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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Formation Pathways In Brightest Cluster Galaxies: Measuring The Distribution Of Ages, Metallicities, And Hydrodynamics Of Stellar Populations, Priscilla E. Holguin West May 2020

Formation Pathways In Brightest Cluster Galaxies: Measuring The Distribution Of Ages, Metallicities, And Hydrodynamics Of Stellar Populations, Priscilla E. Holguin West

Physics

Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) are the most massive galaxies in the local universe and have had the full age of the universe to build. This makes their formation and evolution history particularly interesting as they offer a glimpse at potential evolutionary pathways for younger systems. We present the radial profile of ages, metallicities, and preliminary classification of companions to 23 BCGs observed using the SparsePak instrument on WIYN by running the STARLIGHT stellar population synthesis models. This analysis of the BCGs’ stellar populations is done by separating each BCG into different regions, and preliminary results of the stellar populations for ...


An Introduction To Shape Dynamics, Patrick R. Kerrigan Nov 2019

An Introduction To Shape Dynamics, Patrick R. Kerrigan

Physics

Shape Dynamics (SD) is a new fundamental framework of physics which seeks to remove any non-relational notions from its methodology. importantly it does away with a background space-time and replaces it with a conceptual framework meant to reflect direct observables and recognize how measurements are taken. It is a theory of pure relationalism, and is based on different first principles then General Relativity (GR). This paper investigates how SD assertions affect dynamics of the three body problem, then outlines the shape reduction framework in a general setting.


Space Telescope And Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. Viii. Time Variability Of Emission And Absorption In Ngc5548 Based On Modeling The Ultraviolet Spectrum, G. A. Kriss, G. De Rosa, J. Ely, B. M. Peterson, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Y. Zu Aug 2019

Space Telescope And Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. Viii. Time Variability Of Emission And Absorption In Ngc5548 Based On Modeling The Ultraviolet Spectrum, G. A. Kriss, G. De Rosa, J. Ely, B. M. Peterson, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Y. Zu

Physics

We model the ultraviolet spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope during the 6 month reverberation mapping campaign in 2014. Our model of the emission from NGC 5548 corrects for overlying absorption and deblends the individual emission lines. Using the modeled spectra, we measure the response to continuum variations for the deblended and absorption-corrected individual broad emission lines, the velocity-dependent profiles of Lyα and C iv, and the narrow and broad intrinsic absorption features. We find that the time lags for the corrected emission lines are comparable to those for the original ...


A Single Fast Radio Burst Localized To A Massive Galaxy At Cosmological Distance, K. W. Bannister, A. T. Deller, C. Phillips, J.-P. Macquart, Vardha Nicola Bennert, C. D. Wilson Aug 2019

A Single Fast Radio Burst Localized To A Massive Galaxy At Cosmological Distance, K. W. Bannister, A. T. Deller, C. Phillips, J.-P. Macquart, Vardha Nicola Bennert, C. D. Wilson

Physics

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are brief radio emissions from distant astronomical sources. Some are known to repeat, but most are single bursts. Nonrepeating FRB observations have had insufficient positional accuracy to localize them to an individual host galaxy. We report the interferometric localization of the single-pulse FRB 180924 to a position 4 kiloparsecs from the center of a luminous galaxy at redshift 0.3214. The burst has not been observed to repeat. The properties of the burst and its host are markedly different from those of the only other accurately localized FRB source. The integrated electron column density along the ...


Jet-Driven Galaxy-Scale Gas Outflows In The Hyperluminous Quasar 3c 273, Bernd Husemann, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Knud Jahnke, Timothy A. Davis, Jong-Hak Woo, Julia Scharwächter, Andreas Schulze, Massimo Gaspari, Martin A. Zwaan Jul 2019

Jet-Driven Galaxy-Scale Gas Outflows In The Hyperluminous Quasar 3c 273, Bernd Husemann, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Knud Jahnke, Timothy A. Davis, Jong-Hak Woo, Julia Scharwächter, Andreas Schulze, Massimo Gaspari, Martin A. Zwaan

Physics

We present an unprecedented view of the morphology and kinematics of the extended narrow-line region (ENLR) and molecular gas around the prototypical hyperluminous quasar 3C 273 (L bol ~ 1047 erg s−1 at z = 0.158) based on VLT-MUSE optical 3D spectroscopy and ALMA observations. We find the following: (1) the ENLR size of 12.1 ± 0.2 kpc implies a smooth continuation of the size–luminosity relation out to large radii or a much larger break radius as previously proposed. (2) The kinematically disturbed ionized gas with line splits reaching 1000 km s−1 out to 6.1 ...


Brightest Cluster Galaxy Evolution Exploration: Comparing The Separation Of Cluster X-Ray Light And Visible Wavelength Galaxy Light With Spectral Data, Matthew Aaron Salinas Jul 2019

Brightest Cluster Galaxy Evolution Exploration: Comparing The Separation Of Cluster X-Ray Light And Visible Wavelength Galaxy Light With Spectral Data, Matthew Aaron Salinas

Physics

Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs), the brightest galaxy in a cluster of hundreds to thousands of galaxies, are some of the biggest, brightest, and most massive galaxies in the universe. Characterizing a BCG can help discover more about galaxy evolution - the aging, changing, and possible merging (collisions) of galaxies. This project involves determining the separation of the peak of x-ray emission of the galaxy cluster, and the peak of visible emission of the BCG to characterize the system as being disturbed or undisturbed that can then lead to discoveries about its formation and evolution. We have found that 17.4% of ...


Microcontroller Differential Gps To Subtract Signal Delay Due To Ambient Free Electrons In The Ionosphere, Diana Jane Swanson Jun 2019

Microcontroller Differential Gps To Subtract Signal Delay Due To Ambient Free Electrons In The Ionosphere, Diana Jane Swanson

Physics

The goal of this project is to create a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that is more precise than one GPS receiver on its own. The technique is to take the difference between a GPS receiver’s measured position and its actual position, then use radio frequency (RF) communication to send that differential value to another microcontroller GPS receiver. This differential value will be added to the measured second location to get a more accurate position for the second GPS receiver, thus creating a differential GPS.


An Investigation Of The Anomalous Thrust Capabilities Of The Electromagnetic Drive, Hannah J. Simons Jun 2019

An Investigation Of The Anomalous Thrust Capabilities Of The Electromagnetic Drive, Hannah J. Simons

Physics

The Electromagnetic Drive (EMDrive) is a propellant-less engine concept hypothesized by aero- space engineer Roger Shawyer. Shawyer’s proposed thruster technology is grounded on the theory of electromagnetic resonant behavior exhibited by a radiofrequency cavity, though the source of any generated thrust is undetermined by current physical laws. NASA Eagleworks Laboratories at John- son Space Center conducted a vacuum test campaign to investigate previously reported anomalous thrust capabilities of such a closed radiofrequency cavity, using a low-thrust torsion pendulum. The team published positive, although small-scaled thrust results in 2017. Following NASA Eagleworks breakthrough result and operating under the assumption that ...


Proof Of Concept And Experimental Design For Remote Laser Evaporative Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor System (R-Lema), Amber Jessica Sucich Jun 2019

Proof Of Concept And Experimental Design For Remote Laser Evaporative Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor System (R-Lema), Amber Jessica Sucich

Physics

As the Earth’s resources are diminishing, it has become clear that the human race needs to find alternative resources and replenish the Earth’s natural reservoir. One way to do this is to consider interstellar objects. Interstellar objects, such as asteroids, offer mineral and other resources with great potential for mining. Before considering mining a rocky body, it is imperative to first know the complete composition of an object. Using the method of traveling to the objects, drilling into them, and bringing back samples is impractical, inefficient, and expensive. This method is also limiting, as only certain target areas ...


Finding And Analyzing U235 And U238 Ternary Fission Events In The Niffte Fissiontpc, Gabriel A. Oman Jun 2019

Finding And Analyzing U235 And U238 Ternary Fission Events In The Niffte Fissiontpc, Gabriel A. Oman

Physics

In this analysis, the differences between ternary and binary fission were explored using data from the NIFFTE Collaboration’s fission time projection chamber (TPC). The ratio of binary-to-ternary events for U-235 and U-238 as a function of neutron kinetic energy in the range of 1-30 MeV is presented. The typical value of the ratio is approximately 105 binary fissions per ternary fission, in agreement with previously published measurements. Future work will involve distinguishing the fissions of the two isotopes to provide more insight into this rare process.


Lasers, Noah B. Caro Jun 2019

Lasers, Noah B. Caro

Physics

No abstract provided.


Development Of The T0+ Detector For Alice, Austin E. Guard Jun 2019

Development Of The T0+ Detector For Alice, Austin E. Guard

Physics

The ALICE experiment at CERN is undergoing several major upgrades, one of which is a replacement of the trigger system, which will be composed of a suite of detectors known as the “Fast Interaction Trigger” or FIT. One part of the FIT collaboration team’s objective is the upgrade of the T0 detector, which provides the time stamp for events and acts as a trigger for the rest of the ALICE detectors. The T0+ will detect Cherenkov radiation from charged particles emitted in p-p and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photodetectors are micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes ...


Differential Photometry Of Active Galactic Nuclei Using Time Resolved Observations With The 1m Nickel Telescope Of Lick Observatory, Chance L. Spencer Jun 2019

Differential Photometry Of Active Galactic Nuclei Using Time Resolved Observations With The 1m Nickel Telescope Of Lick Observatory, Chance L. Spencer

Physics

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are exotic objects in the center of some galaxies with luminosities that can greatly outshine the stars of the host galaxy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The origin of the UV/optical light is thought to be due to accretion of material onto the supermassive black hole in their centers. Since these objects are too far away to resolve the gravitational sphere of influence of the black hole directly, we make use of a method called reverberation mapping. We measure the lag between the AGN power-law continuum emitted by the accretion disk and the Doppler-broadened emission ...


Investigating The Talbot Effect In Arrays Of Optical Dipole Traps For Neutral Atom Quantum Computing, Sergio Aguayo Apr 2019

Investigating The Talbot Effect In Arrays Of Optical Dipole Traps For Neutral Atom Quantum Computing, Sergio Aguayo

Physics

Quantum computers are devices that are able to perform calculations not achievable for classical computers. Although there are many methods for creating a quantum computer, using neutral atoms offers the advantage of being stable when compared to other methods. The purpose of this investigation is to explore possible optical dipole trap configurations that would be useful for implementing a quantum computer with neutral atoms. Specifically, we computationally investigate arrays of pinholes, the diffraction pattern generated by them, and the onset of the Talbot effect in these traps. We manipulate the radius of the pinholes, the number of pinholes in the ...


Daily And Seasonal Variability Of Offshore Wind Power On The Central California Coast And Statewide Demand, Matthew Douglas Kehrli Apr 2019

Daily And Seasonal Variability Of Offshore Wind Power On The Central California Coast And Statewide Demand, Matthew Douglas Kehrli

Physics

No abstract provided.


Optimization Of An Injection Locked Laser System For Cold Neutral Atom Traps, Elliot M. Lehman Mar 2019

Optimization Of An Injection Locked Laser System For Cold Neutral Atom Traps, Elliot M. Lehman

Physics

Many types of quantum systems are being explored for use in quantum computers. One type of quantum system that shows promise for quantum computing is trapped neutral atoms. They have long coherence times, since they have multiple stable ground states and have minimal coupling with other atoms and their environment, and they can be trapped in arrays, making them individu- ally addressable. Once trapped, they can be initialized and operated on using laser pulses. This experiment utilizes a pinhole diffraction pattern, which can trap atoms in both bright and dark areas. To maximize trap strength, an injection-locked laser amplification system ...


Agn Photoionization Of Gas In Companion Galaxies As A Probe Of Agn Radiation In Time And Direction, William C. Keel, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Anna Pancoast, Chelsea E. Harris, Anna Nierenberg, S. Drew Chojnowski, Alexei V. Moiseev, Dmitry V. Oparin, Chris J. Lintott, Kevin Schawinski, Graham Mitchell, Claude Cornen Mar 2019

Agn Photoionization Of Gas In Companion Galaxies As A Probe Of Agn Radiation In Time And Direction, William C. Keel, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Anna Pancoast, Chelsea E. Harris, Anna Nierenberg, S. Drew Chojnowski, Alexei V. Moiseev, Dmitry V. Oparin, Chris J. Lintott, Kevin Schawinski, Graham Mitchell, Claude Cornen

Physics

We consider active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization of gas in companion galaxies (cross-ionization) as a way to sample the intensity of AGN radiation in both direction and time, independent of the gas properties of the AGN host galaxies. From an initial set of 212 AGN+companion systems, identified with the help of Galaxy Zoo participants, we obtained long-slit optical spectra of 32 pairs that were a priori likely to show cross-ionization based on projected separation or angular extent of the companion. From emission-line ratios, 10 of these systems are candidates for cross-ionization, roughly the fraction expected if most AGNs have ...


Memory Formation In Matter, Joseph Paulsen, Nathan C. Keim, Zorana Zeravcic, Srikanth Sastry, Sidney R. Nagel Jan 2019

Memory Formation In Matter, Joseph Paulsen, Nathan C. Keim, Zorana Zeravcic, Srikanth Sastry, Sidney R. Nagel

Physics

Memory formation in matter is a theme of broad intellectual relevance; it sits at the interdisciplinary crossroads of physics, biology, chemistry, and computer science. Memory connotes the ability to encode, access, and erase signatures of past history in the state of a system. Once the system has completely relaxed to thermal equilibrium, it is no longer able to recall aspects of its evolution. The memory of initial conditions or previous training protocols will be lost. Thus many forms of memory are intrinsically tied to far-from-equilibrium behavior and to transient response to a perturbation. This general behavior arises in diverse contexts ...


The Lick Agn Monitoring Project 2011: Photometric Light Curves, Anna Pancoast, Andreas Skielboe, Liuyi Pei, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Jong-Hak Woo Jan 2019

The Lick Agn Monitoring Project 2011: Photometric Light Curves, Anna Pancoast, Andreas Skielboe, Liuyi Pei, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Jong-Hak Woo

Physics

In Spring 2011, the Lick AGN Monitoring Project observed a sample of 15 bright, nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies in the V band as part of a reverberation mapping campaign. The observations were taken at six ground-based telescopes, including the West Mountain Observatory 0.91 m telescope, the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope, 0.6 m Super-LOTIS at Kitt Peak, the Palomar 60 inch telescope, and the 2 m Faulkes telescopes North and South. The V-band light curves measure the continuum variability of our sample of Seyferts on an almost daily cadence for 2–3 months. We use ...


Detrital Zircon Geochronology And Evolution Of The Nacimiento Block Late Mesozoic Forearc Basin, Central California Coast, Scott Johnston, Andrew R.C. Kylander-Clark, Alan D. Chapman Dec 2018

Detrital Zircon Geochronology And Evolution Of The Nacimiento Block Late Mesozoic Forearc Basin, Central California Coast, Scott Johnston, Andrew R.C. Kylander-Clark, Alan D. Chapman

Physics

Forearc basins are first-order products of convergent-margin tectonics, and their sedimentary deposits offer unique perspectives on coeval evolution of adjacent arcs and subduction complexes. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronologic data from 23 sandstones and 11 individual conglomerate clasts sampled from forearc basin strata of the Nacimiento block, an enigmatic stretch of the Cordilleran forearc exposed along the central California coast, place constraints on models for forearc deformation during evolution of the archetypical Cordilleran Mesozoic margin. Deposition and provenance of the Nacimiento forearc developed in three stages: (1) Late Jurassic– Valanginian deposition of lower Nacimiento forearc strata with zircon derived from ...


Geologic Map And Structural Development Of The Noerthernmost Sur-Nacimiento Fault Zone, Central California Coast, Scott M. Johnston, John S. Singleton, Alan D. Chapman, Gabriella Murray Dec 2018

Geologic Map And Structural Development Of The Noerthernmost Sur-Nacimiento Fault Zone, Central California Coast, Scott M. Johnston, John S. Singleton, Alan D. Chapman, Gabriella Murray

Physics

The Sur-Nacimiento fault exposed along the central California coast (United States) juxtaposes the Salinian block arc against the Nacimiento block accretionary complex, cuts out the majority of the forearc basin and western arc, and requires a minimum of 150 km of orogen-normal crustal excision within the Mesozoic California convergent margin. Despite this significant strain, the kinematic evolution of the Sur-Nacimiento fault remains poorly understood, with diverse hypotheses suggesting sinistral, dextral, thrust, or normal displacement along the fault. This Late Cretaceous–Paleogene strain history is complicated by the location of the fault within a belt of subparallel faults that have accommodated ...


Revealing The Broad Line Region Of Ngc 1275: The Relationship To Jet Power, Brian Punsly, Paola Marziani, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Hiroshi Nagai, Mark A. Gurwell Dec 2018

Revealing The Broad Line Region Of Ngc 1275: The Relationship To Jet Power, Brian Punsly, Paola Marziani, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Hiroshi Nagai, Mark A. Gurwell

Physics

NGC 1275 is one of the most conspicuous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the local universe. The radio jet currently emits a flux density of ~10 Jy at ~1 mm wavelengths, down from the historic high of ~65 Jy in 1980. Yet, the nature of the AGN in NGC 1275 is still controversial. It has been debated whether this is a broad emission line (BEL) Seyfert galaxy, an obscured Seyfert galaxy, a narrow line radio galaxy, or a BL Lac object. We clearly demonstrate a persistent Hβ BEL over the last 35 yr with a full width at half ...


Studying The Potential Of The [Oii] Emission Line As A Surrogate For Stellar Velocity Dispersion In Active Galactic Nuclei, Edward F. Donohue Nov 2018

Studying The Potential Of The [Oii] Emission Line As A Surrogate For Stellar Velocity Dispersion In Active Galactic Nuclei, Edward F. Donohue

Physics

We study the emission profiles of 80 active galaxies to find a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion. We focus on the width of the emission line of once ionized oxygen, [OII], and compare our results to previous work that used [OIII]. In previous research, [OIII] was found to be a good candidate for a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion, but analysis of the line was complicated by the presence of wings caused by gas infall and outflow in the region. Emission lines with lower ionization levels, like [OII], are known to have less artificial line-broadening from wings. The study of ...


Mountaintop Neutrino Detection: A Nu(Tau) Concept, Caroline E. Paciaroni Nov 2018

Mountaintop Neutrino Detection: A Nu(Tau) Concept, Caroline E. Paciaroni

Physics

High-energy neutrinos traveling from the distant universe produce detectable signals at radio frequencies after interacting with the earth or its atmosphere. This is the principle behind a new experiment, the BEamforming Elevated Array for COsmogenic Neutrinos, or BEACON. BEACON will be a high altitude array of antennas that is sensitive to up-going tau neutrinos ($\nu_{\tau}$). These elementary particles serve as sources of information about the extraordinarily high energy events in the universe that create them, and also the laws of particle physics that govern their behavior. This report details the construction of a transient detector used to characterize site ...


Studying The [O Iii]Λ5007 Å Emission-Line Width In A Sample Of ∼ 80 Local Active Galaxies: A Surrogate For Σ⋆?, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Donald Loveland, Edward Donohue, Maren Cosens, Sean Lewis, S. Komossa, Tommaso Treu, Matthew A. Malkan, Nathan Milgram, Kelsi Flatland, Matthew W. Auger, Daesong Park, Mariana S. Lazarova Nov 2018

Studying The [O Iii]Λ5007 Å Emission-Line Width In A Sample Of ∼ 80 Local Active Galaxies: A Surrogate For Σ⋆?, Vardha Nicola Bennert, Donald Loveland, Edward Donohue, Maren Cosens, Sean Lewis, S. Komossa, Tommaso Treu, Matthew A. Malkan, Nathan Milgram, Kelsi Flatland, Matthew W. Auger, Daesong Park, Mariana S. Lazarova

Physics

For a sample of ∼ 80 local (0.02 ≤ z" role="presentation">z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert-1 galaxies with high-quality long-slit Keck spectra and spatially resolved stellar-velocity dispersion (σ) measurements, we study the profile of the [O iii]λ5007 Å emission line to test the validity of using its width as a surrogate for σ. Such an approach has often been used in the literature, since it is difficult to measure σ for type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) due to the AGN continuum outshining the stellar-absorption lines. Fitting the [O iii] line with a single Gaussian or Gauss–Hermite polynomials overestimates σ ...


Using Coherent Phonons For Ultrafast Control Of The Dirac Node Of Srmnsb2, Christopher P. Weber, Madison G. Masten, Thomas C. Ogloza, Bryan S. Berggren, Michael K. L. Man, Keshav M. Dani, Jinyu Liu, Zhiqiang Mao, Dennis D. Klug, Adebayo A. Adeleke, Yansun Yao Oct 2018

Using Coherent Phonons For Ultrafast Control Of The Dirac Node Of Srmnsb2, Christopher P. Weber, Madison G. Masten, Thomas C. Ogloza, Bryan S. Berggren, Michael K. L. Man, Keshav M. Dani, Jinyu Liu, Zhiqiang Mao, Dennis D. Klug, Adebayo A. Adeleke, Yansun Yao

Physics

SrMnSb2 is a candidate Dirac semimetal whose electrons near the Y point have the linear dispersion and low mass of a Dirac cone. Here we demonstrate that ultrafast, 800-nm optical pulses can launch coherent phonon oscillations in Sr0.94Mn0.92Sb2, particularly an Ag mode at 4.4 THz. Through first-principles calculations of the electronic and phononic structure of SrMnSb2, we show that high-amplitude oscillations of this mode would displace the atoms in a way that transiently opens and closes a gap at the node of the Dirac cone. The ability to control ...


The Lick Agn Monitoring Project 2011: Dynamical Modeling Of The Broad-Line Region, Peter R. Williams, Anna Pancoast, Tommaso Treu, Brendon J. Brewer, Vardha N. Bennert, Jong-Hak Woo Oct 2018

The Lick Agn Monitoring Project 2011: Dynamical Modeling Of The Broad-Line Region, Peter R. Williams, Anna Pancoast, Tommaso Treu, Brendon J. Brewer, Vardha N. Bennert, Jong-Hak Woo

Physics

We present models of the Hβ-emitting broad-line region (BLR) in seven Seyfert 1 galaxies from the Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2011 sample, drawing inferences on the BLR structure and dynamics as well as the mass of the central supermassive black hole. We find that the BLR is generally a thick disk, viewed close to face-on, with preferential emission back toward the ionizing source. The dynamics in our sample range from near-circular elliptical orbits to inflowing or outflowing trajectories. We measure black hole masses of for PG 1310−108, for Mrk 50, for Mrk 141, for Mrk 279, for ...


Structural And Wetting Properties Of Nature's Finest Silks (Order Embioptera), Grace Y. Stokes, Evangelea N. Dicicco, Trevor J. Moore, Vivian C. Cheng, Kira Y. Wheeler, John Soghigian, Richard P. Barber Jr., Janice Edgerly-Rooks Sep 2018

Structural And Wetting Properties Of Nature's Finest Silks (Order Embioptera), Grace Y. Stokes, Evangelea N. Dicicco, Trevor J. Moore, Vivian C. Cheng, Kira Y. Wheeler, John Soghigian, Richard P. Barber Jr., Janice Edgerly-Rooks

Physics

Insects from the order Embioptera (webspinners) spin silk fibres which are less than 200 nm in diameter. In this work, we characterized and compared the diameters of single silk fibres from nine species—Antipaluria urichi, Pararhagadochir trinitatis, Saussurembia calypso, Diradius vandykei, Aposthonia ceylonica, Haploembia solieri, H. tarsalis, Oligotoma nigra and O. saundersii. Silk from seven of these species have not been previously quantified. Our studies cover five of the 10 named taxonomic families and represent about one third of the known taxonomic family-level diversity in the order Embioptera. Naturally spun silk varied in diameter from 43.6 ± 1.7 nm ...


Assembling And Characterizing The Efficiency Of An Injection Locked Laser System For Cold Neutral Atom Optical Traps, Alexandra Papa Crawford Jun 2018

Assembling And Characterizing The Efficiency Of An Injection Locked Laser System For Cold Neutral Atom Optical Traps, Alexandra Papa Crawford

Physics

Creating a quantum computer requires a system of particles that can be well-controlled to achieve quantum operations. We need a large array of these particles – called qubits – with long coherence times, which can be initialized, operated on by single and two qubit gates, and read out. For neutral atoms, the qubit states are stable ground states that interact minimally with the environment, leading to long coherence times. Experimentally, the qubits are manipulated using carefully timed laser beam pulses with controlled frequency and intensity, but the outstanding issue for optically trapping cold atoms is finding a light pattern that can hold ...


Heavy Flavour In Jets And Azimuthal Correlations, Patrick J. Steffanic Jun 2018

Heavy Flavour In Jets And Azimuthal Correlations, Patrick J. Steffanic

Physics

We studied heavy-flavor azimuthal correlations using the semi-leptonic decay channel of hard-scattered bottom quarks in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. We used a mixed-event method to produce a corrected correlation that hinted at back-to-back pair production. We further studied the jets resulting from these heavy-flavor hard scatterings, and jets resulting from light-flavor and gluon scattering. We compared several kinematic variables from each of the jet populations, concluding that novel kinematic variables must be developed in order to effectively separate the jet populations.