapted from the existing techniques in traditional wireless sensor network relying on geolocation and the quality of service-centric underwater relay node selection, without paying much attention to the ...


Cache-Enabled In Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks For Transmission Performance, Jiachen Yang, Houbing Song, Chaofan Ma, Jiabao Man, Huifang Xu, Gan Zheng Feb 2020

Cache-Enabled In Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks For Transmission Performance, Jiachen Yang, Houbing Song, Chaofan Ma, Jiabao Man, Huifang Xu, Gan Zheng

Publications

The proliferation of mobile devices that support the acceleration of data services (especially smartphones) has resulted in a dramatic increase in mobile traffic. Mobile data also increased exponentially, already exceeding the throughput of the backhaul. To improve spectrum utilization and increase mobile network traffic, in combination with content caching, we study the cooperation between primary and secondary networks via content caching. We consider that the secondary base station assists the primary user by pre-caching some popular primary contents. Thus, the secondary base station can obtain more licensed bandwidth to serve its own user. We mainly focus on the time delay ...


Coverage Guided Differential Adversarial Testing Of Deep Learning Systems, Jianmin Guo, Houbing Song, Yue Zhao, Yu Jiang Jan 2020

Coverage Guided Differential Adversarial Testing Of Deep Learning Systems, Jianmin Guo, Houbing Song, Yue Zhao, Yu Jiang

Publications

Deep learning is increasingly applied to safety-critical application domains such as autonomous cars and medical devices. It is of significant importance to ensure their reliability and robustness. In this paper, we propose DLFuzz, the coverage guided differential adversarial testing framework to guide deep learing systems exposing incorrect behaviors. DLFuzz keeps minutely mutating the input to maximize the neuron coverage and the prediction difference between the original input and the mutated input, without manual labeling effort or cross-referencing oracles from other systems with the same functionality. We also design multiple novel strategies for neuron selection to improve the neuron coverage. The ...


Design Of Personnel Big Data Management System Based On Blockchain, Houbing Song, Jian Chen, Zhihan Lv Jul 2019

Design Of Personnel Big Data Management System Based On Blockchain, Houbing Song, Jian Chen, Zhihan Lv

Publications

With the continuous development of information technology, enterprises, universities and governments are constantly stepping up the construction of electronic personnel information management system. The information of hundreds of thousands or even millions of people’s information are collected and stored into the system. So much information provides the cornerstone for the development of big data, if such data is tampered with or leaked, it will cause irreparable serious damage. However, in recent years, electronic archives have exposed a series of problems such as information leakage, information tampering, and information loss, which has made the reform of personnel information management more ...


Adaboost‑Based Security Level Classifcation Of Mobile Intelligent Terminals, Feng Wang, Houbing Song, Dingde Jiang, Hong Wen Jul 2019

Adaboost‑Based Security Level Classifcation Of Mobile Intelligent Terminals, Feng Wang, Houbing Song, Dingde Jiang, Hong Wen

Publications

With the rapid development of Internet of Things, massive mobile intelligent terminals are ready to access edge servers for real-time data calculation and interaction. However, the risk of private data leakage follows simultaneously. As the administrator of all intelligent terminals in a region, the edge server needs to clarify the ability of the managed intelligent terminals to defend against malicious attacks. Therefore, the security level classification for mobile intelligent terminals before accessing the network is indispensable. In this paper, we firstly propose a safety assessment method to detect the weakness of mobile intelligent terminals. Secondly, we match the evaluation results ...


Uas Flight Operations In Complex Terrain: Assessing The Agricultural Impact From Hurricane Maria In The Central Mountainous Region Of Puerto Rico, Kevin A. Adkins Jan 2019

Uas Flight Operations In Complex Terrain: Assessing The Agricultural Impact From Hurricane Maria In The Central Mountainous Region Of Puerto Rico, Kevin A. Adkins

Publications

Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico in September 2017 as a Category 4 storm causing major damage to infrastructure, agriculture and natural ecosystems, as well as the loss of many lives. Among the crops hardest hit was coffee, one of the most important crops in Puerto Rico. As a perennial system, coffee takes various production forms along a gradient from high shade/biodiversity coffee farms to low shade coffee monocultures and therefore offers an ideal means for the study of resistance and resilience of an agroecosystem to weather and climate disturbance. During the summer of 2018, 14 impacted farms across the ...


Stem And Sustainability: Creating Aviation Professional Change Agents, P. Clark, Doreen Mcgunagle, L. Zizka Jan 2019

Stem And Sustainability: Creating Aviation Professional Change Agents, P. Clark, Doreen Mcgunagle, L. Zizka

Publications

With the evolution of the workforce and the growing needs of the aviation industry, a clear need for concrete sustainability initiatives and actions have emerged. Sustainability in this sense becomes a matter of survival. For this reason, in this chapter, we will attempt to close three gaps in current sustainability studies: Theory vs practice, intention vs behavior, and education vs workplace.

Our purpose is to develop a ‘simple’ strategy for integrating all three pillars of sustainability into STEM HE programs that create authentic engagement and real buy-in from the students that are then replicated in the workplace. Based on the ...


Full Field Computing For Elastic Pulse Dispersion In Inhomogeneous Bars, A. Berezovski, R. Kolman, M. Berezovski, D. Gabriel, V. Adamek Jul 2018

Full Field Computing For Elastic Pulse Dispersion In Inhomogeneous Bars, A. Berezovski, R. Kolman, M. Berezovski, D. Gabriel, V. Adamek

Publications

In the paper, the finite element method and the finite volume method are used in parallel for the simulation of a pulse propagation in periodically layered composites beyond the validity of homogenization methods. The direct numerical integration of a pulse propagation demonstrates dispersion effects and dynamic stress redistribution in physical space on example of a one-dimensional layered bar. Results of numerical simulations are compared with analytical solution constructed specifically for the considered problem. Analytical solution as well as numerical computations show the strong influence of the composition of constituents on the dispersion of a pulse in a heterogeneous bar and ...


Thermal Removal Of Carbon Dioxide From The Atmosphere: Energy Requirements And Scaling Issues, Ted Von Hippel May 2018

Thermal Removal Of Carbon Dioxide From The Atmosphere: Energy Requirements And Scaling Issues, Ted Von Hippel

Publications

I conduct a systems-level study of direct air capture of CO2 using techniques from thermal physics. This system relies on a combination of an efficient heat exchanger, radiative cooling, and refrigeration, all at industrial scale and operated in environments at low ambient temperatures. While technological developments will be required for such a system to operate efficiently, those developments rest on a long history of refrigeration expertise and technology, and they can be developed and tested at modest scale. I estimate that the energy required to remove CO2 via this approach is comparable to direct air capture by other techniques. The ...


Algal Biofuel: The Future Of Green Jet Fuel In Air Transportation, Rajee Olaganathan Apr 2018

Algal Biofuel: The Future Of Green Jet Fuel In Air Transportation, Rajee Olaganathan

Publications

The aviation industry is one of the major contributors for the greenhouse gases. As air travel has become inevitable in this modern era, and fossil fuel usage is not sustainable, it is essential to produce renewable fuel and commercialize it to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to produce an alternate aviation biofuel a lot of industrial and academic collaborations have been developed worldwide. The main concern of this collaborative research is to produce aviation biofuel from renewable resources with low environmental impacts, and which is sustainable at an economically viable price. This mini-review briefly discusses the biotechnological approaches ...


Numerical Simulation Of Energy Localization In Dynamic Materials, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski Feb 2018

Numerical Simulation Of Energy Localization In Dynamic Materials, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski

Publications

Dynamic materials are artificially constructed in such a way that they may vary their characteristic properties in space or in time, or both, by an appropriate arrangement or control. These controlled changes in time can be provided by the application of an external (non-mechanical) field, or through a phase transition. In principle, all materials change their properties with time, but very slowly and smoothly. Changes in properties of dynamic materials should be realized in a short or quasi-nil time lapse and over a sufficiently large material region. Wave propagation is a characteristic feature for dynamic materials because it is also ...


Computer Program, System, And Method For Observation And Communication For Mobile Settings, Mobile Applications, And Wearable Mobile Devices, Jibo He, Barbara Chaparro Jan 2018

Computer Program, System, And Method For Observation And Communication For Mobile Settings, Mobile Applications, And Wearable Mobile Devices, Jibo He, Barbara Chaparro

Publications

A system including at least first and second wearable mobile devices and optionally one or more smartphones or other computing devices for allowing a wearable mobile device wearer, an on-site observer, and a remote observer to research and test usability of products in mobile settings, mobile applications, mobile devices, and wearable mobile devices, desktop usability settings, and other settings and devices. The devices nm a software application for generating first-person video and third-person video, transmitting the video to the other devices, marking the videos with time stamps, and allowing the remote observer to send messages and other information to the ...


Research Of Sustainable Jet Fuel Production Using Microbes, Rajee Olaganathan Jan 2018

Research Of Sustainable Jet Fuel Production Using Microbes, Rajee Olaganathan

Publications

Global climate change, coupled with rapidly increasing oil prices and energy demand around the world, has paved a way for intense research in the biofuel sector. Stakeholders in the aviation industry have started to focus on bio-jet fuel. Bio-jet fuel is regarded as a sustainable solution to greenhouse gas emissions and energy demand. This paper provides a brief review of the biofuel production technologies, the role of bacteria in producing hydrocarbons and the recent advancements in microbial engineering to enhance the biofuel production. Finally, this paper concludes by highlighting the challenges and future research implications in bio-jet fuel production.


Forces And Disease: Electrostatic Force Differences Caused By Mutations In Kinesin Motor Domains Can Distinguish Between Disease-Causing And Non-Disease-Causing Mutations, Lin Li, Yunhui Peng, Subash Godar, Ivan Getov, Shaolei Teng, Joshua Alper, Emil Alexov Aug 2017

Forces And Disease: Electrostatic Force Differences Caused By Mutations In Kinesin Motor Domains Can Distinguish Between Disease-Causing And Non-Disease-Causing Mutations, Lin Li, Yunhui Peng, Subash Godar, Ivan Getov, Shaolei Teng, Joshua Alper, Emil Alexov

Publications

The ability to predict if a given mutation is disease-causing or not has enormous potential to impact human health. Typically, these predictions are made by assessing the effects of mutation on macromolecular stability and amino acid conservation. Here we report a novel feature: the electrostatic component of the force acting between a kinesin motor domain and tubulin. We demonstrate that changes in the electrostatic component of the binding force are able to discriminate between disease-causing and non-disease-causing mutations found in human kinesin motor domains using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Because diseases may originate from multiple effects not related to ...


Dynamics Of Discontinuities In Elastic Solids, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski Jul 2017

Dynamics Of Discontinuities In Elastic Solids, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski

Publications

The paper is devoted to evolving discontinuities in elastic solids. A discontinuity is represented as a singular set of material points. Evolution of a discontinuity is driven by the configurational force acting at such a set. The main attention is paid to the determination of the velocity of a propagating discontinuity. Martensitic phase transition fronts and brittle cracks are considered as representative examples.


Creating An Experimental Learning And Research Driven Spacesuit Lab For Erau, Ryan L. Kobrick, Erik Seedhouse Jul 2017

Creating An Experimental Learning And Research Driven Spacesuit Lab For Erau, Ryan L. Kobrick, Erik Seedhouse

Publications

This paper evaluates key functional data parameters that must be considered for suborbital spaceflight participants wearing pressurized suits for intravehicular activity (IVA). Data parameters of an analog spacesuit worn in an analog flight environment were obtained from 40 civilian participants using the Suborbital Space Flight Simulator (SSFS) at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) while donning Final Frontier Design’s (FFD) fully pressurized third-generation spacesuit as part of their training for Project PoSSUM (the Polar Suborbital Science in the Upper Mesosphere Project). The physiological data collected included: blood pressure, electrocardiograms, heart rate, grip strength, and skin temperature. These parameters were measured using ...


Cirrus Cloud Microphysics Over Darwin, Australia, Dorothea Ivanova, Matthew Johnson Apr 2017

Cirrus Cloud Microphysics Over Darwin, Australia, Dorothea Ivanova, Matthew Johnson

Publications

Ice clouds, crucial to the understanding of both short - and long - term climate trends, are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). Cirrus clouds, one of the largest uncertainties in the global radiation budget, have been inadequately studied at low latitudes. Parameterizations exist for mid - latitude and tropical cirrus ( Ivanova et al. 2001; McFarquhar et al. 1997). Due to climate sensitivity in the GCM with respect to cloud input, without robust parameterizations of cirrus clouds, the GCM is inaccurate over most output fields, including radiative forcing, temperature, albedo, and heat flux (Yao and Del Genio 1999).

Studies of the microphysical ...


Repository Review: Nasa Pubspace, Laura Pope Robbins Mar 2017

Repository Review: Nasa Pubspace, Laura Pope Robbins

Publications

Laura Pope Robbins is an advisor for The Charleston Advisor, and the review below is included in Scholarly Commons with the permission of the publisher.

PubSpace is a repository of full-text peer-reviewed articles resulting from NASA-funded research going back to 1961. The National Center for Biotechnology Information has integrated PubSpace into PubMed Central, a freely available repository of medical research. Using an established, stable, government-hosted platform for PubSpace seems to make sense. However, the lack of clear branding, an uneven application of phrase searching, and a missing thesaurus of NASA terminology highlights that this integration may not be the best.


Trustworthiness Requirements For Manufacturing Cyber-Physical Systems, Radu F. Babiceanu, Remzi Seker Jan 2017

Trustworthiness Requirements For Manufacturing Cyber-Physical Systems, Radu F. Babiceanu, Remzi Seker

Publications

Distributed manufacturing operations include cyber-physical systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Long time not considered a priority, cybersecurity jumped to the forefront of manufacturing concerns due to the need to network together legacy, newer equipment, and entire operation centers. This paper proposes trustworthiness solutions for integrated manufacturing physical-cyber worlds, where trustworthiness is defined to complement system dependability requirements with cybersecurity requirements, such that the resulting manufacturing cyber-physical system delivers services that can justifiably be trusted. Acknowledging the inevitability of cyber-attacks, the paper models the cybersecurity component using the resilient systems framework, where system resilience is viewed as preservation of a required state ...


Wave Motion Induced By Turbulent Shear Flows Over Growing Stokes Waves, Shahrdad Sajjadi, Serena Robertson, Rebecca Harvey, Mary Brown Dec 2016

Wave Motion Induced By Turbulent Shear Flows Over Growing Stokes Waves, Shahrdad Sajjadi, Serena Robertson, Rebecca Harvey, Mary Brown

Publications

The recent analytical of multi-layer analyses proposed by Sajjadi et al. (J Eng Math 84:73, 2014) (SHD14 therein) is solved numerically for atmospheric turbulent shear flows blowing over growing (or unsteady) Stokes (bimodal) water waves, of low-to-moderate steepness. For unsteady surface waves, the amplitude a(t)∝ekcita(t)∝ekcit, where kcikci is the wave growth factor, k is the wavenumber, and cici is the complex part of the wave phase speed, and thus, the waves begin to grow as more energy is transferred to them by the wind. This will then display the critical height to a point, where ...


On Safety Assessment Of Novel Approach To Robust Uav Flight Control In Gusty Environments, Vladimir Golubev, Petr Kazarin, William Mackunis, Sherry Borener, Derek Hufty Sep 2016

On Safety Assessment Of Novel Approach To Robust Uav Flight Control In Gusty Environments, Vladimir Golubev, Petr Kazarin, William Mackunis, Sherry Borener, Derek Hufty

Publications

In a follow-up to our previous study, the current work examines the gust-induced “cone of uncertainty” in a small unmanned aerial vehicle’s (UAV) flight trajectory addressed in the context of safety assessments of UAV operations. Such analysis is a critical facet of the integration of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS), particularly in terminal airspace. The paper describes a predictive, robust feedback-loop flight control model that is applicable to various classes of UAVs and unsteady flight-path scenarios. The control design presented in this paper extends previous research results by demonstrating asymptotic (zero steady-state error) altitude ...


Aviation And Cybersecurity: Opportunities For Applied Research, Jon Haass, Radhakrishna Sampigethaya, Vincent Capezzuto Jul 2016

Aviation And Cybersecurity: Opportunities For Applied Research, Jon Haass, Radhakrishna Sampigethaya, Vincent Capezzuto

Publications

Aviation connects the global community and is moving more people and payloads faster than ever. The next decade will experience an increase in manned and unmanned aircraft and systems with new features and unprecedented applications. Cybertechnologies—including software, computer networks, and information technology—are critical and fundamental to these advances in meeting the needs of the aviation ecosystem of aircraft, pilots, personnel, passengers, stakeholders, and society. This article discusses current and evolving threats as well as opportunities for applied research to improve the global cybersecurity stance in the aviation and connected transportation industry of tomorrow.


Thermoelastic Waves In Microstructured Solids, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski Feb 2016

Thermoelastic Waves In Microstructured Solids, Arkadi Berezovski, Mihhail Berezovski

Publications

Thermoelastic wave propagation suggests a coupling between elastic deformation and heat conduction in a body. Microstructure of the body influences the both processes. Since energy is conserved in elastic deformation and heat conduction is always dissipative, the generalization of classical elasticity theory and classical heat conduction is performed differently. It is shown in the paper that a hyperbolic evolution equation for microtemperature can be obtained in the framework of the dual internal variables approach keeping the parabolic equation for the macrotemperature. The microtemperature is considered as a macrotemperature fluctuation. Numerical simulations demonstrate the formation and propagation of thermoelastic waves in ...


Signal Flow Graph Approach To Efficient Dst I-Iv Algorithms, Sirani M. Perera Jan 2016

Signal Flow Graph Approach To Efficient Dst I-Iv Algorithms, Sirani M. Perera

Publications

In this paper, fast and efficient discrete sine transformation (DST) algorithms are presented based on the factorization of sparse, scaled orthogonal, rotation, rotation-reflection, and butterfly matrices. These algorithms are completely recursive and solely based on DST I-IV. The presented algorithms have low arithmetic cost compared to the known fast DST algorithms. Furthermore, the language of signal flow graph representation of digital structures is used to describe these efficient and recursive DST algorithms having (n�1) points signal flow graph for DST-I and n points signal flow graphs for DST II-IV.


Plasma Density Analysis Of Cubesat Wakes In The Earth’S Ionosphere, Robert M. Albarran Ii, Aroh Barjatya Jan 2016

Plasma Density Analysis Of Cubesat Wakes In The Earth’S Ionosphere, Robert M. Albarran Ii, Aroh Barjatya

Publications

Spinning or tumbling CubeSats with Langmuir probes deployed on booms will render spin-modulated plasma densities as the probes move in and out of the spacecraft wake. It is traditionally assumed that the lower-density measurements from the spin cycle are made in the spacecraft wake, and the higher-density measurements are outside the wake. Although this assumption is valid for larger spacecraft in the Earth’s ionosphere, this paper scrutinizes its validity for CubeSats in similar conditions. Spacecraft–plasma interactions (surface charging, plasma sheaths, and wakes) are less understood for CubeSats, and the small CubeSat dimensions must be considered with respect to ...


Pattern Formation Of Elastic Waves And Energy Localization Due To Elastic Gratings, A. Berezovski, J. Engelbrecht, Mihhail Berezovski Oct 2015

Pattern Formation Of Elastic Waves And Energy Localization Due To Elastic Gratings, A. Berezovski, J. Engelbrecht, Mihhail Berezovski

Publications

Elastic wave propagation through diffraction gratings is studied numerically in the plane strain setting. The interaction of the waves with periodically ordered elastic inclusions leads to a self-imaging Talbot effect for the wavelength equal or close to the grating size. The energy localization is observed at the vicinity of inclusions in the case of elastic gratings. Such a localization is absent in the case of rigid gratings.


Editorial: Special Issue: Safety & Efficiency Of Civil Aviation: Selected Papers From The World Conferences Of The Air Transport Research Society And The World Conference On Transport Society - 2013, Paul Hooper, Ian Douglas, Chunyan Yu, Stefano Paleari Jan 2015

Editorial: Special Issue: Safety & Efficiency Of Civil Aviation: Selected Papers From The World Conferences Of The Air Transport Research Society And The World Conference On Transport Society - 2013, Paul Hooper, Ian Douglas, Chunyan Yu, Stefano Paleari

Publications

The Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) is a Special Interest Group (SIG) of the World Conference on Transport Research Society (WCTRS). The ATRS annual World Conference was held at the University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy on 26-29 June 2013 and it attracted 266 papers from 37 countries. Also, the WCTRS triennial World Conference was held on 15- 18 July at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during which the ATRS organised several sessions devoted to air transport topics. This special issue of the Journal of Air Transport Studies has drawn upon all of this material to present four papers that promote improvements ...


Potential And Technological Advancement Of Biofuels, Rajee Olaganathan, Fabian Ko Qui Shen, Lim Jun Shen Aug 2014

Potential And Technological Advancement Of Biofuels, Rajee Olaganathan, Fabian Ko Qui Shen, Lim Jun Shen

Publications

This scientific paper examines the feasibility of biofuels as a solution to the world‟s energy crisis. It studies the development of the four different generations of biofuel that have been discerned over the years, determining the pros and cons of each. The paper further investigates the issues concerning each generation, and determines how their successors have solved and improved on those problems. In order to give the reader an unbiased perspective, the paper studies both general advantages and disadvantages that encompasses social, economic and environmental impacts. Research and development on the first two generations of biofuels have matured, and ...