Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Upper-Tropospheric Aerosol Sampled During Project Fire Ifo Ii, Donald E. Hagen, Josef Podzimek, Max B. Trueblood Dec 1995

Upper-Tropospheric Aerosol Sampled During Project Fire Ifo Ii, Donald E. Hagen, Josef Podzimek, Max B. Trueblood

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Aerosols can play a role in the cloud formation process through the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism, and in turn, once formed, cirrus clouds can impact the ambient aerosol through scavenging and other collection mechanisms. University of Missouri aerosol sampling facilities were employed on aircraft for in situ collection and characterization of the particulates near cirrus cloud level. Tandem differential mobility analyzer and impactor techniques were used to measure aerosol size distribution, hydration capability, and particle composition information. Evidence of aerosol layering was observed near the tropospause, and there was a tendency toward depletion of the ambient aerosol at both ends of ...


Coherent Excitation Of The Singlet-Triplet Mixed 1s4f State Of Helium, Jingbo Wang, J. F. Williams, Andris T. Stelbovics, John E. Furst, Don H. Madison Oct 1995

Coherent Excitation Of The Singlet-Triplet Mixed 1s4f State Of Helium, Jingbo Wang, J. F. Williams, Andris T. Stelbovics, John E. Furst, Don H. Madison

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

In this paper, we present a detailed theoretical description for the coherent electron-impact excitation, the subsequent time evolution, and the cascading decay process of the singlet-triplet mixed 1s4f state of helium. The excitation amplitude and phase of each sublevel of this state are related to measurable coincidence intensities and polarizations of the emitted photons. It is found that the intensity and polarization of the emitted photons are time modulated due to the singlet and triplet mixing in the 1s4f state.


Floquet Description Of Multiphoton Processes In Li, D. I. Duncan, J. Greg Story, Thomas F. Gallagher Sep 1995

Floquet Description Of Multiphoton Processes In Li, D. I. Duncan, J. Greg Story, Thomas F. Gallagher

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We have made several different types of measurements of the three-photon ionization of Li produced by 3-ps laser pulses and describe the results using a Floquet picture. Over the photon frequency range 15 000 to 15 800 cm-1, Li represents a strongly coupled three-state system with the 2s ground state coupled to the 2p and 3d states by one and two photons, respectively. Energy analysis of the photoelectrons allows the measurement of the intensity dependent shift of the 2s Floquet state during the laser pulse. The shift shows a strong frequency dependence that is not predicted by first-order perturbation ...


Comparison Of Branching Ratio And Sum-Rule Analyses Of Magnetic Circular Dichroism In X-Ray-Absorption Spectroscopy, James G. Tobin, George Daniel Waddill, Alan F. Jankowski, Philip A. Sterne, David P. Pappas Sep 1995

Comparison Of Branching Ratio And Sum-Rule Analyses Of Magnetic Circular Dichroism In X-Ray-Absorption Spectroscopy, James G. Tobin, George Daniel Waddill, Alan F. Jankowski, Philip A. Sterne, David P. Pappas

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Two localized picture methods of analyzing the magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray absorption will be applied to experimental results: the branching ratio (BR) and sum rule (SR) approaches. A derivation of the BR formulas and detailed comparison to the SR expressions will be made, including error estimations. The BR approach will be seen to be a limiting case form of the SR spin-moment expression and provide a simple picture of the underlying physics in magnetic x-ray circular dichroism absorption in 3d magnetic materials.


Coulomb Gap At Finite Temperatures, Masoud Sarvestani, Michael Schreiber, Thomas Vojta Aug 1995

Coulomb Gap At Finite Temperatures, Masoud Sarvestani, Michael Schreiber, Thomas Vojta

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The Coulomb glass, a model of interacting localized electrons in a random potential, exhibits a soft gap, the Coulomb gap, in the single-particle density of states (DOS) g(ε,T) close to the chemical potential µ. In this paper we investigate the Coulomb gap at finite temperatures T by means of a Monte Carlo method. We find that the Coulomb gap fills with increasing temperature. In contrast to previous results the temperature dependence is, however, much stronger than g(µ,T)~TD-1 as predicted analytically. It can be described by power laws with the exponents 1.75 ± 0.1 ...


Instability Of The R³Xs¹ Vacuum In Low-Energy Effective String Theory, Mariano Cadoni, Marco Cavaglia Aug 1995

Instability Of The R³Xs¹ Vacuum In Low-Energy Effective String Theory, Mariano Cadoni, Marco Cavaglia

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We present and discuss a Euclidean solution of the low-energy effective string action that can be interpreted as a semiclassical decay process of the ground state of the theory.


Binary Nucleation Kinetics. I. Self-Consistent Size Distribution, Gerald Wilemski, Barbara Ellen Wyslouzil Jul 1995

Binary Nucleation Kinetics. I. Self-Consistent Size Distribution, Gerald Wilemski, Barbara Ellen Wyslouzil

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Using the principle of detailed balance, we derive a new self-consistency requirement, termed the kinetic product rule, relating the evaporation coefficients and equilibrium cluster distribution for a binary system. We use this result to demonstrate and resolve an inconsistency for an idealized Kelvin model of nucleation in a simple binary mixture. We next examine several common forms for the equilibrium distribution of binary clusters based on the capillarity approximation and ideal vapor behavior. We point out fundamental deficiencies for each expression. We also show that each distribution yields evaporation coefficients that formally satisfy the new kinetic product rule but are ...


Generalization Of The Schwartz-Soffer Inequality For Correlated Random Fields, Thomas Vojta, Michael Schreiber Jul 1995

Generalization Of The Schwartz-Soffer Inequality For Correlated Random Fields, Thomas Vojta, Michael Schreiber

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We investigate the influence of spatial correlations between the values of the random field on the critical behavior of random-field lattice models and derive a generalized version of the Schwartz-Soffer inequality for the averages of the susceptibility and its disconnected part. At the critical point this leads to a modification of the Schwartz-Soffer exponent inequality for the critical exponents η and η- describing the divergences of the susceptibility and its disconnected part, respectively. It now reads η- ≤ 2η-2y where 2y describes the divergence of the random-field correlation function in Fourier space. As an example we exactly calculate the susceptibility and ...


Binary Nucleation Kinetics. Ii. Numerical Solution Of The Birth-Death Equations, Barbara Ellen Wyslouzil, Gerald Wilemski Jul 1995

Binary Nucleation Kinetics. Ii. Numerical Solution Of The Birth-Death Equations, Barbara Ellen Wyslouzil, Gerald Wilemski

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We numerically solve the complete set of coupled differential equations describing transient binary nucleation kinetics for vapor-to-liquid phase transitions. We investigate binary systems displaying both positive and negative deviations from ideality in the liquid phase and obtain numerical solutions over a wide range of relative rates of monomer impingement. We emphasize systems and conditions that either have been or can be investigated experimentally. In almost every case, we find behavior consistent with Stauffer's idea that the major particle flux passes through the saddle point with an orientation angle that depends on the rates of monomer impingement. When this is ...


The Kelvin Equation And Self-Consistent Nucleation Theory, Gerald Wilemski Jul 1995

The Kelvin Equation And Self-Consistent Nucleation Theory, Gerald Wilemski

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Issues of self-consistency are reviewed for several unary equilibrium size distributions based on the capillarity approximation. Some apparent difficulties of interpretation are resolved. In terms of the kinetic approach to nucleation theory, the influence of self-consistency on the nucleation rate is shown to arise entirely from differences in the dimer evaporation rates for nearly all versions of classical theory. The nucleation rate behavior of the Kelvin model is explored. In this model, the Kelvin equation is used to prescribe all cluster evaporation rates. Nucleation rates predicted by the Kelvin model are quantitatively similar to those of the self-consistent classical (SCC ...


Observation Of Postcollision Effects In The Scattered Projectile Spectra For Ionizing Proton-Helium Collisions, Tibor Vajnai, A. D. Gaus, Joachim A. Brand, W. T. Htwe, Don H. Madison, Ronald E. Olson, Jerry Peacher, Michael Schulz May 1995

Observation Of Postcollision Effects In The Scattered Projectile Spectra For Ionizing Proton-Helium Collisions, Tibor Vajnai, A. D. Gaus, Joachim A. Brand, W. T. Htwe, Don H. Madison, Ronald E. Olson, Jerry Peacher, Michael Schulz

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We have measured and calculated doubly differential single ionization cross sections as a function of the scattering angle and the projectile energy loss for 50 to 150 keV proton-helium collisions. These cross sections show unexpected structures as a function of both the energy loss and the scattering angle, which are interpreted as due to the postcollision interaction. Although the effects of postcollision interactions have previously been observed in electron spectra, this is the first observation of such effects for the scattered protons.


Electric-Field Enhancement Of Dielectronic Recombination From A Continuum Of Finite Bandwidth, J. Greg Story, Bernard J. Lyons, Thomas F. Gallagher Mar 1995

Electric-Field Enhancement Of Dielectronic Recombination From A Continuum Of Finite Bandwidth, J. Greg Story, Bernard J. Lyons, Thomas F. Gallagher

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

A small electric field is shown to increase the dielectronic recombination, via autoionizing Rydberg states, of an electron from a continuum of finite bandwidth. The continuum of finite bandwidth is a broad autoionizing state which is part of a series converging to a higher limit, and the field enhancement of the rate occurs because the field converts the nl Rydberg states to nk Stark states, increasing the number of contributing recombination paths. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of an isolated resonance approximation treatment and show clearly both the positive effect of Stark mixing and the ...


Differential Double-Excitation Cross Sections In 50-150-Kev Proton-Helium Collisions, Michael Schulz, W. T. Htwe, A. D. Gaus, Jerry Peacher, Tibor Vajnai Mar 1995

Differential Double-Excitation Cross Sections In 50-150-Kev Proton-Helium Collisions, Michael Schulz, W. T. Htwe, A. D. Gaus, Jerry Peacher, Tibor Vajnai

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We have measured projectile-energy-loss spectra for 50-, 100-, and 150-keV p+He collisions. From the data we obtained differential double-excitation cross sections as a function of projectile scattering angle. At 150 keV a pronounced peak structure was observed at about 0.7 mrad for double excitation to the (2p2) 1D and (2s2p) 1P states. Our data provide indications for the dominance of a first-order mechanism involving the electron-electron interaction in double excitation for 150 keV at small scattering angles. At lower projectile energies and larger scattering angles a second-order mechanism appears to be of the same order ...


State Selective Scattering Angle Dependent Capture Cross Sections Measured By Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy, Volker Mergel, Reinhard Dorner, Joachim Hermann Ullrich, Ottmar Jagutzki, Sergio Lencinas, S. Nuttgens, Lutz Spielberger, Marc Unverzagt, C. Lewis Cocke, Ronald E. Olson, Michael Schulz, Udo Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, Horst Schmidt-Bocking Mar 1995

State Selective Scattering Angle Dependent Capture Cross Sections Measured By Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy, Volker Mergel, Reinhard Dorner, Joachim Hermann Ullrich, Ottmar Jagutzki, Sergio Lencinas, S. Nuttgens, Lutz Spielberger, Marc Unverzagt, C. Lewis Cocke, Ronald E. Olson, Michael Schulz, Udo Buck, E. Zanger, W. Theisinger, M. Isser, S. Geis, Horst Schmidt-Bocking

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We have developed a new kind of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy technique, using a precooled supersonic gas jet target, to determine state selective, scattering angle dependent cross sections for swift ion-atom collisions ( 0. 25 , ..., , 1 MeV He2+ on He), by measuring the transverse and longitudinal momentum of the recoil ion. A longitudinal momentum resolution of ± 0.13 a. u. was achieved, about a factor of 30 better than ever obtained before, which enables a clear separation of K and L shell capture. In the transverse direction a resolution corresponding to a projectile scattering angle uncertainty of Δ ϑ P ...


Neutron Diffraction Studies Of Erni₅₋ₓCoₓ (X=0.68, 1.68, 2.26) Alloys, Z. Zu, William B. Yelon, G. K. Marasinghe, William Joseph James Jan 1995

Neutron Diffraction Studies Of Erni₅₋ₓCoₓ (X=0.68, 1.68, 2.26) Alloys, Z. Zu, William B. Yelon, G. K. Marasinghe, William Joseph James

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

ErNi5-xCox alloys were prepared by RF induction melting and analyzed using neutron powder diffraction. Rietveld analysis neutron diffraction data indicates the unit cell volume increases with Co content while the a and c lattice parameters show different dependencies on the composition. the Co atoms show higher affinity for the 3g sites than for the 2c sites. the Co sublattice tends to couple antiferromagnetically to the Er sublattice. the easy magnetization direction is along the c axis.


Neutron Investigations Of Novel Magnetic Phases, William B. Yelon Jan 1995

Neutron Investigations Of Novel Magnetic Phases, William B. Yelon

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Recent years have seen a renewed search for Fe based permanent magnets, spurred by the discovery of Nd2Fe14B and interstitially modified rare-earth iron binaries. The insights derived from those compounds have suggested a number of routes to the development of such systems, including selective site substitution and combinations of site substitution and interstitial modification. Neutron diffraction is an essential component of this work, since it provides systematic information about the location of substitutional and interstitial atoms, and about the effects these changes have on the magnetic interactions in the systems of interest


The Light Ion Pulsed Power Induction Accelerator For Etf, Ronald E. Olson, M. G. Mazarakis, C. L. Olson, D. L. Smith, L. F. Bennett Jan 1995

The Light Ion Pulsed Power Induction Accelerator For Etf, Ronald E. Olson, M. G. Mazarakis, C. L. Olson, D. L. Smith, L. F. Bennett

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The light ion Engineering Test Facility (ETF) driver concept, based on Hermes III and RHEPP technologies, is a scaled-down version of the LMF design incorporating repetition rate capabilities of up to 10 Hz. The preconceptual design presented here provides 250 TW peak power to the ETF target during 8 ns, equal to 2 MJ total ion beam energy. Linear inductive voltage addition driving a self-magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is utilized to generate the 36 MV peak voltage needed for lithium ion beams. The ~3 MA ion current is achieved by utilizing many accelerating modules in parallel. Since the current ...


Projectile Energy Loss In Multiply Ionizing Ion-Atom Collisions, Harald Schone, Reinhold S. Schuch, Sheldon Datz, Michael Schulz, Peter F. Dittner, J. P. Giese, Quentin C. Kessel, Herbert F. Krause, Philip D. Miller, Charles Randy Vane Jan 1995

Projectile Energy Loss In Multiply Ionizing Ion-Atom Collisions, Harald Schone, Reinhold S. Schuch, Sheldon Datz, Michael Schulz, Peter F. Dittner, J. P. Giese, Quentin C. Kessel, Herbert F. Krause, Philip D. Miller, Charles Randy Vane

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The projectile energy loss for 7.5--25-MeV C6+,5+ and F6+ ions was measured for single collisions with He, Ne, Ar, and Kr as a function of the recoil-ion charge state and the projectile scattering. This energy loss was measured for collisions in which the projectile captured an electron and for those involving just direct ionization. We investigated and found a large average energy transfer (100--250 eV/electron) to the continuum electrons. A strong increase of the scattering angle with recoil-ion charge state was observed for both capture and direct ionization. The results imply that, for smaller impact ...