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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Longitudinal Study Of The Attitudes And Behaviors Of Environmental Education Program Participants., Kasie R. Dugas Oct 2018

Longitudinal Study Of The Attitudes And Behaviors Of Environmental Education Program Participants., Kasie R. Dugas

LSU Master's Theses

The goal of this longitudinal study was to measure the attitudes and behaviors of participants of the Marsh Maneuvers program over the course of the last 25 years. The goal of the Marsh Maneuvers program is to educate students into becoming environmentally literate adults. Environmental literacy is considered herein to be people possessing knowledge about and positive attitudes and behaviors towards the environment. Although students learn basic science and environmental knowledge in the classroom, true environmental literacy is believed to require more hands-on understanding of the material. To evaluate the effectiveness of the program, the following three objectives were completed ...


Impacts Of Updated Design Rainfall Values On Louisiana Infrastructure, Mario Durbic Sep 2018

Impacts Of Updated Design Rainfall Values On Louisiana Infrastructure, Mario Durbic

LSU Master's Theses

The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) has a Hydraulics Manual which sets forth drainage design standards and codes for projects. The Manual contains maximum annual 24-hour rainfall maps and Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for the return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The Manual divides Louisiana into three regions and specifies that all of the cities within a given region should use the same estimated rainfall intensities and rainfall depths. NOAA Atlas 14, the Precipitation-Frequency Atlas of United States, contains the latest rainfall data and statistics for much of the United States and provides the ...


Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson Aug 2018

Using Local Fishery Monitoring To Understand Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries In Tanzania, Matthew Robertson

LSU Master's Theses

Nearshore marine fisheries provide the main source of protein for nearly 9 million people in the coastal villages of Tanzania, yet for decades the fisheries have shown signs of overexploitation. These fisheries are small-scale and co-managed by local coastal communities in groups known as Beach Management Units (BMUs). BMUs monitor individual fishing trip data (e.g. gear, vessel, taxa); however, these data have only been analyzed in nationally aggregated statistics and to our knowledge, are not presently used in management decision making. The present thesis aimed to identify the forms of data and information that local fishery monitoring can record ...


Verification And Evaluation Of A Passive Intensity Modulation Device For Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy, Elizabeth Noel Hilliard Aug 2018

Verification And Evaluation Of A Passive Intensity Modulation Device For Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy, Elizabeth Noel Hilliard

LSU Master's Theses

Purpose: Bolus electron conformal therapy (BECT) provides effective radiation treatment for superficial cancers and other diseases close to the skin surface, but can have as great as a 30% planning target volume (PTV) dose heterogeneity due to scattering from the irregular proximal bolus surface. Intensity modulated (IM) BECT can improve PTV dose homogeneity, but is not currently available. This study fabricated patient-specific passive intensity modulators and validated their delivering planned dose distributions calculated by a modified pencil beam redefinition algorithm (PBRA).

Methods: Two test-patterns and four patient-specific intensity modulators were designed, fabricated, and tested. Dose plans were generated using a ...


Investigation Of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Delivery Accuracy On An Elekta Linear Accelerator, Addie Barron Jul 2018

Investigation Of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Delivery Accuracy On An Elekta Linear Accelerator, Addie Barron

LSU Master's Theses

Purpose: This work investigated the delivery accuracy of high-dose lung and spine stereotactic treatments delivered with the Elekta Infinity and Versa HD platforms. The accuracy of these platforms will be used for consideration in implementing a spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS) program at Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center.

Methods: A geometric phantom was used to perform Winston-Lutz type tests that assessed the relevant degrees of freedom (gantry, collimator, and couch) of the delivery system. A lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and spine SRS treatment plan were generated for use in end-to-end testing. Delivery accuracy was tested using a novel diode ...


Perils Of The Fungal Kingdom: Mycotoxins In Food And Feed, Adrianna Isobel Pribil Jul 2018

Perils Of The Fungal Kingdom: Mycotoxins In Food And Feed, Adrianna Isobel Pribil

LSU Master's Theses

Humans and fungi have a complex relationship, especially in regards to the many fungal secondary metabolites that can be produced. When secondary metabolites are toxic to animals and humans they are defined as mycotoxins. Fungi can grow on crops pre-harvest and post-harvest, and have the potential to produce mycotoxins which occur regularly in animal feed and food for human consumption. In high doses, mycotoxins cause variety of problems that result in economic losses and extreme health issues. However, multiple mycotoxins will co-occur in nature and commonly occur in low doses. Thus chronic low daily doses of multiple mycotoxins overtime may ...


Groundwater And Thermal Legacy Of A Large Paleolake In Taylor Valley, East Antarctica As Evidenced By Airborne Electromagnetic And Sedimentological Techniques, Krista Falcon Myers Jul 2018

Groundwater And Thermal Legacy Of A Large Paleolake In Taylor Valley, East Antarctica As Evidenced By Airborne Electromagnetic And Sedimentological Techniques, Krista Falcon Myers

LSU Master's Theses

During the Last Glacial Maximum, grounded ice in the Ross Sea extended into the otherwise ice-free McMurdo Dry Valleys, creating a series of large ice dammed paleolakes. Grounded ice within the mouth of Taylor Valley allowed for lake levels to reach elevations not possible at modern day and formed what is known as Glacial Lake Washburn (GLW). GLW extended from the eastern portion of Taylor Valley roughly 20 km west to a level ~300 m higher than modern day Lake Fryxell. The formation and existence of GLW has been debated, though previous studies correlate the timing of GLW with early ...


An Evaluation Of The Utility Of A Mass-Weighted Frequency Distribution Of Sediment For Modeling Aeolian Transport Rates, Raihan Jamil Jun 2018

An Evaluation Of The Utility Of A Mass-Weighted Frequency Distribution Of Sediment For Modeling Aeolian Transport Rates, Raihan Jamil

LSU Master's Theses

Predictions made by aeolian transport models often do not match well with measured data. The poor predictive capability of these models remains a fundamental problem in aeolian geomorphology. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the recently proposed mass-weighted frequency distribution (Edwards and Namikas 2015) and the apparent von Kármán parameter proposed by Li et al. (2010) to improve transport rate predictions. The evaluation consists of comparisons of predicted transport rates versus a large dataset of measured field and lab transport rates collected from the literature. The transport rate predictions are made both with and without recalibration of model empirical coefficients ...


Joint Geodetic And Seismic Analysis Of Englacial And Subglacial Hydraulic Effects On Surface Crevassing Near A Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake On Gornergletscher, Switzerland, Louis Stephen Garcia Jun 2018

Joint Geodetic And Seismic Analysis Of Englacial And Subglacial Hydraulic Effects On Surface Crevassing Near A Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake On Gornergletscher, Switzerland, Louis Stephen Garcia

LSU Master's Theses

Glacial outburst floods are difficult to predict and threaten human life. These events are characterized by rapid draining of glacier-dammed lakes via the sub/englacial hydraulic network to the proglacial stream. The glacier-dammed lake on Gornergletscher in Switzerland, which fills and drains each summer, provides an opportunity to study this hazard. For three drainages (2004, 2006, and 2007), icequakes (IQ) are tracked as well as on-ice GPS movement. The seasonal seismic networks had 8 – 24 three-component stations and apertures of about 300 – 400 m on the glacier surface. The seasonal GPS arrays contained 4 – 8 GPS antennae on the glacier ...


Distributed Iterative Graph Processing Using Nosql With Data Locality, Ayam Pokhrel Apr 2018

Distributed Iterative Graph Processing Using Nosql With Data Locality, Ayam Pokhrel

LSU Master's Theses

A tremendous amount of data is generated every day from a wide range of sources such as social networks, sensors, and application logs. Among them, graph data is one type that represents valuable relationships between various entities. Analytics of large graphs has become an essential part of business processes and scientific studies because it leads to deep and meaningful insights into the related domain based on the connections between various entities. However, the optimal processing of large-scale iterative graph computations is very challenging due to the issues like fault tolerance, high memory requirement, parallelization, and scalability. Most of the contemporary ...


Using Github In Large Software Engineering Classes: An Exploratory Case Study, Miroslav Tushev Apr 2018

Using Github In Large Software Engineering Classes: An Exploratory Case Study, Miroslav Tushev

LSU Master's Theses

GitHub has been recently used in Software Engineering (SE) classes to facilitate col- laboration in student team projects. The underlying tenet is that the technical and social feature of GitHub can help students to communicate and collaborate more effectively as a team as well as help teachers to evaluate individual student contribution more objectively. To shed more light on this, in this case study, we explore the benefits and drawbacks of using GitHub in SE classes. Our study is conducted in a software engineering class of 91 students divided into 18 teams. Our research method includes an entry and an ...


Waste Management By Waste: Removal Of Acid Dyes From Wastewaters Of Textile Coloration Using Fish Scales, S M Fijul Kabir Apr 2018

Waste Management By Waste: Removal Of Acid Dyes From Wastewaters Of Textile Coloration Using Fish Scales, S M Fijul Kabir

LSU Master's Theses

Removal of hazardous acid dyes by economical process using low-cost bio-sorbents from wool industry wastewaters is of a pressing need, since it causes skin and respiratory diseases and disrupts other environmental components. Fish scales (FS), a by-product of fish industry, a type of solid waste, are usually discarded carelessly resulting in pungent odor and environmental burden. In this research, the FS of black drum (Pogonias cromis) were used for the removal of acid dyes (acid red 1 (AR1), acid blue 45 (AB45) and acid yellow 127 (AY126)) from wool industry wastewaters by absorption process with a view to valorizing fish ...


Vertical Sediment Accretion In Jamaica Bay Wetlands, New York, Ryan Christopher Clarke Mar 2018

Vertical Sediment Accretion In Jamaica Bay Wetlands, New York, Ryan Christopher Clarke

LSU Master's Theses

Over the last century, ~60% of the saltmarsh wetlands in Jamaica Bay (in the Gateway National Recreation Area of the Greater New York City region) have been converted to intertidal or subtidal unvegetated mudflats and projections suggest that all of Jamaica Bay’s saltmarsh wetlands may disappear within the next two decades. After landfall of Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and to better understand environmental controls on the maintenance of the remaining Jamaica Bay wetlands, cores were collected from twelve saltmarsh locations in the bay to study the chronology of wetland vertical accretion and mineral sediment accumulation. In association with the ...


Benefit Of Intensity Modulated Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy For Post Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation, John Doiron Jan 2018

Benefit Of Intensity Modulated Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy For Post Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation, John Doiron

LSU Master's Theses

Purpose: The delivery of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) with bolus electron conformal therapy (BECT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer can reduce second cancer complication probability (SCCP) compared to modern rotational intensity modulated x-ray (IMXT) techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or Tomotherapy. However, rotational IMXT yields superior levels of dose homogeneity compared to BECT. This study investigates the use of intensity modulated (IM) BECT (IM-BECT) to improve dose homogeneity in the chest wall (CW) region of the PMRT planning target volume (PTV) abutted to parallel opposed IMXT tangents for the remaining PTV for a clinically-representative set of patients ...


Analysis Of Veterinary Drug Residues In Imported And Domestic Crawfish Using Liquid Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry, Emily Kate Wall Jan 2018

Analysis Of Veterinary Drug Residues In Imported And Domestic Crawfish Using Liquid Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry, Emily Kate Wall

LSU Master's Theses

Aquaculture production has greatly increased over the past few decades, and will continue to grow as the world fisheries become overfished and demand for seafood increases. With increased production comes more intense cultivation methods and heavy use of formulated feeds that may contain veterinary drug residues. Currently no antibiotics are allowed in the U.S. for crawfish aquaculture; yet, detectable levels of various antibiotics have been found in imported seafood samples.The FDA is responsible for testing aquaculture products entering the United States, but only has the capabilities to test a minimal amount of those imports. Additionally, for crawfish there ...


A Study Of The Urban Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) Population In Baton Rouge, Louisiana Using Social Media, Ahsennur Soysal Nov 2017

A Study Of The Urban Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) Population In Baton Rouge, Louisiana Using Social Media, Ahsennur Soysal

LSU Master's Theses

Foxes are timid yet resourceful animals that are integrated into many urban environments. Because they are elusive, collecting information about the number of urban foxes, their diet and spatial distribution, their interactions with the ecological community in their urban habitat, as well as residents’ response to them, is difficult. Involving stakeholders to participate in the data collection on wildlife via citizen science on social media is one way to overcome this complication, while simultaneously engaging residents in the ecology happening around them. Therefore, we used social media as the platform to engage the public to document and map the foxes ...


Combining Downhole And Sediment Logging To Understand Spatial Variability In Grain-Size, Facies, And Reservoir Quality Of A Large-Scale Mississippi River Point Bar, False River, Louisiana, Elizabeth D. Olson Nov 2017

Combining Downhole And Sediment Logging To Understand Spatial Variability In Grain-Size, Facies, And Reservoir Quality Of A Large-Scale Mississippi River Point Bar, False River, Louisiana, Elizabeth D. Olson

LSU Master's Theses

Although the general processes by which meandering river point bars are constructed have been known for some time, there is a lack of clarity regarding why small-scale heterogeneities develop. This is especially true in the largest meandering river systems, which are equivalent to some of the most important hydrocarbon reservoirs in the world. In this study, we evaluate the stratigraphic architecture of the 80 km2 False River Point Bar System on the Lower Mississippi River and use the knowledge gained to better comprehend point bar construction at different phases. Previous studies of small to medium-scale systems have been unable ...


Evidence Of Subglacial Brine Inflow And Wind-Induced Mixing From High Resolution Temperature Measurements In Lake Bonney, Antarctica, Jade Lawrence Nov 2017

Evidence Of Subglacial Brine Inflow And Wind-Induced Mixing From High Resolution Temperature Measurements In Lake Bonney, Antarctica, Jade Lawrence

LSU Master's Theses

Hypersaline brine beneath Taylor Glacier enters proglacial West Lobe Lake Bonney (WLB) subglacially as well as from Blood Falls, a surface discharge point at the Taylor Glacier terminus. The brine strongly influences the water column of WLB. Because of the extremely high salinities below the chemocline in WLB, density is determined almost entirely by salinity and temperature can be used as a passive tracer. Cold brine intrusions enter WLB at the glacier face and intrude in to the water column at the depth of neutral buoyancy, where they can be identified by anomalously cold temperatures at that depth. This study ...


Floodplain Impacts On Water Quality: A Case Study In Southern Louisiana, Emily Delduco Nov 2017

Floodplain Impacts On Water Quality: A Case Study In Southern Louisiana, Emily Delduco

LSU Master's Theses

The quantity and quality of dissolved carbon delivered to coastal margins by rivers is an important component of global carbon cycling. The Atchafalaya River (AR) discharges ~25% of the flow of the Mississippi River (MR) and the total flow of the Red River (RR) into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) annually while flowing through the largest bottomland swamp in North America. This provides a unique opportunity to study floodplain impacts on dissolved carbon processes in a large river system. The research aimed to: (1) determine DIC and DOC transport and processing by a river swamp basin under varied seasons and ...


Issues Related To Carbon Dioxide Pipeline Transportation Infrastructure In Louisiana, Michael Allen Layne Iii Nov 2017

Issues Related To Carbon Dioxide Pipeline Transportation Infrastructure In Louisiana, Michael Allen Layne Iii

LSU Master's Theses

There is no single solution to mitigate anthropogenic climate change; a multifaceted approach with economic incentives is needed. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is one such solution which provides an economic incentive, in the capture and sale of oil, for sequestering CO2 underground. While carbon capture and subsequent geological injection are both mature technologies, there has been little discussion or appreciation for the role of pipelines. The current CO2 pipeline infrastructure will need to significantly expand in order to accommodate increasing EOR production. However, pipeline construction costs, and institutional factors impacting development, may be key ...


How Dredge Pits Evolve Over Time: A Look At Their Geomorphologic Evolution And Infilling Processes, Patrick Robichaux Nov 2017

How Dredge Pits Evolve Over Time: A Look At Their Geomorphologic Evolution And Infilling Processes, Patrick Robichaux

LSU Master's Theses

As coastal environments become more susceptible to land loss through accelerating sea level rise and subsidence, new restoration methods harnessing borrowed sediment are more valuable than ever. Mud-capped dredge pits (MCDPs) are a relatively new source of restoration-quality sediment that has only recently been utilized for beach and barrier island restorations in Louisiana. Because MCDPs have been in use for less than two decades in only a handful sites, little is understood about their evolution over decadal timescales. To improve our understanding of MCDPs after they are dredged, we have conducted a suite of geophysical surveys including bathymetry, sidescan sonar ...


Overbank Deposition Of Sand And Mud Within Two Point Bars Bound By The Mississippi River Levee System: Implications For Coastal Restoration Sediment Budgets, Christopher Magliolo Oct 2017

Overbank Deposition Of Sand And Mud Within Two Point Bars Bound By The Mississippi River Levee System: Implications For Coastal Restoration Sediment Budgets, Christopher Magliolo

LSU Master's Theses

As ongoing Mississippi River sediment diversion projects are being developed and planned, the availability of sand and mud for use in the lower Mississippi River Delta is being calculated and budgeted. This project attempts to quantify the amount of sand and mud being lost from the lower Mississippi River past the Old River Control Structure in the remaining unleveed floodplains, an area that encompasses 270 km2. Two land masses were chosen along each bank of this reach of the Mississippi River: Raccourci Island (west bank) and the Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge (east bank). Seventeen sediment cores were collected ...


Investigating Core Shale Depositional Environments Of Late Pennsylvanian Cyclothems Utilizing Geochemical Proxies To Test The Superestuarine Model, Bryce A. Mathis Aug 2017

Investigating Core Shale Depositional Environments Of Late Pennsylvanian Cyclothems Utilizing Geochemical Proxies To Test The Superestuarine Model, Bryce A. Mathis

LSU Master's Theses

The Late Paleozoic Midcontinent Sea (LPMS) inundated vast areas of the North American interior during glacio-eustatic transgressions, depositing widespread black shales facies within the core shale intervals of major cyclothems. These black shale deposits are unique because no modern analogs can adequately explain the depositional environments and model for organic matter preservation across such vast ancient epicontinental settings. One possible explanation is that a superestuarine circulation system developed across the LPMS during humid interglacial phases, which promoted strong water column stratification and benthic anoxia.

The goal of this research was to test the validity of the superestuarine estuarine model and ...


Earthquake Risks In Haiti: An Analysis Of Response And Preparedness Strategies For The Design Of A New Mitigation Approach, Patrick Alteus Aug 2017

Earthquake Risks In Haiti: An Analysis Of Response And Preparedness Strategies For The Design Of A New Mitigation Approach, Patrick Alteus

LSU Master's Theses

Earthquakes can have enormous consequences on affected countries. To minimize these harsh consequences, an effective disaster management plan is necessary and a reasonable strategy is necessary to recover and get back to a normal life when they happen. Studies from scientists show that it is difficult to predict when an earthquake will occur. Because of this unpredictability, high-risk countries need to act continuously in order to deal with any sudden strike that may occur by stressing on the mitigation and preparedness activities and by designing appropriate response plans. In Haiti, a well-known earthquake-prone country, the preparedness and mitigation plans have ...


Interactive Web-Based Visualization Of Atomic Position-Time Series Data, Simron Thapa Jan 2017

Interactive Web-Based Visualization Of Atomic Position-Time Series Data, Simron Thapa

LSU Master's Theses

Extracting and interpreting the information contained in large sets of time-varying three dimensional positional data for the constituent atoms of simulated material system is a challenging task. This thesis work reports our initial implementation of a web-based visualization system and its use-case study. The system allows the users to perform the desired visualization task on a web browser for the position-time series data extracted from the local or remote hosts. It involves a pre-processing step for data reduction, which involves skipping uninteresting parts of the data uniformly (at full atomic configuration level) or non-uniformly (at atomic species level or individual ...


Differential Responses Of Soil Greenhouse Gas Production And Denitrification To Salinity Alterations Along A Wetland Salinity Gradient, Natalie Ceresnak Jan 2017

Differential Responses Of Soil Greenhouse Gas Production And Denitrification To Salinity Alterations Along A Wetland Salinity Gradient, Natalie Ceresnak

LSU Master's Theses

Coastal wetlands provide several valuable services, such as carbon (C) storage and nitrogen (N) removal. Although wetlands serve as net C sinks, wetland soils release greenhouse gases (GHGs) including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Wetlands can buffer the influx of nitrate (NO3-) by transforming it into gaseous N (N2O, N2) through denitrification microbial pathway. Salinity is a regulator of soil biogeochemistry and long- (e.g. saltwater intrusion) and short-term (e.g. storm surges, river diversions) exposures may affect soil GHG production and denitrification. In this study, soil GHG production and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) rates were ...


Modelling And Observational Evidence For The Igneous Evolution Of The Elysium Volcanic Province On Mars, David Andrew Susko Jan 2017

Modelling And Observational Evidence For The Igneous Evolution Of The Elysium Volcanic Province On Mars, David Andrew Susko

LSU Master's Theses

A major knowledge gap exists on how eruptive compositions of a single martian volcanic province change over time. The Elysium Volcanic Province is a location of great geologic interest on Mars. Its predominantly Amazonian surface age (beginning 3.3 Ga), and its isolation in the northern hemisphere of Mars away from other volcano-tectonic regions, make it an ideal locale to investigate igneous compositions erupted during the most recent geologic period on Mars. Here, this work seeks to fill that gap by assessing the compositional evolution of Elysium as a major martian volcanic province in two related projects. The first project ...


Species Richness And Abundance Of Freshwater Mussels In Tributaries Of The Lower Pearl River Basin, Corinne Nicole Bird Jan 2017

Species Richness And Abundance Of Freshwater Mussels In Tributaries Of The Lower Pearl River Basin, Corinne Nicole Bird

LSU Master's Theses

Freshwater mussels play a vital role in their ecosystems, influencing processes such as nutrient cycling and water filtration. In addition, they provide and improve habitat for other organisms. North America is home to the most species-rich freshwater bivalve fauna in the world, but most stream systems in the U.S. have been severely degraded, and future freshwater mussel extinction rates are estimated at 6.4 percent per decade. The Pearl River Basin is a significant area of aquatic species diversity and has a complex watershed land use mosaic, providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the relative importance of local and ...


Development Of The Focal Plane Instrumentation Of The Separator For Capture Reactions (Secar), Kyle Joerres Jan 2017

Development Of The Focal Plane Instrumentation Of The Separator For Capture Reactions (Secar), Kyle Joerres

LSU Master's Theses

The SEparator for CApture Reactions (SECAR) is currently being developed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) and the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) for measurements of nuclear reactions critical for understanding energy generation and element synthesis in stellar explosions. SECAR is an electromagnetic recoil separator designed for sensitive measurements of radiative capture reactions using beams of proton-rich, short-lived isotopes at the energies relevant for explosive environments such as Type I X-ray bursts and classical novae. SECAR is designed to efficiently separate capture reaction products of interest from the incident beam by up to a factor of 10 ...


Development Of A Low-Energy Monoenergetic Electron Separator, Sergio Martín López Cáceres Jan 2017

Development Of A Low-Energy Monoenergetic Electron Separator, Sergio Martín López Cáceres

LSU Master's Theses

The aim of this project is to build a prototype device that can select electrons of certain energy in order to have a monoenergetic beam suitable for the characterization of radiation detectors. Current options for sources of electrons are either from radioisotopes or accelerator facilities. Radioisotope sources are not tunable in energy since they depend on the nuclear and atomic structures of the daughter nucleus. On the other hand, even though accelerators offer the feature of a variable energy beam, they have limited availability and are not typically run at low intensities. Therefore, the motivation for this thesis is the ...