Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Near-Field Measurements On Contrail Properties From Fuels With Different Sulfur Content, Andreas Petzold, Reinhold Busen, Franz Peter Schroder, Robert Baumann, Markus Kuhn, Johan Strom, Donald E. Hagen, Philip D. Whitefield, Darrel G. Baumgardner, Frank Arnold, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Schumann Dec 1997

Near-Field Measurements On Contrail Properties From Fuels With Different Sulfur Content, Andreas Petzold, Reinhold Busen, Franz Peter Schroder, Robert Baumann, Markus Kuhn, Johan Strom, Donald E. Hagen, Philip D. Whitefield, Darrel G. Baumgardner, Frank Arnold, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Schumann

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Microphysical properties of jet exhaust aerosol and contrails were studied in the near field of the emitting aircraft for different fuel sulfur contents. Measurements were performed behind two different aircraft (ATTAS test aircraft of type VFW 614 and Airbus A310-300) using fuels with sulfur contents of 6 ppm and 2700 ppm, respectively. At closest approach (plume age < 1 s), the total number concentrations exceeded the measuring range of the condensation particle counter, i.e., N > 105 cm-3. The concentration of the dry accumulation mode aerosol, i.e., predominantly soot particles, was not affected by the fuel sulfur content. At a plume age of 10 s, an increase in total number concentration (Dp > 0.01 μm) by ...


Bound Μ⁺Μˉ System, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Gerhard Soff, Vladimir G. Ivanov, Savely Karshenboim Dec 1997

Bound Μ⁺Μˉ System, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Gerhard Soff, Vladimir G. Ivanov, Savely Karshenboim

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We consider the hyperfine structure, the atomic spectrum, and the decay channels of the bound μ+μ- system (dimuonium). The annihilation lifetimes of low-lying atomic states of the system lie in the 10-12 s range. The decay rates could be measured by detection of the decay products (high-energy photons or electron-positron pairs). The hyperfine-structure splitting of the dimuonic system and its decay rate are influenced by electronic vacuum polarization effects in the far timelike asymptotic region. This constitutes a previously unexplored kinematic regime. We evaluate next-to-leading-order radiative corrections to the decay rate of low-lying atomic states. We also obtain ...


Nonlinear Response Theory: Transport Coefficients For Driving Fields Of Arbitrary Magnitude, Paul Ernest Parris, Marek Kus, David H. Dunlap, Vasudev M. Kenkre Nov 1997

Nonlinear Response Theory: Transport Coefficients For Driving Fields Of Arbitrary Magnitude, Paul Ernest Parris, Marek Kus, David H. Dunlap, Vasudev M. Kenkre

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

A theory of nonlinear response is developed for driving fields of arbitrary magnitude. Exact and usable expressions are provided for electrical and thermal mobility, and related transport coefficients, in terms of correlation functions of the system. A generalization into the nonlinear domain is provided of the Wiedemann-Franz law connecting electrical and thermal response and of the Einstein relation relating the diffusion constant and the mobility.


Quantum Coulomb Glass Within A Hartree-Fock Approximation, Frank Epperlein, Michael Schreiber, Thomas Vojta Sep 1997

Quantum Coulomb Glass Within A Hartree-Fock Approximation, Frank Epperlein, Michael Schreiber, Thomas Vojta

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We study the influence of electron-electron interactions on the electronic properties of disordered materials. In particular, we consider the insulating side of a metal-insulator transition where screening breaks down and the electron-electron interaction remains long ranged. The investigations are based on the quantum Coulomb glass, a generalization of the classical Coulomb glass model of disordered insulators. The quantum Coulomb glass is studied by decoupling the Coulomb interaction by means of a Hartree-Fock approximation and exactly diagonalizing the remaining localization problem. We investigate the behavior of the Coulomb gap in the density of states when approaching the metal-insulator transition and study ...


Lamb Shift Of 3p And 4p States And The Determination Of Α, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Gerhard Soff, Peter J. Mohr Sep 1997

Lamb Shift Of 3p And 4p States And The Determination Of Α, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Gerhard Soff, Peter J. Mohr

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The fine-structure interval of P states in hydrogenlike systems can be determined theoretically with high precision, because the energy levels of P states are only slightly influenced by the structure of the nucleus. Therefore a measurement of the fine structure may serve as an excellent test of QED in bound systems, or alternatively as a means of determining the fine-structure constant a with very high precision. In this paper an improved analytic calculation of higher-order binding corrections to the one-loop self-energy of 3P and 4P states in hydrogenlike systems with a low nuclear charge number Z is presented. The method ...


Small Angle Neutron Scattering From Nanodroplet Aerosols, Barbara Ellen Wyslouzil, Janice L. Cheung, Gerald Wilemski, Reinhard Strey Jul 1997

Small Angle Neutron Scattering From Nanodroplet Aerosols, Barbara Ellen Wyslouzil, Janice L. Cheung, Gerald Wilemski, Reinhard Strey

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We report the first measurements of small angle neutron scattering from an aerosol. The aerosol was produced by expanding a D2O-N2 vapor mixture in a supersonic Laval nozzle. The neutron wavelength (0.5 nm) is less than the typical particle size, and we can therefore derive the average particle size (5-8 nm), number density (~1012 cm-3), and polydispersity of the size distribution directly from the experimental data rather than by inferring them from complex models of particle formation and growth. We also predict and observe a Doppler shift-induced anisotropy in the scattering pattern due to ...


In Situ Observations Of Air Traffic Emission Signatures In The North Atlantic Flight Corridor, Hans Schlager, Paul Konopka, P. Schulte, U. Schumann, H. Ziereis, F. Arnold, M. Klemm, Donald E. Hagen, Philip D. Whitefield, J. Ovarlez May 1997

In Situ Observations Of Air Traffic Emission Signatures In The North Atlantic Flight Corridor, Hans Schlager, Paul Konopka, P. Schulte, U. Schumann, H. Ziereis, F. Arnold, M. Klemm, Donald E. Hagen, Philip D. Whitefield, J. Ovarlez

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Focussed aircraft measurements have been carried out over the eastern North Atlantic to search for signals of air traffic emissions in the flight corridor region. Observations include NO, NO2, HNO3, SO2, O3, H2O, total condensation nuclei (CN), and meteorological parameters. A flight pattern with constant-altitude north-south legs across the major North Atlantic air traffic tracks was flown. Signatures of air traffic emissions were clearly detected for NOx, SO2, and CN with peak concentrations of 2 ppbv, 0.25 ppbv, and 500 cm-3, respectively, exceeding background values by factors of 30 (NO ...


Chaotic Behavior And Damage Spreading In The Glauber Ising Model: A Master Equation Approach, Thomas Vojta May 1997

Chaotic Behavior And Damage Spreading In The Glauber Ising Model: A Master Equation Approach, Thomas Vojta

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We investigate the sensitivity of the time evolution of a kinetic Ising model with Glauber dynamics against the initial conditions. To do so we apply the "damage spreading" method, i.e., we study the simultaneous evolution of two identical systems subjected to the same thermal noise. We derive a master equation for the joint probability distribution of the two systems. We then solve this master equation within an effective-field approximation which goes beyond the usual mean-field approximation by retaining the fluctuations though in a quite simplistic manner. The resulting effective-field theory is applied to different physical situations. It is used ...


Studies Of V, Nb, Cr, And Zr Substituted 2:17 Compounds And Their Carbides Using Neutron Diffraction, H. Luo, Z. Hu, Muguo Chen, William B. Yelon, G. K. Marasinghe, Peter C. Ezekwenna, William Joseph James, W. C. Chang, S. H. Tsai Apr 1997

Studies Of V, Nb, Cr, And Zr Substituted 2:17 Compounds And Their Carbides Using Neutron Diffraction, H. Luo, Z. Hu, Muguo Chen, William B. Yelon, G. K. Marasinghe, Peter C. Ezekwenna, William Joseph James, W. C. Chang, S. H. Tsai

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Samples of Nd2Fe17-xTxCy with T=V, Nb, Cr, and Zr were prepared by melting of the constituent elements including C and studied by neutron diffraction. Comparing with their uncarbided counterparts, we found that the substituents transfer, more or less, from the 6c site to the 18f and 18h sites with the introduction of C atoms. This behavior appears to relate to the electronegativities between the C atoms and the early transition series elements because the 18f and 18h sites are near neighbors of the interstitial C site. However, the C effects in the ...


Nonanalytic Behavior Of The Spin Susceptibility In Clean Fermi Systems, Dietrich Belitz, Theodore R. Kirkpatrick, Thomas Vojta Apr 1997

Nonanalytic Behavior Of The Spin Susceptibility In Clean Fermi Systems, Dietrich Belitz, Theodore R. Kirkpatrick, Thomas Vojta

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The wave vector and temperature-dependent static spin susceptibility, Xs(Q, T), of clean interacting Fermi systems is considered in dimensions 1 ≤ d ≤ 3. We show that at zero temperature Xs is a nonanalytic function of |Q|, with the leading nonanalyticity being |Q|d-1 for 1 < d < 3, and Q2ln|Q| for d = 3. For the homogeneous spin susceptibility we find a nonanalytic temperature dependence Td-1 for 1 < d < 3. We give qualitative mode-mode coupling arguments to that effect, and corroborate these arguments by a perturbative calculation to second order in the electron-electron interaction amplitude. The implications of this, in particular for itinerant ferromagnetism, are discussed. We also point out the relation between our findings and established perturbative results for one-dimensional systems, as well as for the temperature dependence of Xs(Q = 0) in d = 3.


Monte Carlo Simulations Of The Dynamical Behavior Of The Coulomb Glass, Torsten Wappler, Thomas Vojta, Michael Schreiber Mar 1997

Monte Carlo Simulations Of The Dynamical Behavior Of The Coulomb Glass, Torsten Wappler, Thomas Vojta, Michael Schreiber

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We study the dynamical behavior of disordered many-particle systems with long-range Coulomb interactions by means of damage-spreading simulations. In this type of Monte Carlo simulation one investigates the time evolution of the damage, i.e., the difference of the occupation numbers of two systems, subjected to the same thermal noise. We analyze the dependence of the damage on temperature and disorder strength. For zero disorder the spreading transition coincides with the equilibrium phase transition, whereas for finite disorder we find evidence for a dynamical phase transition well below the transition temperature of the pure system.


Three-Body Models Of Electron-Hydrogen Ionization, Stephenie J. Jones, Don H. Madison, Dmitry A. Konovalov Jan 1997

Three-Body Models Of Electron-Hydrogen Ionization, Stephenie J. Jones, Don H. Madison, Dmitry A. Konovalov

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

In this paper, we report calculations of electron-hydrogen ionization whereby the final-state wave Function is approximated by recently reported analytical three-body wave functions. In a first model we use the wave function of Alt and Mukhamedzhanov [Phys. Rev. A 47, 2004 (1993)], and in a second model we use the wave function of Berakdar [Phys. Rev. A 53, 2314 (1996)].


Observation Of Upper Tropospheric Sulfur Dioxide- And Acetone-Pollution: Potential Implications For Hydroxyl Radical And Aerosol Formation, F. Arnold, J. Schneider, K. Gollinger, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, Donald E. Hagen, Philip D. Whitefield, Peter F. J. Van Velthoven Jan 1997

Observation Of Upper Tropospheric Sulfur Dioxide- And Acetone-Pollution: Potential Implications For Hydroxyl Radical And Aerosol Formation, F. Arnold, J. Schneider, K. Gollinger, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, Donald E. Hagen, Philip D. Whitefield, Peter F. J. Van Velthoven

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Aircraft-based measurements of sulfur dioxide, acetone, carbon dioxide, and condensation nuclei (CN) were made over the north-eastern Atlantic at upper tropospheric altitudes, around 9000 m. On October 14, 1993, strong SO 2- and acetone-pollution (both up to 3 ppbv) were observed, which were accompanied by a CO 2-enhancement of up to 6 ppmv, and large CN-concentrations of up to about 1500 cm -3 (for radii ≥ 6 nm). CN, excess CO 2, and to a lesser degree also acetone, were positively correlated with SO 2. Air mass trajectory analyses indicate, that most of the air masses encountered by our aircraft ...