Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1141

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Novel Materials Can Radically Improve Whole-System Environmental Impacts Of Additive Manufacturing, Jeremy Faludi, Cory M. Van Sice, Yuan Shi, Justin Bower, Owen M.K Brooks Dec 2018

Novel Materials Can Radically Improve Whole-System Environmental Impacts Of Additive Manufacturing, Jeremy Faludi, Cory M. Van Sice, Yuan Shi, Justin Bower, Owen M.K Brooks

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Additive manufacturing often has higher environmental impacts per part than traditional manufacturing at scale, but new materials can enable more sustainable 3D printing. This study developed and tested novel materials for paste extrusion printing, and tested materials invented by others. Testing compared their whole-system environmental impacts to standard ABS extrusion, measured by life cycle assessment (LCA); testing also assessed material strength, printability, and cost. Materials were chosen for low print energy (chemical bonding, not melting), low toxicity, and circular life cycle (biodegradable, ideally sourced from waste biomaterial). Printing energy was reduced 75% (from 160 to 40 Wh/part), and embodied ...


Indutivo: Contact-Based, Object-Driven Interactions With Inductive Sensing, Jun Gong, Xin Yang, Teddy Seyed, Josh Urban Davis, Xing-Dong Yang Oct 2018

Indutivo: Contact-Based, Object-Driven Interactions With Inductive Sensing, Jun Gong, Xin Yang, Teddy Seyed, Josh Urban Davis, Xing-Dong Yang

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We present Indutivo, a contact-based inductive sensing technique for contextual interactions. Our technique recognizes conductive objects (metallic primarily) that are commonly found in households and daily environments, as well as their individual movements when placed against the sensor. These movements include sliding, hinging, and rotation. We describe our sensing principle and how we designed the size, shape, and layout of our sensor coils to optimize sensitivity, sensing range, recognition and tracking accuracy. Through several studies, we also demonstrated the performance of our proposed sensing technique in environments with varying levels of noise and interference conditions. We conclude by presenting demo ...


Orecchio: Extending Body-Language Through Actuated Static And Dynamic Auricular Postures, Da-Yuan Huang, Teddy Seyed, Jun Gong, Zhihao Yao, Yuchen Jiao, Xiang Anthony Chen, Xing-Dong Yang Oct 2018

Orecchio: Extending Body-Language Through Actuated Static And Dynamic Auricular Postures, Da-Yuan Huang, Teddy Seyed, Jun Gong, Zhihao Yao, Yuchen Jiao, Xiang Anthony Chen, Xing-Dong Yang

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In this paper, we propose using the auricle – the visible part of the ear – as a means of expressive output to extend body language to convey emotional states. With an initial exploratory study, we provide an initial set of dynamic and static auricular postures. Using these results, we examined the relationship between emotions and auricular postures, noting that dynamic postures involving stretching the top helix in fast (e.g., 2Hz) and slow speeds (1Hz) conveyed intense and mild pleasantness while static postures involving bending the side or top helix towards the center of the ear were associated with intense and ...


Self-Powered Gesture Recognition With Ambient Light, Yichen Li, Tianxing Li, Ruchir Patel, Xia Zhou, Xing-Dong Yang Oct 2018

Self-Powered Gesture Recognition With Ambient Light, Yichen Li, Tianxing Li, Ruchir Patel, Xia Zhou, Xing-Dong Yang

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We present a self-powered module for gesture recognition that utilizes small, low-cost photodiodes for both energy harvesting and gesture sensing. Operating in the photovoltaic mode, photodiodes harvest energy from ambient light. In the meantime, the instantaneously harvested power from individual photodiodes is monitored and exploited as a clue for sensing finger gestures in proximity. Harvested power from all photodiodes are aggregated to drive the whole gesture-recognition module including a micro-controller running the recognition algorithm. We design robust, lightweight algorithm to recognize finger gestures in the presence of ambient light fluctuations. We fabricate two prototypes to facilitate user’s interaction with ...


Battery-Free Eye Tracker On Glasses, Tianxing Li, Xia Zhou Oct 2018

Battery-Free Eye Tracker On Glasses, Tianxing Li, Xia Zhou

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This paper presents a battery-free wearable eye tracker that tracks both the 2D position and diameter of a pupil based on its light absorption property. With a few near-infrared (NIR) lights and photodiodes around the eye, NIR lights sequentially illuminate the eye from various directions while photodiodes sense spatial patterns of reflected light, which are used to infer pupil’s position and diameter on the fly via a lightweight inference algorithm. The system also exploits characteristics of different eye movement stages and adjusts its sensing and computation accordingly for further energy savings. A prototype is built with off-the-shelf hardware components ...


Phasorsec: Protocol Security Filters For Wide Area Measurement Systems, Prashant Anantharaman, Kartik Palani, Rafael Brantley, Sergey Bratus, Sean W. Smith Oct 2018

Phasorsec: Protocol Security Filters For Wide Area Measurement Systems, Prashant Anantharaman, Kartik Palani, Rafael Brantley, Sergey Bratus, Sean W. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The addition of synchrophasors to the power grid to improve observability comes at the cost of an increased attack surface: the wide area measurement system. A common source of zero-days, that can be used to exploit the system, is improper input validation. The strict availability and timing requirements of the grid make it critical that input validation be done right and in a timely fashion. PhasorSec is a hardened security filter for the synchrophasor communication protocol, C37.118. PhasorSec is built using language theoretic principles which treat all input as a language with a specific grammar that defines what input ...


Evaluating Prose Style Transfer With The Bible, Keith Carlson, Allen Riddell, Daniel Rockmore Sep 2018

Evaluating Prose Style Transfer With The Bible, Keith Carlson, Allen Riddell, Daniel Rockmore

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the prose style transfer task a system, provided with text input and a target prose style, produces output which preserves the meaning of the input text but alters the style. These systems require parallel data for evaluation of results and usually make use of parallel data for training. Currently, there are few publicly available corpora for this task. In this work, we identify a high-quality source of aligned, stylistically distinct text in different versions of the Bible. We provide a standardized split, into training, development and testing data, of the public domain versions in our corpus. This corpus is ...


Solution And Solid-State Emission Toggling Of A Photochromic Hydrazone, Baihao Shao, Massimo Baroncini, Laura Bussotti, Mariangela Di Donato, Alberto Credi, Ivan Aprahamian Sep 2018

Solution And Solid-State Emission Toggling Of A Photochromic Hydrazone, Baihao Shao, Massimo Baroncini, Laura Bussotti, Mariangela Di Donato, Alberto Credi, Ivan Aprahamian

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The proliferation of light-activated switches in recent years has enabled their use in a broad range of applications encompassing an array of research fields and disciplines. All current systems, however, have limitations (e.g., from complicated synthesis to incompatibility in biologically relevant media and lack of switching in the solid-state) that can stifle their real-life application. Here we report on a system that packs most, if not all, the desired, targeted and sought-after traits from photochromic compounds (bistability, switching in various media ranging from serum to solid-state, while exhibiting ON/OFF fluorescence emission switching, and two-photon assisted near-infrared light toggling ...


Saw: Wristband-Based Authentication For Desktop Computers, Shrirang Mare, Reza Rawassizadeh, Ronald Peterson, David Kotz Sep 2018

Saw: Wristband-Based Authentication For Desktop Computers, Shrirang Mare, Reza Rawassizadeh, Ronald Peterson, David Kotz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Token-based proximity authentication methods that authenticate users based on physical proximity are effortless, but lack explicit user intentionality, which may result in accidental logins. For example, a user may get logged in when she is near a computer or just passing by, even if she does not intend to use that computer. Lack of user intentionality in proximity-based methods makes them less suitable for multi-user shared computer environments, despite their desired usability benefits over passwords. \par We present an authentication method for desktops called Seamless Authentication using Wristbands (SAW), which addresses the lack of intentionality limitation of proximity-based methods. SAW ...


Detecting Eating Episodes With An Ear-Mounted Sensor, Shengjie Bi, Tao Wang, Nicole Tobias, Josephine Nordrum, Shang Wang, George Halvorsen, Sougata Sen, Ron Peterson, Kelly Caine, Kofi Odame, Ryan Halter, Jacob Sorber, David Kotz Sep 2018

Detecting Eating Episodes With An Ear-Mounted Sensor, Shengjie Bi, Tao Wang, Nicole Tobias, Josephine Nordrum, Shang Wang, George Halvorsen, Sougata Sen, Ron Peterson, Kelly Caine, Kofi Odame, Ryan Halter, Jacob Sorber, David Kotz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In this paper, we propose Auracle, a wearable earpiece that can automatically recognize eating behavior. More specifically, in free-living conditions, we can recognize when and for how long a person is eating. Using an off-the-shelf contact microphone placed behind the ear, Auracle captures the sound of a person chewing as it passes through the bone and tissue of the head. This audio data is then processed by a custom analog/digital circuit board. To ensure reliable (yet comfortable) contact between microphone and skin, all hardware components are incorporated into a 3D-printed behind-the-head framework. We collected field data with 14 participants ...


Detection And Monitoring Of Repetitions Using An Mhealth-Enabled Resistance Band, Curtis L. Peterson, Emily V. Wechsler, Ryan J. Halter, George G. Boateng, Patrick O. Proctor, David F. Kotz, Summer B. Cook, John A. Batsis Sep 2018

Detection And Monitoring Of Repetitions Using An Mhealth-Enabled Resistance Band, Curtis L. Peterson, Emily V. Wechsler, Ryan J. Halter, George G. Boateng, Patrick O. Proctor, David F. Kotz, Summer B. Cook, John A. Batsis

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Sarcopenia is defined as an age-related loss of muscle mass and strength which impairs physical function leading to disability and frailty. Resistance exercises are effective treatments for sarcopenia and are critical in mitigating weight-loss induced sarcopenia in older adults attempting to lose weight. Yet, adherence to home-based regimens, which is a cornerstone to lifestyle therapies, is poor and cannot be ascertained by clinicians as no objective methods exist to determine patient compliance outside of a supervised setting. Our group developed a Bluetooth connected resistance band that tests the ability to detect exercise repetitions. We recruited 6 patients aged 65 years ...


Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Evaluating Substitution Of Fishmeal With Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Co-Product (Nannochloropsis Oculata) In Diets Of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), Pallab K. Sarker, Anne R. Kapuscinski, Ashley Y. Bae, Emily Donaldson, Devin S. Fitzgerald, Oliver F. Edelson Jul 2018

Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Evaluating Substitution Of Fishmeal With Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Co-Product (Nannochloropsis Oculata) In Diets Of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), Pallab K. Sarker, Anne R. Kapuscinski, Ashley Y. Bae, Emily Donaldson, Devin S. Fitzgerald, Oliver F. Edelson

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Microalgae companies increasingly seek markets for defatted biomass that is left over after extracting omega-3 rich oil for human nutraceuticals and crude oil for fuels. Such a protein-rich co-product is a promising alternative to unsustainably sourced fishmeal in aquaculture diets. We report the first evaluation of co-product of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata(N. oculata co-product) for replacing fishmeal in diets of Nile tilapia, a globally important aquaculture species. We conducted a nutrient digestibility experiment with N. oculata dried whole cells and N. oculata co-product, followed by an 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with N. oculata co-product. N. oculata co-product, more ...


Mechanisms Of Abrupt Extreme Precipitation Change Over The Northeastern United States, Huanping Huang, Jonathan M. Winter, Erich C. Osterberg Jul 2018

Mechanisms Of Abrupt Extreme Precipitation Change Over The Northeastern United States, Huanping Huang, Jonathan M. Winter, Erich C. Osterberg

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In 1996, the northeastern United States experienced an abrupt increase in extreme precipitation, but the causal mechanisms driving this increase remain poorly understood. We find that 89% of the 1996–2016 increase relative to 1979–1995 is explained by only 273 unique extreme events affecting >5 stations and occurring in the months of February, March, June, July, September, and October. We use daily weather maps to classify the 273 extreme precipitation events by meteorological cause (tropical cyclones, fronts, and extratropical cyclones) and use reanalysis data to determine large‐scale changes in the atmosphere and ocean associated with increased extreme precipitation ...


Fermi-Bounce Cosmology And Scale-Invariant Power Spectrum, Stephon Alexander, Cosimo Bambi, Antonino Marcianò, Leonardo Modesto Jul 2018

Fermi-Bounce Cosmology And Scale-Invariant Power Spectrum, Stephon Alexander, Cosimo Bambi, Antonino Marcianò, Leonardo Modesto

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We develop a non-singular bouncing cosmology using a non-trivial coupling of general relativity to fermionic fields. The usual Big Bang singularity is avoided thanks to a negative energy density contribution from the fermions. Our theory is ghost-free since the fermionic operator that generates the bounce is equivalent to torsion, which has no kinetic terms. The physical system consists of standard general relativity plus a topological sector for gravity, and fermionic matter described by Dirac fields with a non-minimal coupling. We show that a scale invariant power-spectrum generated in the contracting phase can be recovered by suitable choice s of fermion ...


Application Memory Isolation On Ultra-Low-Power Mcus, Taylor Hardin, Ryan Scott, Patrick Proctor, Josiah Hester, Jacob Sorber, David Kotz Jul 2018

Application Memory Isolation On Ultra-Low-Power Mcus, Taylor Hardin, Ryan Scott, Patrick Proctor, Josiah Hester, Jacob Sorber, David Kotz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The proliferation of applications that handle sensitive user data on wearable platforms generates a critical need for embedded systems that offer strong security without sacrificing flexibility and long battery life. To secure sensitive information, such as health data, ultra-low-power wearables must isolate applications from each other and protect the underlying system from errant or malicious application code. These platforms typically use microcontrollers that lack sophisticated Memory Management Units (MMU). Some include a Memory Protection Unit (MPU), but current MPUs are inadequate to the task, leading platform developers to software-based memory-protection solutions. In this paper, we present our memory isolation technique ...


Contact Prediction Is Hardest For The Most Informative Contacts, But Improves With The Incorporation Of Contact Potentials, Jack Holland, Qinxin Pan, Gevorg Grigoryan Jun 2018

Contact Prediction Is Hardest For The Most Informative Contacts, But Improves With The Incorporation Of Contact Potentials, Jack Holland, Qinxin Pan, Gevorg Grigoryan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Co-evolution between pairs of residues in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of homologous proteins has long been proposed as an indicator of structural contacts. Recently, several methods, such as direct-coupling analysis (DCA) and MetaPSICOV, have been shown to achieve impressive rates of contact prediction by taking advantage of considerable sequence data. In this paper, we show that prediction success rates are highly sensitive to the structural definition of a contact, with more permissive definitions (i.e., those classifying more pairs as true contacts) naturally leading to higher positive predictive rates, but at the expense of the amount of structural information ...


Workshop On Emerging Technology And Data Analytics For Behavioral Health, David Kotz, Sarah E. Lord, A. James O'Malley, Luke Stark, Lisa Marsch Jun 2018

Workshop On Emerging Technology And Data Analytics For Behavioral Health, David Kotz, Sarah E. Lord, A. James O'Malley, Luke Stark, Lisa Marsch

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Wearable and portable digital devices can support self-monitoring for patients with chronic medical conditions, individuals seeking to reduce stress, and people seeking to modify health-related behaviors such as substance use or overeating. The resulting data may be used directly by a consumer, or shared with a clinician for treatment, a caregiver for assistance, or a health coach for support. The data can also be used by researchers to develop and evaluate just-in-time interventions that leverage mobile technology to help individuals manage their symptoms and behavior in real time and as needed. Such wearable systems have huge potential for promoting delivery ...


The Amnesiac Lookback Option: Selectively Monitored Lookback Options And Cryptocurrencies, Ho-Chun Herbert Chang, Kevin Li May 2018

The Amnesiac Lookback Option: Selectively Monitored Lookback Options And Cryptocurrencies, Ho-Chun Herbert Chang, Kevin Li

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This study proposes a strategy to make the lookback option cheaper and more practical, and suggests the use of its properties to reduce risk exposure in cryptocurrency markets through blockchain enforced smart contracts and correct for informational inefficiencies surrounding prices and volatility. This paper generalizes partial, discretely-monitored lookback options that dilute premiums by selecting a subset of specified periods to determine payoff, which we call amnesiac lookback options. Prior literature on discretely-monitored lookback options considers the number of periods and assumes equidistant lookback periods in pricing partial lookback options. This study by contrast considers random sampling of lookback periods and ...


The Amnesiac Lookback Option: Selectively Monitored Lookback Options And Cryptocurrencies, Ho-Chun Herbert Chang, Kevin Li May 2018

The Amnesiac Lookback Option: Selectively Monitored Lookback Options And Cryptocurrencies, Ho-Chun Herbert Chang, Kevin Li

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This study proposes a strategy to make the lookback option cheaper and more practical, and suggests the use of its properties to reduce risk exposure in cryptocurrency markets through blockchain enforced smart contracts and correct for informational inefficiencies surrounding prices and volatility. This paper generalizes partial, discretely-monitored lookback options that dilute premiums by selecting a subset of specified periods to determine payoff, which we call amnesiac lookback options. Prior literature on discretely-monitored lookback options considers the number of periods and assumes equidistant lookback periods in pricing partial lookback options. This study by contrast considers random sampling of lookback periods and ...


Spillover Modes In Multiplex Games: Double-Edged Effects On Cooperation, And Their Coevolution, Tommy Khoo, Feng Fu, Scott D. Pauls May 2018

Spillover Modes In Multiplex Games: Double-Edged Effects On Cooperation, And Their Coevolution, Tommy Khoo, Feng Fu, Scott D. Pauls

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In recent years, there has been growing interest in studying games on multiplex networks that account for interactions across linked social contexts. However, little is known about how potential cross-context interference, or spillover, of individual behavioural strategy impact overall cooperation. We consider three plausible spillover modes, quantifying and comparing their effects on the evolution of cooperation. In our model, social interactions take place on two network layers: repeated interactions with close neighbours in a lattice, and one-shot interactions with random individuals. Spillover can occur during the learning process with accidental cross-layer strategy transfer, or during social interactions with errors in ...


Spillover Modes In Multiplex Games: Double-Edged Effects On Cooperation And Their Coevolution, Tommy Khoo, Feng Fu, Scott Pauls May 2018

Spillover Modes In Multiplex Games: Double-Edged Effects On Cooperation And Their Coevolution, Tommy Khoo, Feng Fu, Scott Pauls

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In recent years, there has been growing interest in studying games on multiplex networks that account for interactions across linked social contexts. However, little is known about how potential cross-context interference, or spillover, of individual behavioural strategy impact overall cooperation. We consider three plausible spillover modes, quantifying and comparing their effects on the evolution of cooperation. In our model, social interactions take place on two network layers: repeated interactions with close neighbours in a lattice, and one-shot interactions with random individuals. Spillover can occur during the learning process with accidental cross-layer strategy transfer, or during social interactions with errors in ...


Investigating Contextual Cues As Indicators For Ema Delivery, Varun Mishra, Byron Lowens, Sarah Lord, Kelly Caine, David Kotz Apr 2018

Investigating Contextual Cues As Indicators For Ema Delivery, Varun Mishra, Byron Lowens, Sarah Lord, Kelly Caine, David Kotz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In this work, we attempt to determine whether the contextual information of a participant can be used to predict whether the participant will respond to a particular Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) prompt. We use a publicly available dataset for our work, and find that by using basic contextual features about the participant's activity, conversation status, audio, and location, we can predict whether an EMA prompt triggered at a particular time will be answered with a precision of 0.647, which is significantly higher than a baseline precision of 0.410. Using this knowledge, the researchers conducting field studies can ...


Nocloud: Experimenting With Network Disconnection By Design, Reza Rawassizadeh, Timothy Pierson, Ronald Peterson, David Kotz Mar 2018

Nocloud: Experimenting With Network Disconnection By Design, Reza Rawassizadeh, Timothy Pierson, Ronald Peterson, David Kotz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Application developers often advocate uploading data to the cloud for analysis or storage, primarily due to concerns about the limited computational capability of ubiquitous devices. Today, however, many such devices can still effectively operate and execute complex algorithms without reliance on the cloud. The authors recommend prioritizing on-device analysis over uploading the data to another host, and if on-device analysis is not possible, favoring local network services over a cloud service.


Cosmological Consequences Of Classical Flavor-Space Locked Gauge Field Radiation, Jannis Bielefeld, Robert R. Caldwell Feb 2018

Cosmological Consequences Of Classical Flavor-Space Locked Gauge Field Radiation, Jannis Bielefeld, Robert R. Caldwell

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We propose a classical SU(2) gauge field in a flavor-space locked configuration as a species of radiation in the early Universe, and show that it would have a significant imprint on a primordial stochastic gravitational wave spectrum. In the flavor-space locked configuration, the electric and magnetic fields of each flavor are parallel and mutually orthogonal to other flavors, with isotropic and homogeneous stress energy. Due to the non-Abelian coupling, the gauge field breaks the symmetry between left- and right-circularly polarized gravitational waves. This broken chiral symmetry results in a unique signal: nonzero cross-correlation of the cosmic microwave background temperature ...


Stem Outreach Activity With Fitbit Wearable Devices, Joseph Carrigan, David Kotz, Aviel Rubin Feb 2018

Stem Outreach Activity With Fitbit Wearable Devices, Joseph Carrigan, David Kotz, Aviel Rubin

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

This document provides a toolkit for an STEM outreach activity based on Fitbit wearable fitness devices. The activity is targeted toward high-school students. This document provides guidance preparing for and executing the activity and measuring outcomes. This document contains templates that can be used as is or altered to suit your specific needs.


The Accuracy, Fairness, And Limits Of Predicting Recidivism, Julie Dressel, Hany Farid Jan 2018

The Accuracy, Fairness, And Limits Of Predicting Recidivism, Julie Dressel, Hany Farid

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Algorithms for predicting recidivism are commonly used to assess a criminal defendant’s likelihood of committing a crime. These predictions are used in pretrial, parole, and sentencing decisions. Proponents of these systems argue that big data and advanced machine learning make these analyses more accurate and less biased than humans. We show, however, that the widely used commercial risk assessment software COMPAS is no more accurate or fair than predictions made by people with little or no criminal justice expertise. We further show that a simple linear predictor provided with only two features is nearly equivalent to COMPAS with its ...


Investigating Intervention Components And Exploring States Of Receptivity For A Smartphone App To Promote Physical Activity: Study Protocol Of The Ally Micro-Randomized Trial, Jan-Niklas Kramer, Florian Künzler, Varun Mishra, Bastien Presset, David Kotz, Shawna Smith, Urte Scholz, Tobias Kowatsch Jan 2018

Investigating Intervention Components And Exploring States Of Receptivity For A Smartphone App To Promote Physical Activity: Study Protocol Of The Ally Micro-Randomized Trial, Jan-Niklas Kramer, Florian Künzler, Varun Mishra, Bastien Presset, David Kotz, Shawna Smith, Urte Scholz, Tobias Kowatsch

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Background: Smartphones enable the implementation of just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) that tailor the delivery of health interventions over time to user- and time-varying context characteristics. Ideally, JITAIs include effective intervention components, and delivery tailoring is based on effective moderators of intervention effects. Using machine learning techniques to infer each user’s context from smartphone sensor data is a promising approach to further enhance tailoring.

Objective: The primary objective of this study is to quantify main effects, interactions, and moderators of 3 intervention components of a smartphone-based intervention for physical activity. The secondary objective is the exploration of participants’ states of ...


What Design Practices Do Professionals Use For Sustainability And Innovation?, Jeremy Faludi, Alice M. Agogino Jan 2018

What Design Practices Do Professionals Use For Sustainability And Innovation?, Jeremy Faludi, Alice M. Agogino

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Interviews with 27 professionals were performed to investigate what designers, engineers, and their managers value in sustainable design practices, and see how sustainable design practices might also provide innovation. Quantitative and qualitative analysis found that only 1/6th of design practices were valued for both sustainability and innovation; two often-mentioned practices were systems thinking and The Natural Step. Providing a new lens, broadening scope, and problem redefinition were some of the reasons these and other design practices were valued for both sustainability and innovation.


Industrial-Age Doubling Of Snow Accumulation In The Alaska Range Linked To Tropical Ocean Warming, Dominic Winski, Erich Osterberg, David Ferris, Karl Kreutz, Cameron Wake, Seth Campbell, Robert Hawley, Samuel Roy, Sean Birkel, Douglas Introne, Michael Handley Dec 2017

Industrial-Age Doubling Of Snow Accumulation In The Alaska Range Linked To Tropical Ocean Warming, Dominic Winski, Erich Osterberg, David Ferris, Karl Kreutz, Cameron Wake, Seth Campbell, Robert Hawley, Samuel Roy, Sean Birkel, Douglas Introne, Michael Handley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Future precipitation changes in a warming climate depend regionally upon the response of natural climate modes to anthropogenic forcing. North Pacific hydroclimate is dominated by the Aleutian Low, a semi-permanent wintertime feature characterized by frequent low-pressure conditions that is influenced by tropical Pacific Ocean temperatures through the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. Instrumental records show a recent increase in coastal Alaskan precipitation and Aleutian Low intensification, but are of insufficient length to accurately assess low frequency trends and forcing mechanisms. Here we present a 1200-year seasonally- to annually-resolved ice core record of snow accumulation from Mt. Hunter in the Alaska ...


Random Walk Null Models For Time Series Data, Daryl Deford, Katherine Moore Nov 2017

Random Walk Null Models For Time Series Data, Daryl Deford, Katherine Moore

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Permutation entropy has become a standard tool for time series analysis that exploits the temporal and ordinal relationships within data. Motivated by a Kullback–Leibler divergence interpretation of permutation entropy as divergence from white noise, we extend pattern-based methods to the setting of random walk data. We analyze random walk null models for correlated time series and describe a method for determining the corresponding ordinal pattern distributions. These null models more accurately reflect the observed pattern distributions in some economic data. This leads us to define a measure of complexity using the deviation of a time series from an associated ...