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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Comparison Between Fluid Simulation With Test Particles And 1 Hybrid Simulation For The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability, Xuanye Ma, Katariina Nykyri, Brandon L. Burkholder, Rachel C. Rice, Peter A. Delamere, Bishwa Neupane Aug 2019

Comparison Between Fluid Simulation With Test Particles And 1 Hybrid Simulation For The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability, Xuanye Ma, Katariina Nykyri, Brandon L. Burkholder, Rachel C. Rice, Peter A. Delamere, Bishwa Neupane

Publications

A quantitative investigation of plasma transport rate via the Kelvin‐Helmholtz (KH) instability can improve our understanding of solar‐wind‐magnetosphere coupling processes. Simulation studies provide a broad range of transport rates by using different measurements based on different initial conditions and under different plasma descriptions, which makes cross literature comparison difficult. In this study, the KH instability under similar initial and boundary conditions (i.e., applicable to the Earth's magnetopause environment) is simulated by Hall magnetohydrodynamics with test particles and hybrid simulations. Both simulations give similar particle mixing rates. However, plasma is mainly transported through a few big ...


Thermal Structure Of The Mesopause Region During The Wadis-2 Rocket Campaign, Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Franz-Josef Lübken Jan 2019

Thermal Structure Of The Mesopause Region During The Wadis-2 Rocket Campaign, Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Franz-Josef Lübken

Publications

This paper presents simultaneous temperature measurements by three independent instruments during the WADIS-2 rocket campaign in northern Norway (69 N, 14 E) on 5 March 2015. Vertical profiles were measured in situ with the CONE instrument. Continuous mobile IAP Fe lidar (Fe lidar) measurements during a period of 24 h, as well as horizontally resolved temperature maps by the Utah State University (USU) Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) in the mesopause region, are analysed. Vertical and horizontal temperature profiles by all three instruments are in good agreement. A harmonic analysis of the Fe lidar measurements shows the presence of waves ...


Vortex: A New Rocketexperiment To Studymesoscale Dynamics At The Turbopause, Gerald A. Lehmacher, Jonathan B. Snively, Aroh Barjatya, Miguel F. Larsen, Michael J. Taylor, Franz-Josef Lübken, Jorge L. Chau Jan 2019

Vortex: A New Rocketexperiment To Studymesoscale Dynamics At The Turbopause, Gerald A. Lehmacher, Jonathan B. Snively, Aroh Barjatya, Miguel F. Larsen, Michael J. Taylor, Franz-Josef Lübken, Jorge L. Chau

Publications

The goal of this new investigation is to better understand gravity waves and their interactions as they propagate from the mesosphere into the lower thermosphere, to characterize the mesoscale wind field, and to identify regions of divergence, vorticity, and stratified turbulence. The Vorticity Experiment (VortEx) will comprise two salvoes of each two sounding rockets scheduled to be launched from Andøya Space Center, Norway in February 2022. The rockets will observe horizontally spaced wind profiles, neutral density and temperature profiles, and plasma densities. Additional information about the background conditions and mesoscale dynamics will be obtained by lidars, meteor radars and a ...


Seasonal Propagation Characteristics Of Mstids Observed At High Latitudes Over Central Alaska Using The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, Michael R. Negale, Michael J. Taylor, M. J. Nicolls, Sharon L. Vadas, Kim Nielsen, Craig J. Heinselman May 2018

Seasonal Propagation Characteristics Of Mstids Observed At High Latitudes Over Central Alaska Using The Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar, Michael R. Negale, Michael J. Taylor, M. J. Nicolls, Sharon L. Vadas, Kim Nielsen, Craig J. Heinselman

Publications

Near‐continuous electron density measurements obtained over a ∼3 year period, 2010–2013, using the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) in central Alaska (69°N, 147°W) have been analyzed to quantify the properties of over 650 high‐latitude medium‐scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Our analysis focused on the altitude range 100–300 km encompassing the lower ionosphere/thermosphere and yielded first full seasonal day/night distributions of MSTIDs at high northern latitudes with mean values: horizontal wavelength 446 km, horizontal phase speed 187 m/s, and period 41 min. These year‐round measurements fill an important summertime ...


Unexpected Occurrence Of Mesospheric Frontal Gravity Wave Events Over South Pole (90°S), Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, J. B. Snively, Christina Solorio Jan 2018

Unexpected Occurrence Of Mesospheric Frontal Gravity Wave Events Over South Pole (90°S), Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, J. B. Snively, Christina Solorio

Publications

Since 2010, Utah State University has operated an infrared Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole station to investigate the upper atmosphere dynamics and temperature deep within the vortex. A surprising number of “frontal” gravity wave events (86) were recorded in the mesospheric OH(3,1) band intensity and rotational temperature images (typical altitude of ~87 km) during four austral winters (2012–2015). These events are gravity waves (GWs) characterized by a sharp leading wave front followed by a quasi-monochromatic wave train that grows with time. A particular subset of frontal gravity wave events has been identified ...


Does Strong Tropospheric Forcing Cause Large-Amplitude Mesospheric Gravity Waves? A Deepwave Case Study, Martina Bramberger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Katrina Bossert, Benedikt Ehard, David C. Fritts, Bernd Kaifler, Christian Mallaun, Andrew Orr, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Markus Rapp, Michael J. Taylor, Simon Vosper, Bifford P. Williams, Benjamin Witschas Nov 2017

Does Strong Tropospheric Forcing Cause Large-Amplitude Mesospheric Gravity Waves? A Deepwave Case Study, Martina Bramberger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Katrina Bossert, Benedikt Ehard, David C. Fritts, Bernd Kaifler, Christian Mallaun, Andrew Orr, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Markus Rapp, Michael J. Taylor, Simon Vosper, Bifford P. Williams, Benjamin Witschas

Publications

On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong low-level horizontal winds of up to 35 m s−1 over the Southern Alps, New Zealand, caused the excitation of gravity waves having the largest vertical energy fluxes of the whole campaign (38 W m−2). At the same time, large-amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located at Lauder (45.0°S, 169.7°E), New Zealand. The coincidence of these two events leads to the question of whether the mesospheric gravity waves were generated by the strong ...


The Extratropical Transition Of Tropical Cyclones. Part I: Cyclonic Evolution And Direct Impacts, Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Et Al. Nov 2017

The Extratropical Transition Of Tropical Cyclones. Part I: Cyclonic Evolution And Direct Impacts, Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Et Al.

Publications

Extratropical transition (ET) is the process by which a tropical cyclone, upon encountering a baroclinic environment and reduced sea surface temperature at higher latitudes, transforms into an extratropical cyclone. This process is influenced by, and influences, phenomena from the tropics to the midlatitudes and from the meso- to the planetary scales to extents that vary between individual events. Motivated in part by recent high-impact and/or extensively observed events such as North Atlantic Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and western North Pacific Typhoon Sinlaku in 2008, this review details advances in understanding and predicting ET since the publication of an earlier ...


Ionospheric Gravity Waves Driven By Oceanic Gravity Waves In Resonance: A Modeling Study In Search Of Their Spectra, Michael P. Hickey, Yonghui Yu Sep 2017

Ionospheric Gravity Waves Driven By Oceanic Gravity Waves In Resonance: A Modeling Study In Search Of Their Spectra, Michael P. Hickey, Yonghui Yu

Publications

Ionospheric observations associated with the 2011 Tohoku tsunami have revealed gravity waves having spectral characteristics that depend on their proximity to the epicenter. There is a preponderance of medium-scale waves in the vicinity of the epicenter, a significant bifurcation into short- and long-period waves over the Hawaiian archipelago, and a narrow and rich spectrum of waves over the West Coast and inland of the United States (U.S.). Guided by these previous observations, we consider wave sources as triads of nonlinearly interacting oceanic gravity waves, whose wave parameters satisfy resonant conditions. These waves are simulated using a 2-D nonlinear model ...


Characteristics Of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Over Antarctica Observed By Angwin (Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network) Imagers Using 3-D Spectral Analyses, Takashi S. Matsuda, Takuji Nakamura, Mitsumu K. Ejiri, Masaki Tsutsumi, Yoshihiro Tomikawa, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Damian J. Murphy, Tracy Moffat-Griffin Sep 2017

Characteristics Of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Over Antarctica Observed By Angwin (Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network) Imagers Using 3-D Spectral Analyses, Takashi S. Matsuda, Takuji Nakamura, Mitsumu K. Ejiri, Masaki Tsutsumi, Yoshihiro Tomikawa, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Damian J. Murphy, Tracy Moffat-Griffin

Publications

We have obtained horizontal phase velocity distributions of the gravity waves around 90 km from four Antarctic airglow imagers, which belong to an international airglow imager/instrument network known as ANGWIN (Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network). Results from the airglow imagers at Syowa (69°S, 40°E), Halley (76°S, 27°W), Davis (69°S, 78°E), and McMurdo (78°S, 167°E) were compared, using a new statistical analysis method based on 3-D Fourier transform (Matsuda et al., 2014) for the observation period between 7 April and 21 May 2013. Significant day-to-day and site-to-site differences were found. The averaged ...


Mobile Radar As An Undergraduate Education And Research Tool: The Erau C-Breese Field Experience With The Doppler On Wheels, Shawn M. Milrad, Christopher G. Herbster Sep 2017

Mobile Radar As An Undergraduate Education And Research Tool: The Erau C-Breese Field Experience With The Doppler On Wheels, Shawn M. Milrad, Christopher G. Herbster

Publications

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Convective-Boundary Research Engaging Educational Student Experiences (ERAU C-BREESE) was an 18-day National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded educational Doppler on Wheels (DOW) deployment through the Center for Severe Weather Research in May 2015. ERAU C-BREESE had three primary areas of focus: meteorological field observations and research, undergraduate experiential learning, and local community outreach. ERAU undergraduate meteorology students had the unique opportunity to forecast for, collect, and analyze field measurements of sea-breeze processes and convection. The scientific objectives of ERAU C-BREESE were to forecast, observe, and analyze central Florida sea-breeze processes and thunderstorms by combining a DOW with more ...


Secondary Gravity Wave Generation Over New Zealand During The Deepwave Campaign, Katrina Bossert, Christopher G. Kruse, Christopher J. Heale, David C. Fritts, Bifford P. Williams, Jonathan B. Snively, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor Aug 2017

Secondary Gravity Wave Generation Over New Zealand During The Deepwave Campaign, Katrina Bossert, Christopher G. Kruse, Christopher J. Heale, David C. Fritts, Bifford P. Williams, Jonathan B. Snively, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor

Publications

Multiple events during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment measurement program revealed mountain wave (MW) breaking at multiple altitudes over the Southern Island of New Zealand. These events were measured during several research flights from the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V aircraft, utilizing a Rayleigh lidar, an Na lidar, and an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper simultaneously. A flight on 29 June 2014 observed MWs with horizontal wavelengths of ~80–120 km breaking in the stratosphere from ~10 to 50 km altitude. A flight on 13 July 2014 observed a horizontal wavelength of ~200–240 km ...


First Na Lidar Measurements Of Turbulence Heat Flux, Thermal Diffusivity, And Energy Dissipation Rate In The Mesopause Region, Yafang Guo, Alan Z. Liu, Chester S. Gardner Jun 2017

First Na Lidar Measurements Of Turbulence Heat Flux, Thermal Diffusivity, And Energy Dissipation Rate In The Mesopause Region, Yafang Guo, Alan Z. Liu, Chester S. Gardner

Publications

Turbulence is ubiquitous in the mesopause region, where the atmospheric stability is low and wave breaking is frequent. Measuring turbulence is challenging in this region and is traditionally done by rocket soundings and radars. In this work, we show for the first time that the modern Na wind/temperature lidar located at Andes Lidar Observatory in Cerro Pachón, Chile, is able to directly measure the turbulence perturbations in temperature and vertical wind between 85 and 100 km. Using 150 h of lidar observations, we derived the frequency (ω) and vertical wave number (m) spectra for both gravity wave and turbulence ...


Nonlinear Ionospheric Responses To Large-Amplitude Infrasonic-Acoustic Waves Generated By Undersea Earthquakes, M. D. Zettergren, J. B. Snively, A. Komjathy, O. P. Verkhoglyadova Feb 2017

Nonlinear Ionospheric Responses To Large-Amplitude Infrasonic-Acoustic Waves Generated By Undersea Earthquakes, M. D. Zettergren, J. B. Snively, A. Komjathy, O. P. Verkhoglyadova

Publications

Numerical models of ionospheric coupling with the neutral atmosphere are used to investigate perturbations of plasma density, vertically integrated total electron content (TEC), neutral velocity, and neutral temperature associated with large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by the initial ocean surface displacements from strong undersea earthquakes. A simplified source model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake is constructed from estimates of initial ocean surface responses to approximate the vertical motions over realistic spatial and temporal scales. Resulting TEC perturbations from modeling case studies appear consistent with observational data, reproducing pronounced TEC depletions which are shown to be a consequence of the impacts of ...


Numerical Modeling Of A Multiscale Gravity Wave Event And Its Airglow Signatures Over Mount Cook, New Zealand, During The Deepwave Campaign, C. J. Heale, K. Bossert, J. B. Snively, D. C. Fritts, P. -D. Pautet, M. J. Taylor Jan 2017

Numerical Modeling Of A Multiscale Gravity Wave Event And Its Airglow Signatures Over Mount Cook, New Zealand, During The Deepwave Campaign, C. J. Heale, K. Bossert, J. B. Snively, D. C. Fritts, P. -D. Pautet, M. J. Taylor

Publications

A 2-D nonlinear compressible model is used to simulate a large-amplitude, multiscale mountain wave event over Mount Cook, NZ, observed as part of the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) campaign and to investigate its observable signatures in the hydroxyl (OH) layer. The campaign observed the presence of a �x = 200 km mountain wave as part of the 22nd research flight with amplitudes of >20 K in the upper stratosphere that decayed rapidly at airglow heights. Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) showed the presence of small-scale (25–28 km) waves within the warm phase of the large mountain wave. The ...


Anisotropic Fluid Modeling Of Ionospheric Upflow: Effects Of Low‐Altitude Anisotropy And Thermospheric Winds, M. R. Burleigh, M. Zettergren Jan 2017

Anisotropic Fluid Modeling Of Ionospheric Upflow: Effects Of Low‐Altitude Anisotropy And Thermospheric Winds, M. R. Burleigh, M. Zettergren

Publications

A new anisotropic fluid model is developed to describe ionospheric upflow responses to magnetospheric forcing by electric fields and broadband ELF waves at altitudes of 90–2500 km. This model is based on a bi‐Maxwellian ion distribution and solves time‐dependent, nonlinear equations of conservation of mass, momentum, parallel energy, and perpendicular energy for six ion species important to E, F, and topside ionospheric regions. It includes chemical and collisional interactions with the neutral atmosphere, photoionization, and electron impact ionization. This model is used to examine differences between isotropic and anisotropic descriptions of ionospheric upflow driven by DC electric ...


Quantifying Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes With Mesosphere Temperature Mappers And Correlative Instrumentation, David C. Fritts, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Michael J. Taylor, Bifford P. Williams, Hiroyuki Iimura, Tao Yuan, Nicholas J. Mitchell, Gunter Stober Dec 2016

Quantifying Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes With Mesosphere Temperature Mappers And Correlative Instrumentation, David C. Fritts, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Michael J. Taylor, Bifford P. Williams, Hiroyuki Iimura, Tao Yuan, Nicholas J. Mitchell, Gunter Stober

Publications

An Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper and other instruments at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research in Norway (69.3°N) and at Logan and Bear Lake Observatory in Utah (42°N) are used to demonstrate a new method for quantifying gravity wave (GW) pseudo-momentum fluxes accompanying spatially and temporally localized GW packets. The method improves on previous airglow techniques by employing direct characterization of the GW temperature perturbations averaged over the OH airglow layer and correlative wind and temperature measurements to define the intrinsic GW properties with high confidence. These methods are applied to two events, each of ...


Ionospheric Signatures Of Gravity Waves Produced By The 2004 Sumatra And 2011 Tohoku Tsunamis: A Modeling Study, Michael P. Hickey, Yonghui Yu, Wenqing Wang Dec 2016

Ionospheric Signatures Of Gravity Waves Produced By The 2004 Sumatra And 2011 Tohoku Tsunamis: A Modeling Study, Michael P. Hickey, Yonghui Yu, Wenqing Wang

Publications

Ionospheric fluctuations inferred from observations of total electron content have previously been attributed to tsunamis and have confirmed the strong coupling between Earth’s ocean and ionosphere via atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). To further advance our understanding of this wave coupling process we employ a linear full-wave model and a nonlinear time-dependent model to examine the ionospheric response to the AGW perturbations induced by the 2004 Sumatra and the 2011 Tohoku tsunamis. In the 2004 case, our modeling analyses reveal that one component of the propagating AGWs becomes dynamically unstable in the E-region ionosphere at a range exceeding 2000 km ...


Observation And Modeling Of Gravity Wave Propagation Through Reflection And Critical Layers Above Andes Lidar Observatory At Cerro Pachón, Chile, Bing Cao, Christopher J. Heale, Yafang Guo, Alan Z. Liu, Jonathan B. Snively Nov 2016

Observation And Modeling Of Gravity Wave Propagation Through Reflection And Critical Layers Above Andes Lidar Observatory At Cerro Pachón, Chile, Bing Cao, Christopher J. Heale, Yafang Guo, Alan Z. Liu, Jonathan B. Snively

Publications

A complex gravity wave event was observed from 04:30 to 08:10 UTC on 16 January 2015 by a narrow-band sodium lidar and an all-sky airglow imager located at Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) in Cerro Pachón (30.25∘S, 70.73∘W), Chile. The gravity wave packet had a period of 18–35 min and a horizontal wavelength of about 40–50 km. Strong enhancements of the vertical wind perturbation, exceeding10 m s−1, were found at ∼90 km and ∼103 km, consistent with nearly evanescent wave behavior near a reflection layer. A reduction in vertical wavelength was found ...


Dynamics Of Orographic Gravity Waves Observed In The Mesosphere Over Auckland Islands During The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (Deepwave), Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith Sep 2016

Dynamics Of Orographic Gravity Waves Observed In The Mesosphere Over Auckland Islands During The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (Deepwave), Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith

Publications

On 14 July 2014 during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), aircraft remote sensing instruments detected large-amplitude gravity wave oscillations within mesospheric airglow and sodium layers at altitudes z ~ 78–83 km downstream of the Auckland Islands, located ~1000 km south of Christchurch, New Zealand. A high-altitude reanalysis and a three-dimensional Fourier gravity wave model are used to investigate the dynamics of this event. At 0700 UTC when the first observations were made, surface flow across the islands’ terrain generated linear three-dimensional wave fields that propagated rapidly to z ~ 78 km, where intense breaking occurred in a narrow layer ...


On Safety Assessment Of Novel Approach To Robust Uav Flight Control In Gusty Environments, Vladimir Golubev, Petr Kazarin, William Mackunis, Sherry Borener, Derek Hufty Sep 2016

On Safety Assessment Of Novel Approach To Robust Uav Flight Control In Gusty Environments, Vladimir Golubev, Petr Kazarin, William Mackunis, Sherry Borener, Derek Hufty

Publications

In a follow-up to our previous study, the current work examines the gust-induced “cone of uncertainty” in a small unmanned aerial vehicle’s (UAV) flight trajectory addressed in the context of safety assessments of UAV operations. Such analysis is a critical facet of the integration of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS), particularly in terminal airspace. The paper describes a predictive, robust feedback-loop flight control model that is applicable to various classes of UAVs and unsteady flight-path scenarios. The control design presented in this paper extends previous research results by demonstrating asymptotic (zero steady-state error) altitude ...


The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (Deepwave): An Airborne And Ground-Based Exploration Of Gravity Wave Propagation And Effects From Their Sources Throughout The Lower And Middle Atmosphere, David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reineke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Et Al. Et Al. Apr 2016

The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (Deepwave): An Airborne And Ground-Based Exploration Of Gravity Wave Propagation And Effects From Their Sources Throughout The Lower And Middle Atmosphere, David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reineke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Et Al. Et Al.

Publications

The Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) was designed to quantify gravity wave (GW) dynamics and effects from orographic and other sources to regions of dissipation at high altitudes. The core DEEPWAVE field phase took place from May through July 2014 using a comprehensive suite of airborne and ground-based instruments providing measurements from Earth’s surface to ∼100 km. Austral winter was chosen to observe deep GW propagation to high altitudes. DEEPWAVE was based on South Island, New Zealand, to provide access to the New Zealand and Tasmanian “hotspots” of GW activity and additional GW sources over the Southern Ocean ...


Measuring The Seeds Of Ion Outflow: Auroral Sounding Rocket Observations Of Low-Altitude Ion Heating And Circulation, P. A. Fernandes, K. A. Lynch, M. Zettergren, D. L. Hampton, T. A. Bekkeng, Et Al. Feb 2016

Measuring The Seeds Of Ion Outflow: Auroral Sounding Rocket Observations Of Low-Altitude Ion Heating And Circulation, P. A. Fernandes, K. A. Lynch, M. Zettergren, D. L. Hampton, T. A. Bekkeng, Et Al.

Publications

We present an analysis of in situ measurements from the MICA (Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator) nightside auroral sounding rocket with comparisons to a multifluid ionospheric model. MICA made observations at altitudes below 325 km of the thermal ion kinetic particle distributions that are the origins of ion outflow. Late flight, in the vicinity of an auroral arc, we observe frictional processes controlling the ion temperature. Upflow of these cold ions is attributed to either the ambipolar field resulting from the heated electrons or possibly to ion-neutral collisions. We measure convection away from the arc (poleward) and downflows of ...


Evidence Of Dispersion And Refraction Of A Spectrally Broad Gravity Wave Packet In The Mesopause Region Observed By The Na Lidar And Mesospheric Temperature Mapper Above Logan, Utah, Tao Yuan, Christopher J. Heale, Jonathan B. Snively, Xuguang Cai, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, C. Fish, Yucheng Zhao, Michael J. Taylor, William R. Pendleton Jr., V. Wickwar, Nicholas John Mitchell Jan 2016

Evidence Of Dispersion And Refraction Of A Spectrally Broad Gravity Wave Packet In The Mesopause Region Observed By The Na Lidar And Mesospheric Temperature Mapper Above Logan, Utah, Tao Yuan, Christopher J. Heale, Jonathan B. Snively, Xuguang Cai, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, C. Fish, Yucheng Zhao, Michael J. Taylor, William R. Pendleton Jr., V. Wickwar, Nicholas John Mitchell

Publications

Gravity wave packets excited by a source of finite duration and size possess a broad frequency and wave number spectrum and thus span a range of temporal and spatial scales. Observing at a single location relatively close to the source, the wave components with higher frequency and larger vertical wavelength dominate at earlier times and at higher altitudes, while the lower frequency components, with shorter vertical wavelength, dominate during the latter part of the propagation. Utilizing observations from the Na lidar at Utah State University and the nearby Mesospheric Temperature Mapper at Bear Lake Observatory (41.9°N, 111.4 ...


Evidence Of Dispersion And Refraction Of A Spectrally Broad Gravity Wave Packet In The Mesopause Region Observed By The Na Lidar And Mesospheric Temperature Mapper Above Logan, Utah, T. Yuan, C. J. Heale, J. B. Snively, X. Cai, P.- D. Pautet, C. Fish, Y. Zhao, M. J. Taylor, W. R. Pendleton Jr., V. Wickwar, N. J. Mitchell Jan 2016

Evidence Of Dispersion And Refraction Of A Spectrally Broad Gravity Wave Packet In The Mesopause Region Observed By The Na Lidar And Mesospheric Temperature Mapper Above Logan, Utah, T. Yuan, C. J. Heale, J. B. Snively, X. Cai, P.- D. Pautet, C. Fish, Y. Zhao, M. J. Taylor, W. R. Pendleton Jr., V. Wickwar, N. J. Mitchell

Publications

"Gravity wave packets excited by a source of finite duration and size possess a broad frequency and wave number spectrum and thus span a range of temporal and spatial scales. Observing at a single location relatively close to the source, the wave components with higher frequency and larger vertical wavelength dominate at earlier times and at higher altitudes, while the lower frequency components, with shorter vertical wavelength, dominate during the latter part of the propagation. Utilizing observations fromthe Na lidar at Utah State University and the nearby Mesospheric Temperature Mapper at Bear Lake Observatory (41.9°N, 111.4°W ...


Chemical Transport Of Neutral Atmospheric Constituents By Waves And Turbulence: Theory And Observations, Chester S. Gardner, Alan Liu Jan 2016

Chemical Transport Of Neutral Atmospheric Constituents By Waves And Turbulence: Theory And Observations, Chester S. Gardner, Alan Liu

Publications

Vertical chemical transport occurs when the density fluctuations of a species, caused by perturbations of its chemistry, are strongly correlated with the vertical wind fluctuations. Chemical transport can exceed dynamical and eddy transport of chemically active species. Theoretical expressions are derived for the chemical fluxes and transport velocities and used to characterize the vertical transport of mesospheric O3 and meteoric Na and Fe between 85 and 100 km. Chemical transport is dependent on the intrinsic frequency spectrum of the temperature fluctuations and on the chemical cutoff periods of the species. For O3 only high-frequency fluctuations contribute to chemical transport because ...


First Measurement Of Horizontal Wind And Temperature In The Lower Thermosphere (105–140 Km) With A Na Lidar At Andes Lidar Observatory, Alan Liu, Yafang Guo, Fabia A. Vargas, Gary Swenson, Jan 2016

First Measurement Of Horizontal Wind And Temperature In The Lower Thermosphere (105–140 Km) With A Na Lidar At Andes Lidar Observatory, Alan Liu, Yafang Guo, Fabia A. Vargas, Gary Swenson,

Publications

We report the first measurement of nighttime atmospheric temperature and horizontal wind profiles in the lower thermosphere up to 140 km with the Na lidar at Andes Lidar Observatory in Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.25°S, 70.74°W), when enhanced thermospheric Na was observed. Temperature and horizontal wind were derived up to 140 km using various resolutions, with the lowest resolution of about 2.7 hr and 15 km above 130 km. Thus, the measurements span 60 km in vertical, more than double the traditional 25 km. On the night of 17 April 2015, the horizontal wind magnitude in ...


Southern Hemisphere Summer Mesopause Responses To El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Tao Li, Natalia Calvo, Jia Yue, James Russell Iii, Alan Liu Jan 2016

Southern Hemisphere Summer Mesopause Responses To El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Tao Li, Natalia Calvo, Jia Yue, James Russell Iii, Alan Liu

Publications

In the Southern Hemisphere (SH) polar region, satellite observations reveal a significant uppermesosphere cooling and a lower-thermosphere warming during warm ENSO events in December. An opposite pattern is observed in the tropical mesopause region. The observed upper-mesosphere cooling agrees with a climate model simulation. Analysis of the simulation suggests that enhanced planetary wave (PW) dissipation in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) high-latitude stratosphere during El Niño strengthens the Brewer–Dobson circulation and cools the equatorial stratosphere. This increases the magnitude of the SH stratosphere meridional temperature gradient and thus causes the anomalous stratospheric easterly zonal wind and early breakdown of the ...


Intermittency Of Gravity Wave Momentum Flux In The Mesopause Region Observed With An All-Sky Airglow Imager, Bing Cao, Alan Z. Liu Jan 2016

Intermittency Of Gravity Wave Momentum Flux In The Mesopause Region Observed With An All-Sky Airglow Imager, Bing Cao, Alan Z. Liu

Publications

The intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux (MF) near the OH airglow layer (∼87 km) in the mesopause region is investigated for the first time using observation of all-sky airglow imager over Maui, Hawaii (20.7∘N, 156.3∘W), and Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.3∘S, 70.7∘W). At both sites, the probability density function (pdf) of gravity wave MF shows two distinct distributions depending on the magnitude of the MF. For MF smaller (larger) than ∼16 m2 s−2 (0.091 mPa), the pdf follows a lognormal (power law) distribution. The intermittency represented by the Bernoulli proxy ...


Evidence Of The Excitation Of A Ring-Like Gravity Wave In The Mesosphere Over The Andes Lidar Observatory, Fabio Vargas, Gary Swenson,, Alan Liu, Dominique Pautet Jan 2016

Evidence Of The Excitation Of A Ring-Like Gravity Wave In The Mesosphere Over The Andes Lidar Observatory, Fabio Vargas, Gary Swenson,, Alan Liu, Dominique Pautet

Publications

On 23 March 2012, our all-sky imager recorded a concentric, ring-like gravity wave pattern. The wave arose within the area covered by images of both OH and O(1S) nightglow emissions taken at the Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO), Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°W). We have estimated the observed and intrinsic parameters of the event and located the wave source within the lower mesosphere altitude range using a reverse ray tracing method. By the analysis of GOES and LIS satellite images, we have not found evidence of neither convective nor lightning activity nearby ALO, indicating that the source ...


Dynamics Of Density Cavities Generated By Frictional Heating: Formation, Distortion, And Instability, M. D. Zettergren, J. L. Semeter, H. Dahlgren Dec 2015

Dynamics Of Density Cavities Generated By Frictional Heating: Formation, Distortion, And Instability, M. D. Zettergren, J. L. Semeter, H. Dahlgren

Publications

A simulation study of the generation and evolution of mesoscale density cavities in the polar ionosphere is conducted using a time-dependent, nonlinear, quasi-electrostatic model. The model demonstrates that density cavities, generated by frictional heating, can form in as little as 90 s due to strong electric fields of ∼120 mV/m, which are sometimes observed near auroral zone and polar cap arcs. Asymmetric density cavity features and strong plasma density gradients perpendicular to the geomagnetic field are naturally generated as a consequence of the strong convection and finite extent of the auroral feature. The walls of the auroral density cavities ...