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## Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Nonresonant Two-Photon Transitions In Length And Velocity Gauges, Ulrich D. Jentschura

#### Nonresonant Two-Photon Transitions In Length And Velocity Gauges, Ulrich D. Jentschura

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We reexamine the invariance of two-photon transition matrix elements and corresponding two-photon Rabi frequencies under the "gauge" transformation from the length to the velocity gauge. It is shown that gauge invariance, in the most general sense, only holds at exact resonance, for both one-color as well as two-color absorption. The arguments leading to this conclusion are supported by analytic calculations which express the matrix elements in terms of hypergeometric functions, and ramified by a "master identity" which is fulfilled by off-diagonal matrix elements of the Schrödinger propagator under the transformation from the velocity to the length gauge. The study of ...

Benchmarking Accurate Spectral Phase Retrieval Of Single Attosecond Pulses, Hui Wei, Anh-Thu Le, Toru Morishita, Chao Yu, C. D. Lin

#### Benchmarking Accurate Spectral Phase Retrieval Of Single Attosecond Pulses, Hui Wei, Anh-Thu Le, Toru Morishita, Chao Yu, C. D. Lin

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

A single extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse or pulse train in the time domain is fully characterized if its spectral amplitude and phase are both determined. The spectral amplitude can be easily obtained from photoionization of simple atoms where accurate photoionization cross sections have been measured from, e.g., synchrotron radiations. To determine the spectral phase, at present the standard method is to carry out XUV photoionization in the presence of a dressing infrared (IR) laser. In this work, we examine the accuracy of current phase retrieval methods (PROOF and iPROOF) where the dressing IR is relatively weak such that photoelectron ...

Gravitational Correction To Vacuum Polarization, Ulrich D. Jentschura

#### Gravitational Correction To Vacuum Polarization, Ulrich D. Jentschura

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We consider the gravitational correction to (electronic) vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational background field. The Dirac propagators for the virtual fermions are modified to include the leading gravitational correction (potential term) which corresponds to a coordinate-dependent fermion mass. The mass term is assumed to be uniform over a length scale commensurate with the virtual electron-positron pair. The on-mass shell renormalization condition ensures that the gravitational correction vanishes on the mass shell of the photon, i.e., the speed of light is unaffected by the quantum field theoretical loop correction, in full agreement with the equivalence principle. Nontrivial ...

Electron- And Photon-Impact Ionization Of Furfural, D. B. Jones, E. Ali, K. L. Nixon, P. Limão-Vieira, M.-J. Hubin-Franskin, J. Delwiche, C. G. Ning, J. Colgan, Andrew J. Murray, Don H. Madison, M .J. Brunger

#### Electron- And Photon-Impact Ionization Of Furfural, D. B. Jones, E. Ali, K. L. Nixon, P. Limão-Vieira, M.-J. Hubin-Franskin, J. Delwiche, C. G. Ning, J. Colgan, Andrew J. Murray, Don H. Madison, M .J. Brunger

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

The He(i) photoelectron spectrum of furfural has been investigated, with its vibrational structure assigned for the first time. The ground and excited ionized states are assigned through *ab initio* calculations performed at the outer-valence Green's function level. Triple differential cross sections (TDCSs) for electron-impact ionization of the unresolved combination of the 4a" + 21a' highest and next-highest occupied molecular orbitals have also been obtained. Experimental TDCSs are recorded in a combination of asymmetric coplanar and doubly symmetric coplanar kinematics. The experimental TDCSs are compared to theoretical calculations, obtained within a molecular 3-body distorted wave framework that employed either an ...

Self-Imaging Of Molecules From Diffraction Spectra By Laser-Induced Rescattering Electrons, Junliang Xu, Zhangjin Chen, Anh-Thu Le, C. D. Lin

#### Self-Imaging Of Molecules From Diffraction Spectra By Laser-Induced Rescattering Electrons, Junliang Xu, Zhangjin Chen, Anh-Thu Le, C. D. Lin

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We study high-energy angle-resolved photoelectron spectra of molecules in strong fields. In an oscillating laser electric field, electrons released earlier in the pulse may return to recollide with the target ion, in a process similar to scattering by laboratory prepared electrons. If midinfrared lasers are used, we show that the images generated by the returning electrons are similar to images observed in typical gas-phase electron diffraction (GED). These spectra can be used to retrieve the positions of atoms in a molecule as in GED. Since infrared laser pulses of durations of a few femtoseconds are already available today, the study ...

Investigating Two-Photon Double Ionization Of D₂ By Xuv-Pump-Xuv-Probe Experiments, Yuhai Jiang, Artem Rudenko, Jhon Fredy Perez-Torres, Oliver Herrwerth, Lutz M. Foucar, Moritz Kurka, Kai Uwe Kuhnel, M. Toppin, Etienne Plesiat, Felipe Morales, Fernando Javier Martin, Matthias Lezius, Matthias F. Kling, Till Jahnke, Reinhard Dorner, Jose Luis Sanz-Vicario, Jeroen Van Tilborg, Ali Belkacem, Michael Schulz, Kiyoshi Ueda, Stefan Dusterer, Rolf Treusch, Claus Dieter Schroter, Robert Moshammer, Joachim Hermann Ullrich

#### Investigating Two-Photon Double Ionization Of D₂ By Xuv-Pump-Xuv-Probe Experiments, Yuhai Jiang, Artem Rudenko, Jhon Fredy Perez-Torres, Oliver Herrwerth, Lutz M. Foucar, Moritz Kurka, Kai Uwe Kuhnel, M. Toppin, Etienne Plesiat, Felipe Morales, Fernando Javier Martin, Matthias Lezius, Matthias F. Kling, Till Jahnke, Reinhard Dorner, Jose Luis Sanz-Vicario, Jeroen Van Tilborg, Ali Belkacem, Michael Schulz, Kiyoshi Ueda, Stefan Dusterer, Rolf Treusch, Claus Dieter Schroter, Robert Moshammer, Joachim Hermann Ullrich

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We used a split-mirror setup attached to a reaction microscope at the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) to perform an XUV-pump-XUV-probe experiment by tracing the ultrafast nuclear wave-packet motion in the D2 ^{+}(1sσg) with <10 fs time resolution. Comparison with time-dependent calculations shows excellent agreement with the measured vibrational period of 22±4 fs in D2^{+}, points to the importance of accurately knowing the internuclear distance-dependent ionization probability, and paves the way to control sequential and nonsequential two-photon double-ionization contributions.

Theoretical Study Of Photoelectron Angular Distributions In Single-Photon Ionization Of Aligned N₂ And Co₂, Cheng Jin, Anh-Thu Le, Song-Feng Zhao, R. R. Lucchese, C. D. Lin

#### Theoretical Study Of Photoelectron Angular Distributions In Single-Photon Ionization Of Aligned N₂ And Co₂, Cheng Jin, Anh-Thu Le, Song-Feng Zhao, R. R. Lucchese, C. D. Lin

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We calculate photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) resulting from single-photon (43 eV) ionization of molecules that have been transiently aligned with a short laser pulse. The total ionization cross sections of N₂ and CO₂ vs the time delay between the aligning laser pulse and the soft x-ray photon are calculated and compared to experimental results reported by I. Thomann et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 9382 (2008)]. We present the PADs from these aligned molecules in the laboratory frame which can be compared directly with future experiments from aligned N₂ and CO₂. The alignment dependence of single-photon ionization, multiphoton ionization ...

Correlated Two-Photon Emission By Transitions Of Dirac-Volkov States In Intense Laser Fields: Qed Predictions, Erik Lotstedt, Ulrich D. Jentschura

#### Correlated Two-Photon Emission By Transitions Of Dirac-Volkov States In Intense Laser Fields: Qed Predictions, Erik Lotstedt, Ulrich D. Jentschura

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

In an intense laser field, an electron may decay by emitting a pair of photons. The two photons emitted during the process, which can be interpreted as a laser-dressed double Compton scattering, remain entangled in a quantifiable way: namely, the so-called concurrence of the photon polarizations gives a gauge-invariant measure of the correlation of the hard gamma rays. We calculate the differential rate and concurrence for a backscattering setup of the electron and photon beam, employing Volkov states and propagators for the electron lines, thus accounting nonperturbatively for the electron-laser interaction. The nonperturbative results are shown to differ significantly compared ...

Relativistic (Zα)2 Corrections And Leading Quantum Electrodynamic Corrections To The Two-Photon Decay Rate Of Ionic States, Benedikt J. Wundt, Ulrich D. Jentschura

#### Relativistic (Zα)2 Corrections And Leading Quantum Electrodynamic Corrections To The Two-Photon Decay Rate Of Ionic States, Benedikt J. Wundt, Ulrich D. Jentschura

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We calculate the relativistic corrections of relative order (Zα) 2 to the two-photon decay rate of higher excited S and D states in ionic atomic systems, and we also evaluate the leading radiative corrections of relative order α (Zα) 2 ln [(Zα) -2]. We thus complete the theory of the two-photon decay rates up to relative order α3 ln (α). An approach inspired by nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics is used. We find that the corrections of relative order (Zα) 2 to the two-photon decay are given by the Zitterbewegung, by the spin-orbit coupling and by relativistic corrections to the electron mass ...

Quantitative Rescattering Theory For Laser-Induced High-Energy Plateau Photoelectron Spectra, Zhangjin Chen, Anh-Thu Le, Toru Morishita, C. D. Lin

#### Quantitative Rescattering Theory For Laser-Induced High-Energy Plateau Photoelectron Spectra, Zhangjin Chen, Anh-Thu Le, Toru Morishita, C. D. Lin

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

A comprehensive quantitative rescattering (QRS) theory for describing the production of high-energy photoelectrons generated by intense laser pulses is presented. According to the QRS, the momentum distributions of these electrons can be expressed as the product of a returning electron wave packet with the elastic differential cross sections (DCS) between free electrons with the target ion. We show that the returning electron wave packets are determined mostly by the lasers only and can be obtained from the strong field approximation. The validity of the QRS model is carefully examined by checking against accurate results from the solution of the time-dependent ...

Accurate Retrieval Of Target Structures And Laser Parameters Of Few-Cycle Pulses From Photoelectron Momentum Spectra, Samuel Micheau, Zhangjin Chen, Anh-Thu Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, C. D. Lin

#### Accurate Retrieval Of Target Structures And Laser Parameters Of Few-Cycle Pulses From Photoelectron Momentum Spectra, Samuel Micheau, Zhangjin Chen, Anh-Thu Le, J. Rauschenberger, M. F. Kling, C. D. Lin

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We illustrate a new method of analyzing three-dimensional momentum images of high-energy photoelectrons generated by intense phase-stabilized few-cycle laser pulses. Using photoelectron momentum spectra that were obtained by velocity-map imaging of above-threshold ionization of xenon and argon targets, we show that the absolute carrier-envelope phase, the laser peak intensity, and pulse duration can be accurately determined simultaneously (with an error of a few percent). We also show that the target structure, in the form of electron-target ion elastic differential cross sections, can be retrieved over a range of energies. The latter offers the promise of using laser-generated electron spectra for ...

Coulomb-Field-Induced Conversion Of A High-Energy Photon Into A Pair Assisted By A Counterpropagating Laser Beam, Erik Lotstedt, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Christoph H. Keitel

#### Coulomb-Field-Induced Conversion Of A High-Energy Photon Into A Pair Assisted By A Counterpropagating Laser Beam, Erik Lotstedt, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Christoph H. Keitel

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

The laser-induced modification of a fundamental process of quantum electrodynamics, the conversion of a high-energy gamma photon in the Coulomb field of a nucleus into an electron-positron pair, is studied theoretically. Although the employed formalism allows for the general case where the gamma photon and laser photons cross at an arbitrary angle, we here focus on a theoretically interesting and numerically challenging setup, where the laser beam and gamma photon counterpropagate and impinge on a nucleus at rest. For a peak laser field smaller than the critical Schwinger field and gamma photon energy larger than the field-free threshold, the total ...

Laser Channeling Of Bethe-Heitler Pairs, Erik Lotstedt, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Christoph H. Keitel

#### Laser Channeling Of Bethe-Heitler Pairs, Erik Lotstedt, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Christoph H. Keitel

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Electron-positron pair creation is analyzed for an arrangement involving three external fields: a high-frequency gamma photon, the Coulomb field of a nucleus, and a strong laser wave. The frequency of the incoming gamma photon is assumed to be larger than the threshold for pair production in the absence of a laser, and the peak electric field of the laser is assumed to be much weaker than Schwinger's critical field. The total number of pairs produced is found to be essentially unchanged by the laser field, while the differential cross section is drastically modified. We show that the laser can ...

Potential For Ultrafast Dynamic Chemical Imaging With Few-Cycle Infrared Lasers, Toru Morishita, Anh-Thu Le, Zhangjin Chen, C. D. Lin

#### Potential For Ultrafast Dynamic Chemical Imaging With Few-Cycle Infrared Lasers, Toru Morishita, Anh-Thu Le, Zhangjin Chen, C. D. Lin

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We studied the photoelectron spectra generated by an intense few cycle infrared laser pulse. By focusing on the angular distributions of the *back* rescattered high energy photoelectrons, we show that accurate differential elastic scattering cross-sections of the target ion by *free* electrons can be extracted. Since the incident direction and the energy of the *free* electrons can be easily changed by manipulating the laser's polarization, intensity and wavelength, these extracted elastic scattering cross-sections, in combination with more advanced inversion algorithms, may be used to reconstruct the effective single-scattering potential of the molecule, thus opening up the possibility of using ...

Bremsstrahlung In Α Decay Reexamined, H. Boie, Heiko Scheit, Ulrich D. Jentschura, F. Kock, M. Lauer, A. I. Milstein, Ivan S. Terekhov, Dirk Schwalm

#### Bremsstrahlung In Α Decay Reexamined, H. Boie, Heiko Scheit, Ulrich D. Jentschura, F. Kock, M. Lauer, A. I. Milstein, Ivan S. Terekhov, Dirk Schwalm

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the α decay of ^{210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of ~500keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the α particle and the emitted photon.

Photon Angular Distribution And Nuclear-State Alignment In Nuclear Excitation By Electron Capture, Adriana Palffy, Zoltan Harman, Andrey S. Surzhykov, Ulrich D. Jentschura

#### Photon Angular Distribution And Nuclear-State Alignment In Nuclear Excitation By Electron Capture, Adriana Palffy, Zoltan Harman, Andrey S. Surzhykov, Ulrich D. Jentschura

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

The alignment of nuclear states resonantly formed in nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC) is studied by means of a density matrix technique. The vibrational excitations of the nucleus are described by a collective model and the electrons are treated in a relativistic framework. Formulas for the angular distribution of photons emitted in the nuclear relaxation are derived. We present numerical results for alignment parameters and photon angular distributions for a number of heavy elements in the case of E2 nuclear transitions. Our results are intended to help future experimental attempts to discern NEEC from radiative recombination, which is the ...

Analysis Of Two-Dimensional Photoelectron Momentum Spectra And The Effect Of The Long-Range Coulomb Potential In Single Ionization Of Atoms By Intense Lasers, Zhangjin Chen, Toru Morishita, Anh-Thu Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, C. D. Lin

#### Analysis Of Two-Dimensional Photoelectron Momentum Spectra And The Effect Of The Long-Range Coulomb Potential In Single Ionization Of Atoms By Intense Lasers, Zhangjin Chen, Toru Morishita, Anh-Thu Le, M. Wickenhauser, X. M. Tong, C. D. Lin

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Two-dimensional (2D) electron momentum distributions and energy spectra for multiphoton ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses, calculated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) for different wavelengths and intensities, are compared to those predicted by the strong-field approximation (SFA). It is shown that the momentum spectra at low energies between the TDSE and SFA are quite different and the differences arise largely from the absence of a long-range Coulomb interaction in the SFA. We further found that the low-energy 2D momentum spectra from the TDSE exhibit ubiquitous fanlike features where the number of stripes is due to a single ...

Two-Photon Excitation Dynamics In Bound Two-Body Coulomb Systems Including Ac Stark Shift And Ionization, Martin K. Haas, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Christoph H. Keitel, Nikolai N. Kolachevsky, Maximilian Herrmann, Peter Fendel, Marc P. Fischer, Th H. Udem, Ronald Holzwarth, Theodor Wolfgang Hansch, Marlan O. Scully, Girish S. Agarwal

#### Two-Photon Excitation Dynamics In Bound Two-Body Coulomb Systems Including Ac Stark Shift And Ionization, Martin K. Haas, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Christoph H. Keitel, Nikolai N. Kolachevsky, Maximilian Herrmann, Peter Fendel, Marc P. Fischer, Th H. Udem, Ronald Holzwarth, Theodor Wolfgang Hansch, Marlan O. Scully, Girish S. Agarwal

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

One of the dominant systematic effects that shift resonance lines in high-precision measurements of two-photon transitions is the dynamic (ac) Stark shift. For suitable laser frequencies, the ac Stark shift acquires an imaginary part which corresponds to the rate of resonant one-photon ionization of electrons into a continuum state. At the current level of spectroscopic accuracy, the underlying time-dependent quantum dynamics governing the atomic two-photon excitation process must be well understood, and related considerations are the subject of the present paper. In order to illustrate the basic mechanisms in the transient regime, we investigate an analytically solvable model scenario for ...

Photoionization Broadening Of The 1s-2s Transition In A Beam Of Atomic Hydrogen, Nikolai N. Kolachevsky, Martin K. Haas, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Maximilian Herrmann, Peter Fendel, Marc P. Fischer, Ronald Holzwarth, Th H. Udem, Christoph H. Keitel, Theodor Wolfgang Hansch

#### Photoionization Broadening Of The 1s-2s Transition In A Beam Of Atomic Hydrogen, Nikolai N. Kolachevsky, Martin K. Haas, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Maximilian Herrmann, Peter Fendel, Marc P. Fischer, Ronald Holzwarth, Th H. Udem, Christoph H. Keitel, Theodor Wolfgang Hansch

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We consider the excitation dynamics of the two-photon 1S - 2S transition in a beam of atomic hydrogen by 243 nm laser radiation. Specifically, we study the impact of ionization damping on the transition line shape, caused by the possibility of ionization of the 2S level by the same laser field. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we calculate the line shape of the 1S - 2S transition for the experimental geometry used in the two latest absolute frequency measurements [M. Niering, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5496 (2000) and M. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 230802 (2004)]. The calculated line shift and linewidth ...

Self-Energy Values For P States In Hydrogen And Low-Z Hydrogenlike Ions, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr

#### Self-Energy Values For P States In Hydrogen And Low-Z Hydrogenlike Ions, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We describe a nonperturbative (in Z α ) numerical evaluation of the one-photon electron self-energy for 3P_{1/2} , 3P_{3/2} , 4P_{1/2}, and 4P_{3/2} states in hydrogenlike atomic systems with charge numbers Z = 1 to 5. The numerical results are found to be in agreement with known terms in the expansion of the self-energy in powers of Z α and lead to improved theoretical predictions for the self-energy shift of these states.

Two-Loop Bethe Logarithms For Higher Excited S Levels, Ulrich D. Jentschura

#### Two-Loop Bethe Logarithms For Higher Excited S Levels, Ulrich D. Jentschura

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Processes mediated by two virtual low-energy photons contribute quite significantly to the energy of hydrogenic S states. The corresponding level shift is of the order of ( α / π )^{2} ( Z α )^{6} m_{e}c^{2} and may be ascribed to a two-loop generalization of the Bethe logarithm. For 1 S and 2 S states, the correction has recently been evaluated by Pachucki and Jentschura [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 113005 (2003)]. Here, we generalize the approach to higher excited S states, which in contrast to the 1 S and 2 S states can decay to P states via the electric-dipole ...

Electron Self-Energy For Higher Excited S Levels, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr

#### Electron Self-Energy For Higher Excited S Levels, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

A nonperturbative numerical evaluation of the one-photon electron self-energy for the 3S and 4S states with charge numbers Z=1 to 5 is described. The numerical results are in agreement with known terms in the expansion of the self-energy in powers of Zα.

Self-Energy Correction To The Two-Photon Decay Width In Hydrogenlike Atoms, Ulrich D. Jentschura

#### Self-Energy Correction To The Two-Photon Decay Width In Hydrogenlike Atoms, Ulrich D. Jentschura

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We investigate the guage invariance of the leading logarithmic radiative correction to the two-photon decay width in hydrogenlike atoms, was investigated. The effective treatment of the correction using a Lamb-shift led to the equivalent results in both the length and velocity gages. The relevant radiative corrections were found to be related to the energies that entered into the propagator denominators, to the Hamiltonian, to the wave functions, and to the energy conservation condition, that holds between two photons. The results show that the dominant radiative correction to the 2S two-photon decay width is about -2.020 536(α/π)(Zα ...

Effect Of Kerr Nonlinearity On Defect Lasing Modes In Weakly Disordered Photonic Crystals, Boyang Liu, Alexey Yamilov, Hui Cao

#### Effect Of Kerr Nonlinearity On Defect Lasing Modes In Weakly Disordered Photonic Crystals, Boyang Liu, Alexey Yamilov, Hui Cao

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

We studied the effect of Kerr nonlinearity on lasing in defect modes of weakly disordered photonic crystals. Our time-independent calculation based on self-consistent nonlinear transfer matrix method shows that Kerr nonlinearity modifies both frequencies and quality factors of defect modes. We also used a time-dependent algorithm to investigate the dynamic nonlinear effect. Under continuous pumping, the spatial sizes and intensities of defect lasing modes are changed by Kerr nonlinearity. Such changes are sensitive to the nonlinear response time.

Electron Self-Energy For The K And L Shells At Low Nuclear Charge, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr, Gerhard Soff

#### Electron Self-Energy For The K And L Shells At Low Nuclear Charge, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr, Gerhard Soff

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

A nonperturbative numerical evaluation of the one-photon electron self-energy for the K- and L-shell states of hydrogenlike ions with nuclear charge numbers Z =1 to 5 is described. Our calculation for the 1S_{1/2} state has a numerical uncertainty of 0.8 Hz in atomic hydrogen, and for the L-shell states (2S_{1/2} , 2P_{1/2} , and 2P_{3/2}) the numerical uncertainty is 1.0 Hz. The method of evaluation for the ground state and for the excited states is described in detail. The numerical results are compared to results based on known terms in the expansion ...

Electric Field Controlled, Pulsed Autoionization In Two Electron Wave Packets, J. Greg Story, Heider N. Ereifej

#### Electric Field Controlled, Pulsed Autoionization In Two Electron Wave Packets, J. Greg Story, Heider N. Ereifej

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

In this paper, control of the evolution of a two electron wave packet through the application of a static electric field is demonstrated. Specifically, application of a small electric field is used to produce pulsed autoionization events, the timing of which can be controlled on a picosecond time scale. The technique is demonstrated by exciting calcium atoms using a short-pulsed laser to the 4p_{3/2}19d doubly excited state, which is energy degenerate with the 4p_{1/2}nk stark states. Evolution of the resultant wave packet is monitored through the application of a second short laser pulse, which ...

Short-Pulse Laser-Induced Stabilization Of Autoionizing States, Heider N. Ereifej, J. Greg Story

#### Short-Pulse Laser-Induced Stabilization Of Autoionizing States, Heider N. Ereifej, J. Greg Story

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

Atoms in doubly excited states above the first ionization limit can decay via autoionization in which an electron is emitted leaving an ion, or by photoemission which leaves the atom in a singly excited state. In this paper, it is demonstrated that interaction between the atoms and a laser pulse that is short compared to the autoionization lifetime can lead to large enhancement of the photoemission process by stimulating the atoms to emit a photon. Since the resultant singly excited atoms do not autoionize, this process can be viewed as an enhancement of the stabilization of the doubly excited atoms ...

Landau-Zener Treatment Of Intensity-Tuned Multiphoton Resonances Of Potassium, J. Greg Story, D. I. Duncan, Thomas F. Gallagher

#### Landau-Zener Treatment Of Intensity-Tuned Multiphoton Resonances Of Potassium, J. Greg Story, D. I. Duncan, Thomas F. Gallagher

*Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works*

When exposed to intense light of ~580 nm, the ground state of K shifts up in energy, passing through two photon resonances with Rydberg states, and finally crossing the two-photon ionization limit. We have used laser pulses of varying duration to study the nature of the population transfer from the ground state to the excited state due to the intensity-tuned resonances encountered during the rising edge of the pulse. A dynamic Floquet approach in which the resonances are treated as avoided crossings of the Floquet energy levels is used to model the population transfer and gives excellent agreement with the ...